Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 106
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520202

RESUMO

Intestinal lipases are fat-digesting enzymes, which play vital roles in lipid absorption in the intestine. To study the regulation of intestinal lipase activity in systemic lipid metabolism in fish, especially in the metabolic diseases caused by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, we inhibited intestinal lipases in Nile tilapia to investigate the physiological consequences. In the present study, Nile tilapia were firstly fed with HFD (12% fat) for 6 weeks to establish a fatty fish model. Afterwards, Orlistat as a potent intestinal lipase inhibitor was added into the HFD for the following 5-week feeding trial, with two dietary doses (Orlistat16 group, 16 mg/kg body weight; Orlistat32 group, 32 mg/kg body weight). After the trial, both doses of Orlistat treatment significantly reduced intestinal lipase activity, fat absorption, hepatic lipid accumulation, and gene expression of lipogenesis, whereas increased gene expression of lipid catabolism. Moreover, intestinal lipase inhibition increased immune enzyme activities, antioxidant capacity, and gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas lowered gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Besides, Orlistat could also improve the structure of the intestine and increase expression of intestinal tight-coupling protein. Taken together, intestinal lipase inhibition alleviated the adverse effects caused by HFD in Nile tilapia. Thus, intestinal lipases played key roles in absorbing dietary lipid and could be a promising target in regulating systemic lipid metabolism in fish.

2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 108: 104537, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and can induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that nicotine, the major ingredient in tobacco, can upregulate an important antioxidant enzyme Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), in oral leukoplakia (OLK), an oral precancerous lesion. The underlying regulatory mechanisms, however, remain unclear. This study aims to identify regulatory mechanisms of nicotine and identify Prx1 interacting proteins in nicotine-associated OLK. DESIGN: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with bioinformatics analysis was conducted to profile Prx1 binding proteins in human dysplastic oral keratinocyte (DOK) cells. Candidate interaction proteins were further verified using Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), Western blot or Duolink assay in 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)-induced OLK in mice and human OLK tissues. RESULTS: We identified Thioredoxin (Trx), Nucleolar GTP-binding protein 1 (GTPBP4), GTP-binding protein Di-Ras2 (DIRAS2) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as key Prx1 interacting proteins regulated by nicotine. Our data showed that nicotine upregulated Trx, GTPBP4, DIRAS2, and downregulated ASK1 in 4NQO-induced OLK in mice, at least in part dependent on Prx1. The modulations of Trx, GTPBP4, DIRAS2 and ASK1 by nicotine were also found in OLK smokers compared to OLK non-smokers. The in-situ interaction of Trx, GTPBP4, DIRAS2 and ASK1 with Prx1 were validated in human OLK tissues. CONCLUSION: Nicotine may promote OLK development via regulating Prx1 binding proteins Trx, GTPBP4, DIRAS2 and ASK1. The results of this study will help to develop therapeutic approaches for OLK in humans targeting Prx1 interacting protein network.

3.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 48(1-2): 61-69, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514187

RESUMO

Default mode network (DMN) is an important functional brain network that supports aspects of cognition. Stroke has been reported to be associated with functional connectivity (FC) impairments within DMN. However, whether FC within DMN changes in transient ischemic attack (TIA), an important risk factor for stroke, remains unclear. Forty-eight TIA patients and 41 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this study. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging seed-based FC methods, we examined FC alterations within DMN in TIA patients, tested its associations with clinical information, and further explored the ability of FC abnormalities to predict follow-up ischemic attacks. We found significantly decreased FC of left middle temporal gyrus/angular gyrus both with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/Pcu) and significantly decreased FC among each pair of mPFC, left PCC, and right Pcu in patients with TIA as compared with HCs. Moreover, the connectivity between mPFC and left PCC could predict future ischemic attacks of the patients. Collectively, these findings may provide insights into further understanding of the underlying pathological mechanism in TIA, and aberrant FC between the hubs within DMN may provide a reference for the imaging diagnosis and early intervention of TIA.

