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Microb Ecol ; 77(2): 288-303, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019110


Two annual Baltic Sea phytoplankton blooms occur in spring and summer. The bloom intensity is determined by nutrient concentrations in the water, while the period depends on weather conditions. During the course of the bloom, dead cells sink to the sediment where their degradation consumes oxygen to create hypoxic zones (< 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen). These zones prevent the establishment of benthic communities and may result in fish mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how the spring and autumn sediment chemistry and microbial community composition changed due to degradation of diatom or cyanobacterial biomass, respectively. Results from incubation of sediment cores showed some typical anaerobic microbial processes after biomass addition such as a decrease in NO2- + NO3- in the sediment surface (0-1 cm) and iron in the underlying layer (1-2 cm). In addition, an increase in NO2- + NO3- was observed in the overlying benthic water in all amended and control incubations. The combination of NO2- + NO3- diffusion plus nitrification could not account for this increase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the addition of cyanobacterial biomass during autumn caused a large increase in ferrous iron-oxidizing archaea while diatom biomass amendment during spring caused minor changes in the microbial community. Considering that OTUs sharing lineages with acidophilic microorganisms had a high relative abundance during autumn, it was suggested that specific niches developed in sediment microenvironments. These findings highlight the importance of nitrogen cycling and early microbial community changes in the sediment due to sinking phytoplankton before potential hypoxia occurs.

Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia