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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 524, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used instrument to test cognitive functioning. The present study prospectively investigated the association between MMSE scores, MMSE domains, and all-cause mortality. METHODS: A total of 2134 participants aged 60 years or over, selected from one urban community-dwelling population in China, were enrolled in the study. The cognitive test was performed by use of the MMSE at baseline, and covariates were recorded simultaneously. Cox regression models were used for examining the cognitive function, expressed by different MMSE transformations, and all-cause mortality. After followed up for a median of 10.8 years (ranging from 1.0 to 11.3 years), loss to follow-up was 13.1% and 1854 individuals were finally included in the analyses. RESULTS: The subjects had the mean (SD) age of 71.01 (7.00) years, and 754 (40.67%) of them were women. Per point increase on MMSE scores was associated a 4% decreased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 0.96; 95%confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.98]; compared to MMSE scores of ≥24, MMSE scores of < 24 was associated with a 43% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.95); compared to MMSE scores of 30, MMSE scores of 27-29 (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 0.89-1.82), 24-26 (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.86-1.99), and < 24 (HR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.15-2.77) had a graded increase in risk of all-cause mortality (p for trend =0.003). Of MMSE domains, orientation to time (HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29-3.11), attention and calculation (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.16-1.92), recall (HR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.22-5.47), and language (HR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.25-2.26) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality in the unadjusted model; for one increase in the number of impaired MMSE domains, the unadjusted HR (95% CI) of mortality is 1.51 (1.38, 1.65), and the HR (95% CI) of mortality is 1.12 (1.01, 1.25) with full adjustment; compared to 0 and 1 impaired MMSE domains, the HRs of all-cause mortality associated with 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 impaired MMSE domains were 1.14 (95% CI: 0.84-1.54), 1.50 (95% CI: 0.98-2.28), 2.14 (95% CI: 1.12-4.09) and 2.29 (95% CI: 1.24-5.04), respectively, and a dose-dependent relationship was significant (p for trend =0.003). CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairment is associated with the increased risk of all-cause mortality in the Chinese elderly. Similarly, reduced MMSE scores, as well as impaired MMSE domains, are also associated with the increasing risk of all-cause mortality.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 16925-16929, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612638

RESUMO

Due to the precisely controllable size, shape, and composition, self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices exhibit unique collective properties and find wide applications in catalysis and energy conversion. Identifying their intrinsic electrocatalytic activity is challenging, as their averaged properties on ensembles can hardly be dissected from binders or additives. We here report the direct measurement of the oxygen evolution reaction at single superparticles self-assembled from ∼8 nm NiFe2O4 and/or ∼4 nm Au nanocrystals using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy. Combined with coordinated scanning electron microscopy, it is found that the turnover frequency (TOF) estimated from single NiFe2O4 superparticles at 1.92 V vs RHE ranges from 0.2 to 11 s-1 and is sensitive to size only when it is smaller than ∼800 nm in diameter. After the incorporation of Au nanocrystals, the TOF increases by ∼6-fold and levels off with further increasing Au content. Our study demonstrates the first direct single entity electrochemical study on individual nanocrystal superlattices with tunable structures and unravels the intrinsic structure-activity relationship that is not accessible by other methods.

3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23991, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and a leading cause of cancer death. Circular RNA (circRNA) has been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating tumour development. The current study aims to explore the specific role of hsa_circ_0001806 during HCC progression. METHODS: The expression of hsa_circ_0001806 in HCC tissues and cells was measured through qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were measured using CCK-8 and Annexin V/PI staining kits, and Transwell assay. Bioinformatics prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assay were adopted to explore the mechanism underlying the cell function of hsa_circ_0001806 in HCC cells. In addition, glycolysis was assessed by measuring the glucose uptake, lactate production and ATP level using a glucose assay kit, fluorometric lactate assay kit and ATP detection assay kit. RESULTS: Hsa_circ_0001806 was up-regulated in HCC tissues and cells and positively associated with the advanced TNM stage, metastasis and poor overall survival. The overexpression of hsa_circ_0001806 promoted HCC cell proliferation, migration and glycolysis and inhibited cell apoptosis, while the silence of hsa_circ_0001806 showed an opposite effect. Furthermore, hsa_circ_0001806 acted as a sponge of miR-125b to up-regulate hexokinase II (HK2) expression. In addition, the inhibition of miR-125b and HK2 overexpression partly reversed the inhibitory effect of hsa_circ_0001806 silencing on HCC cell proliferation, migration and glycolysis. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of hsa_circ_0001806 suppressed HCC cell proliferation, migration and glycolysis through mediating miR-125b/HK2 axis.

4.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683299

RESUMO

The AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with a step-doped channel (SDC-HEMT) is first proposed in this paper. The potential distribution and the electric field (E-field) distribution of the device are explored by the numerical approach and analytical approach simultaneously. By introducing extra dopants to the channel layer, the E-field distribution along the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction interface is reshaped, resulting in an improved breakdown characteristic. An optimized doping concentration gradient of channel layer of 2 × 1016 cm-3/step is proposed and verified by simulations. The breakdown voltage (BV) of the optimized SDC-HEMT reaches 1486 V with a 59.8% improvement compared with conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMT. In addition, the average E-field in the region between gate and drain improves from 1.5 to 2.5 MV/cm. Based on the equivalent potential method (EPM), an analytical model of the E-field and potential distribution is presented. The veracity and effectiveness of the proposed methodology is verified by the good agreement between the simulated and modeled results.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6154, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686664