4.
Plant Signal Behav ; 14(10): e1644595, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331225

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) may improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous SA application on seed germination in the halophyte Limonium bicolor (Kuntze) under salt stress. Specifically, we examined the effect of salt stress on seed germination, sugar and protein contents, amylase activity, and the contents of various hormones, both in the presence and absence of exogenous SA treatments. Germination was significantly suppressed by a 200 mM NaCl treatment but was significantly improved when 0.08 mM SA was concurrently applied. During germination, the seeds treated with SA had high levels of gibberellic acid (GA) and high levels of amylase and α-amylase activity, but low abscisic acid (ABA) contents. The SA treatment upregulated the expression of key genes involved in GA biosynthesis while downregulating those involved in ABA biosynthesis, thereby triggering a favorable hormonal balance between GA and ABA that enhanced seed germination under salt stress.

5.
Dev Biol ; 455(2): 382-392, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315026

RESUMO

Estrogen related receptor beta (Esrrb) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is required for self-renewal and pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, in the early post-implantation mouse embryo, Esrrb is specifically expressed in the extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) and plays a crucial role in trophoblast development. Previous studies showed that Esrrb is also required to maintain trophoblast stem (TS) cells, the in vitro stem cell model of the early trophoblast lineage. In order to identify regulatory targets of Esrrb in vivo, we performed microarray analysis of Esrrb-null versus wild-type post-implantation ExE, and identified 30 genes down-regulated in Esrrb-mutants. Among them is Bmp4, which is produced by the ExE and known to be critical for primordial germ cell (PGC) specification in vivo. We further identified an enhancer region bound by Esrrb at the Bmp4 locus by performing Esrrb ChIP-seq and luciferase reporter assay using TS cells. Finally, we established a knockout mouse line in which the enhancer region was deleted using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Both Esrrb-null embryos and enhancer knockout embryos expressed lower levels of Bmp4 in the ExE, and had reduced numbers of PGCs. These results suggested that Esrrb functions as an upstream factor of Bmp4 in the ExE, regulating proper PGC development in mice.

6.
Ann Bot ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mineral nutrient limitation affects the water flow through plants. We wanted to test on barley whether any change in root-to-shoot ratio in response to low supply of nitrogen and phosphate is accompanied by changes in root and cell hydraulic properties and involves changes in aquaporin (AQP) gene expression and root apoplastic barriers (suberin lamella, Casparian bands). METHODS: Plants were grown hydroponically on complete nutrient solution or on solution containing only 3.3% (Low-N) or 2.5% (Low-P) of the control level of nutrient. Plants were analysed when they were 14-18 d old. RESULTS: Nutrient-limited plants adjusted water flow to an increased root-to-shoot surface area ratio through a reduction in root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as determined through exudation analyses. Cortex cell Lp (cell pressure probe analyses) decreased in the immature, but not mature region of the main axis of seminal roots and in primary lateral roots. The aquaporin inhibitor HgCl2 reduced root Lp most in nutrient-sufficient control plants. Exchange of Low-nutrient for control media caused a rapid (20-80 min) and partial recovery in Lp, though cortex cell Lp did not increase in any of the root regions analysed. The gene expression level (qPCR analyses) of five plasma membrane-localised AQP isoforms did not change in bulk root extracts, while the formation of apoplastic barriers increased considerably along the main axis of root and lateral roots in low-nutrient treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in root and cortex cell Lp enables the adjustment of root water uptake to an increased root-to-shoot area ratio in nutrient-limited plants. Aquaporins are the prime candidate to play a key role in this response. Modeling of water flow suggests that some of the reduction in root Lp is due to increased formation of apoplastic barriers.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 434, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164636

RESUMO

Human mutT homolog 1(MTH1), the oxidized dNTP pool sanitizer enzyme, has been reported to be highly expressed in various malignant tumors. However, the oncogenic role of MTH1 in gastric cancer remains to be determined. In the current study, we found that MTH1 was overexpressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cells. Using an in vitro MTH1 inhibitor screening system, the compounds available in our laboratory were screened and the small molecules containing 5-cyano-6-phenylpyrimidine structure were firstly found to show potently and specifically inhibitory effect on MTH1, especially compound MI-743 with IC50 = 91.44 ± 1.45 nM. Both molecular docking and target engagement experiments proved that MI-743 can directly bind to MTH1. Moreover, MI-743 could not only inhibit cell proliferation in up to 16 cancer cell lines, especially gastric cancer cells HGC-27 and MGC-803, but also significantly induce MTH1-related 8-oxo-dG accumulation and DNA damage. Furthermore, the growth of xenograft tumours derived by injection of MGC-803 cells in nude mice was also significantly inhibited by MI-743 treatment. Importantly, MTH1 knockdown by siRNA in those two gastric cancer cells exhibited the similar findings. Our findings indicate that MTH1 is highly expressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Small molecule MI-743 with 5-cyano-6-phenylpyrimidine structure may serve as a novel lead compound targeting the overexpressed MTH1 for gastric cancer treatment.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(9): 2379-2392, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway induce hypertension. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme involved in synthesis of leukotrienes (LTs). However, whether nitricoxide synthase dysfunction induces hypertensive vascular remodeling by regulating 5-LO activity and its downstream inflammatory metabolites remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-week L-NAME treatment significantly induced hypertension and vascular remodeling in both wild-type (WT) and 5-LO-knockout (5-LO-KO) mice, and blood pressure in caudal and carotid arteries was lower in 5-LO-KO than WT mice with L-NAME exposure. On histology, L-NAME induced less media thickness, media-to-lumen ratio, and collagen deposition and fewer Ki-67-positive vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) but more elastin expression in thoracic and mesenteric aortas of 5-LO-KO than L-NAME-treated WT mice. L-NAME significantly increased LT content, including LTB4 and cysteinyl LT (CysLTs), in plasma and neutrophil culture supernatants from WT mice. On immunohistochemistry, L-NAME promoted the colocalization of 5-LO and 5-LO-activating protein on the nuclear envelope of cultured neutrophils, which was accompanied by elevated LT content in culture supernatants. In addition, LTs significantly promoted BrdU incorporation, migration and phenotypic modulation in VSMCs. CONCLUSION: L-NAME may activate the 5-LO/LT pathway in immune cells, such as neutrophils, and promote the products of 5-LO metabolites, including LTB4 and CysLTs, which aggravate vascular remodeling in hypertension. 5-LO deficiency may protect against hypertension and vascular remodeling by reducing levels of 5-LO downstream inflammatory metabolites.

9.
Biol Open ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243019

RESUMO

Background: Although K+ channels are important in mediating the driving force for colonic ion transport, their role in the small intestinal transport is poorly understood.Methods: Small intestinal short circuit currents (Isc) and HCO3 - secretion were measured in mice, and intracellular pH (pHi) was measured in small intestinal epithelial SCBN cells. The expression and location of Kv subtypes were verified by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Diabetic mice were also used to investigate the role of Kv subtypes in regulating intestinal glucose absorption.Results: KV7.1 is not involved in duodenal ion transport, while KCa3.1 selectively regulates duodenal I sc and HCO3 - secretion in a Ca2+-mediated but not cAMP-mediated manner. Blockade of KCa3.1 increased the rate of HCO3 - fluxes via CFTR channels in SCBN cells. Jejunal I sc was significantly stimulated by glucose, but markedly inhibited by 4-AP and TEA. Moreover, both Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 were expressed in jejunal mucosae. Finally, 4-AP significantly attenuated weight gain of normal and diabetic mice, and both 4-AP and TEA significantly lowered blood glucose of diabetic mice.Conclusions: This study not only examines the contribution of various K+ channel subtypes to small intestinal epithelial ion transport and glucose absorption, but also proposes a novel concept for developing specific K+ channel blockers to reduce weight gain and lower blood glucose in diabetes mellitus.

10.
J Med Chem ; 62(11): 5382-5403, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157974

RESUMO

Neddylation of the Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) regulates the homeostasis of approximately 20% of cellular proteins. Defective in cullin neddylation 1 (DCN1), as a co-E3 ligase, interacts with UBE2M to enhance the activation of CRLs, and this interaction is emerging as a therapeutic target for human diseases. Here, we present a series of pyrimidin-based small molecular inhibitors targeting DCN1-UBE2M interaction. After finding a novel inhibitor DC-1 with IC50 = 1.2 µM, we performed a series of chemical optimizations, which finally led to the discovery of a potent thiazole containing 5-cyano-6-phenylpyrimidin-based inhibitor DC-2 (IC50 = 15 nM). Next, using protein and cellular thermal shift assays, coimmunoprecipitation, molecular docking, and site-specific mutation experiments, we further proved that DC-2 specifically inhibited the interaction of UBE2M and DCN1 at molecule and cellular levels, resulting in the decrease of cullin3 neddylation and accumulation of its substrate, NRF2. Our findings indicate that DC-2 may serve as a novel lead compound for specific derivatives targeting DCN1-UBE2M interaction.