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring inv(16)(p13q22) expresses high levels of miR-126. Here we show that the CBFB-MYH11 (CM) fusion gene upregulates miR-126 expression through aberrant miR-126 transcription and perturbed miR-126 biogenesis via the HDAC8/RAN-XPO5-RCC1 axis. Aberrant miR-126 upregulation promotes survival of leukemia-initiating progenitors and is critical for initiating and maintaining CM-driven AML. We show that miR-126 enhances MYC activity through the SPRED1/PLK2-ERK-MYC axis. Notably, genetic deletion of miR-126 significantly reduces AML rate and extends survival in CM knock-in mice. Therapeutic depletion of miR-126 with an anti-miR-126 (miRisten) inhibits AML cell survival, reduces leukemia burden and leukemia stem cell (LSC) activity in inv(16) AML murine and xenograft models. The combination of miRisten with chemotherapy further enhances the anti-leukemia and anti-LSC activity. Overall, this study provides molecular insights for the mechanism and impact of miR-126 dysregulation in leukemogenesis and highlights the potential of miR-126 depletion as a therapeutic approach for inv(16) AML.

6.
Hum Cell ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687431

RESUMO

The significance of epigenetic modulation, involving acetylation, methylation, as well as ubiquitination has been indicated in the regulation of gene expression and tumor progression. Here, we elucidated the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediated metastasis via mRNA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three microarrays associated with lung cancer metastasis or recurrence, GSE23361, GSE7880 and GSE162102, were downloaded from the GEO database. Transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) was revealed to be the only one mRNA that was significantly downregulated in three microarrays. TMEM100, poorly expressed in lung cancer tissues, was associated with poor prognosis of lung cancer patients. Moreover, TMEM100 transcription was regulated by HDAC6 which repressed TMEM100 expression by deacetylation modification on the TMEM100 promoter. Knockdown of HDAC6 or overexpression of TMEM100 in NSCLC cells significantly inhibited TGF-ß1-induced EMT and metastasis and suppressed the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Altogether, our study highlights HDAC6 as a lung cancer metastasis supporter through the suppression of TMEM100 and the induction of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

7.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(10): 1492-1500, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667724

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine formulations, Hexuemingmu (HXMM) on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and follow-up effect in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice of 8-week-old were used and CNV was induced with 577 nm laser photocoagulation. Animals were randomly divided into groups and different doses of HXMM were administered daily. One, four, and eight weeks after the intervention, the electroretinogram (ERG), fundus fluorescence angiography, choroidal flat mount and immunofluorescence staining were preformed to evaluate the function and CNV formation. The expression levels of angiogenic proteins were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. An analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to test the differences among the groups. RESULTS: The results showed that HXMM effectively increased amplitude of ERG of mice (P<0.05), alleviated fundus CNV leakage (P<0.05), and reduced the area of neovascularization and the expression of angiogenic proteins (P<0.05) after laser-induced CNV. CONCLUSION: HXMM can protect the retinal function of mice after laser-induced CNV, and inhibit the CNV development.

8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 710317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588972

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive decline. However, the assessment of AD-associated functional and cognitive changes is still a big challenge. Auditory-evoked cortical potential (AECP) is an event-related potential reflecting not only neural activation in the auditory cortex (AC) but also cognitive activity in the brain. In this study, we used the subdermal needle electrodes with the same electrode setting as the auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording and recorded AECP in normal aging CBA/CaJ mice and APP/PS1 AD mice. AECP in mice usually appeared as three positive peaks, i.e., P1, P2, and P3, and three corresponding negative peaks, i.e., N1, N2, and N3. In normal aging CBA mice, the early sensory peaks P1, N1, and P2 were reduced as age increased, whereas the later cognitive peaks N2, P3, and N3 were increased or had no changes with aging. Moreover, the latency of the P1 peak was increased as age increased, although the latencies of later peaks had a significant reduction with aging. In AD mice, peak P1 was significantly reduced in comparison with wild-type (WT) littermates at young ages, proceeding AD phenotype presentation. In particular, the later cognitive peak P3 was diminished after 3 months old, different from the normal aging effect. However, the latencies of AECP peaks in AD mice generally had no significant delay or changes with aging. Finally, consistent with AECP changes, the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the AC was visible in AD mice as early as 2 months old. These data suggest that AECP could serve as an early, non-invasive, and objective biomarker for detecting AD and AD-related dementia (ADRD).

9.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 25: 554-566, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589277

RESUMO

After angiogenesis-activated embryonic and early postnatal vascularization, endothelial cells (ECs) in most tissues enter a quiescent state necessary for proper tissue perfusion and EC functions. Notch signaling is essential for maintaining EC quiescence, but the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here, we show that microRNA-218 (miR-218) is a downstream effector of Notch in quiescent ECs. Notch activation upregulated, while Notch blockade downregulated, miR-218 and its host gene Slit2, likely via transactivation of the Slit2 promoter. Overexpressing miR-218 in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) significantly repressed cell proliferation and sprouting in vitro. Transcriptomics showed that miR-218 overexpression attenuated the MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor (MYC, also known as c-myc) signature. MYC overexpression rescued miR-218-mediated proliferation and sprouting defects in HUVECs. MYC was repressed by miR-218 via multiple mechanisms, including reduction of MYC mRNA, repression of MYC translation by targeting heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), and promoting MYC degradation by targeting EYA3. Inhibition of miR-218 partially reversed Notch-induced repression of HUVEC proliferation and sprouting. In vivo, intravitreal injection of miR-218 reduced retinal EC proliferation accompanied by MYC repression, attenuated pathological choroidal neovascularization, and rescued