11.
Neuroscience ; 410: 140-149, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085280

RESUMO

Sestrin2 (Sesn2) is a stress response protein which expresses neuroprotective characteristics in some neurodegenerative disorders. However, the impact of Sesn2 on the clinical outcome of stroke is unclear. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathway is a key factor in angiogenesis, which aids in attenuating cerebral ischemia damage. In this study the investigators examine the effects of Sesn2 on cerebral ischemia damage by increasing angiogenesis through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to photochemical cerebral ischemia while AAV injection was used to overexpress Sesn2. At 5 days after photochemical embolization, the investigators observed a reduction in neurological problems, decreased infarct volume, and diminished neuronal injury in the Sesn2 overexpression samples compared to the controls. To further explore these defensive mechanisms, the investigators also silenced Nrf2. While Sesn2, Nrf2, HO-1, and VEGF were significantly increased following cerebral ischemia, overexpression of Sesn2 further increased their expression. After silencing Nrf2, the opposite effect was observed. These results imply that Sestrin2 may activate the Nrf2 / HO-1 pathway, leading to enhanced angiogenesis following photothrombotic cerebral ischemia.

12.
Physiol Plant ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090074

RESUMO

Mineral nutrient supply can affect the hydraulic property of roots. The aim of the present work on sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis L.) plants was to test whether any changes in root hydraulic conductivity (Lp; exudation analyses) in response to a growth-limiting supply of phosphate (P) are accompanied by changes in (1) cell Lp via measuring the cell pressure, (2) the aquaporin (AQP) gene expression by performing qPCR and (3) the formation of apoplastic barriers, by analyzing suberin lamella and Casparian bands via cross-sectional analyses in roots. Plants were grown hydroponically on complete nutrient solution, containing 250 µM P, until they were 31-36 days old, and then kept for 2-3 weeks on either complete solution, or transferred on solution containing 2.5 µM (low-P) or no added P (no-P). Phosphate treatments caused significant decreases in root and cell-Lp and AQP gene expression, while the formation of apoplastic barriers increased, particularly in lateral roots. Experiments using the AQP inhibitor mercury (Hg) suggested that a significant portion of radial root water uptake in sheepgrass occurs along a path involving AQPs, and that the Lp of this path is reduced under low- and no-P. It is concluded that a growth-limiting supply of phosphate causes parallel changes in (1) cell Lp and aquaporin gene expression (decrease) and (2) apoplastic barrier formation (increase), and that the two may combine to reduce root Lp. The reduction in root Lp, in turn, facilitates an increased root-to-shoot surface area ratio, which allocates resources to the root, sourcing the limiting nutrient.

13.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(11): 3347-3361, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004388

RESUMO

Stroke is associated with topological disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks. However, whether these disruptions occur in transient ischemic attack (TIA), an important risk factor for stroke, remains largely unknown. Combining multimodal MRI techniques, we systematically examined TIA-related topological alterations of functional brain networks, and tested their reproducibility, structural, and metabolic substrates, associations with clinical risk factors and abilities as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. We found that functional networks in patients with TIA exhibited decreased whole-brain network efficiency, reduced nodal centralities in the bilateral insula and basal ganglia, and impaired connectivity of inter-hemispheric communication. These alterations remained largely unchanged when using different brain parcellation schemes or correcting for micro head motion or for regional gray matter volume, cerebral blood flow or hemodynamic lag of BOLD signals in the patients. Moreover, some alterations correlated with the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (an index related to ischemic attacks via modulation of atherosclerosis) in the patients, distinguished the patients from healthy individuals, and predicted future ischemic attacks in the patients. Collectively, these findings highlight the emergence of characteristic network dysfunctions in TIA, which may aid in elucidating pathological mechanisms and establishing diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the disease.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965607

RESUMO

Melatonin, an indoleamine widely found in animals and plants, is considered as a candidate phytohormone that affects responses to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In plants, melatonin has a similar action to that of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and IAA and melatonin have the same biosynthetic precursor, tryptophan. Salt stress results in the rapid accumulation of melatonin in plants. Melatonin enhances plant resistance to salt stress in two ways: one is via direct pathways, such as the direct clearance of reactive oxygen species; the other is via an indirect pathway by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity, photosynthetic efficiency, and metabolite content, and by regulating transcription factors associated with stress. In addition, melatonin can affect the performance of plants by affecting the expression of genes. Interestingly, other precursors and metabolite molecules associated with melatonin can also increase the tolerance of plants to salt stress. This paper explores the mechanisms by which melatonin alleviates salt stress by its actions on antioxidants, photosynthesis, ion regulation, and stress signaling.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Humanos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia
15.
Org Lett ; 21(7): 2139-2142, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855149

RESUMO

Trematosphones A (1) and B (2), two unique dimers with novel structural features, were isolated from the special bioenvironmental desert plant endophytic fungus Trematosphaeria terricola. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic approaches including NMR, calculated electronic circular dichroism data, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Possible biosynthetic pathways of these two compounds were proposed. Trematosphone A (1) exhibited protective activities against the corticosterone-induced damages in PC12.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Endófitos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Dicroísmo Circular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897818

RESUMO

A total of 18 matrine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory effect against TGF-ß1-induced total collagen accumulation in human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cell lines. Among them, compound 3f displayed the most potent anti-fibrotic activity (IC50 = 3.3 ± 0.3 µM) which was 266-fold more potent than matrine. 3f significantly inhibited the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition and extracellular matrix production of MRC-5 cells. The TGF-ß/small mothers against decapentaplegic homologs (Smad) signaling was also inhibited by 3f, as evidenced by inhibition of cytoplasm-to-nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and suppression of TGF-ß1-induced upregulation of TGF-ß receptor type I (TGFßRI). Additionally, 3f exhibited potent inhibitory effects against TGF-ß1-induced fibroblasts migration. These data suggested that 3f might be a potential agent for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis via repression of the TGFß/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/síntese química , Quinolizinas/química , Quinolizinas/síntese química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Indóis/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
17.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-12, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777442

RESUMO

The separation and purification techniques of chelates can improve the accuracy of detecting results of the chelation rate. As a quantitative indicator of metal ion chelates, the chelation rate can not only reflect the completion of chelation but also determine the amount of metal ions in different forms. The determination of chelation rate can help to determine the suitable chelating reaction conditions, make theoretical basis for the fertilizer efficiency, analyze the stability of chelating fertilizers and study the action mechanism of trace elements. In our study, the methods of separation free metal ions from mixture were reviewed first, including gel filtration chromatography, organic solvent precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, membrane separation and high performance liquid chromatography. Then, the qualitative analysis methods of chelates were introduced briefly, including chemical identification, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy. A detailed overview of the quantitative determination methods of chelates were also shown, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration, chemical titration, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, spectrophotometric, chemical modified electrode. In addition, the merits and demerits of chelated rate determination methods of various determination methods were analyzed, and summarized the applicability of various methods, which provided a theoretical basis for optimizing chelating process, characterizing the structure of chelates and analyzing the mechanism of chelating fertilizer. The current methods of measuring chelation rate were also summarized and prospected.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e011001, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661439

RESUMO

Background The effects of race on response to medical therapy in people with peripheral artery disease ( PAD ) are unknown. Methods and Results In the PROPEL (Progenitor Cell Release Plus Exercise to Improve Functional Performance in PAD) Trial, PAD participants were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 6 months: supervised treadmill exercise+granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( GM - CSF ) (Group 1), exercise+placebo (Group 2), attention control+ GM - CSF (Group 3), or attention control+placebo (Group 4). Change in 6-minute walk distance was measured at 12- and 26-week follow-up. In these exploratory analyses, groups receiving GM - CSF (Groups 1 and 3), placebo (Groups 2 and 4), exercise (Groups 1 and 2), and attention control (Groups 2 and 4) were combined, maximizing statistical power for studying the effects of race on response to interventions. Of 210 PAD participants, 141 (67%) were black and 64 (30%) were white. Among whites, GM - CSF improved 6-minute walk distance by +22.0 m (95% CI : -4.5, +48.5, P=0.103) at 12 weeks and +44.4 m (95% CI : +6.9, +82.0, P=0.020) at 26 weeks, compared with placebo. Among black participants, there was no effect of GM - CSF on 6-minute walk distance at 12-week ( P=0.26) or 26-week (-5.0 m [-27.5, +17.5, P=0.66]) follow-up, compared with placebo. There was an interaction of race on the effect of GM - CSF on 6-minute walk change at 26-week follow-up ( P=0.018). Exercise improved 6-minute walk distance in black ( P=0.006) and white ( P=0.034) participants without interaction. Conclusions GM - CSF improved 6-minute walk distance in whites with PAD but had no effect in black participants. Further study is needed to confirm racial differences in GM - CSF efficacy in PAD . Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01408901.

19.
J Physiol ; 597(6): 1585-1603, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615194

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: In a cold environment, mammals increase their food intake while fish decrease or stop feeding. However, the physiological value of fasting during cold resistance in fish is currently unknown. Fasting for more than 48 h enhanced acute cold resistance in zebrafish, which correlated with lipid catabolism and cell damage attenuation. Lipid catabolism and autophagy were necessary for cold resistance in fish and the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation or autophagy weakened the fasting-induced cold resistance. Repression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway by rapamycin largely mimicked the beneficial effects of fasting in promoting cold resistance, suggesting mTOR signalling may be involved in the fasting-induced cold resistance in fish. Our study demonstrates that fasting may be a protective strategy for fish to survive under cold stress. ABSTRACT: In cold environments, most homeothermic animals increase their food intake to supply more energy to maintain body temperature, whereas most poikilothermic animals such as fishes decrease or even stop feeding under cold stress. However, the physiological value of fasting during cold resistance in poikilotherms has not been explained. Here, we show that moderate fasting largely enhanced cold resistance in fish. By using pharmacological (fenofibrate, mildronate, chloroquine and rapamycin) and nutritional approaches (fatty acids diets and amino acids diets) in wild-type or specific gene knock-out zebrafish models (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b-deficient strain, CPT1b-/- , or autophagy-related protein 12-deficient strain, ATG12-/- ), we verified that fasting-stimulated lipid catabolism and autophagy played essential roles in the improved cold resistance. Moreover, suppression of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by using rapamycin mostly mimicked the beneficial effects of fasting in promoting cold resistance as either the physiological phenotype or transcriptomic pattern. However, these beneficial effects were largely reduced when the mTOR pathway was activated through high dietary leucine supplementation. We conclude that fasting helps fish to resist cold stress by modulating lipid catabolism and autophagy, which correlates with the mTOR signalling pathway. Therefore, fasting can act as a protective strategy of fish in resisting coldness.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(1): e009380, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587066

RESUMO

Background It is currently unknown whether 6 months of supervised treadmill exercise has a durable benefit on 6-minute walk performance, even after exercise is completed, in people with peripheral artery disease. Methods and Results A total of 156 participants with peripheral artery disease were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: supervised treadmill exercise, supervised resistance training, or attention control. Participants received supervised sessions during months 1 to 6 and telephone contact during months 6 to 12. Primary outcomes were change in 6-minute walk distance and short physical performance battery at 6-month follow-up and have been reported previously. Secondary outcomes were change in 6-minute walk and short physical performance battery at 12-month follow-up and are reported here. A group of 134 participants (86%) completed the 12-month follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, compared with control, 6-minute walk distance improved in the treadmill exercise group (+36.1 m, 95% CI =13.9-58.3, P=0.001). Between 6- and 12-month follow-up, 6-minute walk distance significantly declined (-28.6 m, 95% CI=-52.6 to -4.5, P=0.020) and physical activity declined -272 activity units (95% CI =-546 to +2, P=0.052) in the treadmill exercise group compared with controls. At 12-month follow-up, 6 months after completing supervised treadmill exercise, change in 6-minute walk distance was not different between the treadmill exercise and control groups (+7.5, 95% CI =-17.5 to +32.6, P=0.56). There were no differences in short physical performance battery change between either exercise group and control at 6-month or 12-month follow-up. Conclusions A 6-month supervised treadmill exercise intervention that improved 6-minute walk distance at 6-month follow-up did not have persistent benefit at 12-month follow-up. These results do not support a durable benefit of supervised treadmill exercise in peripheral artery disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL : https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Identifier: NCT 00106327.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA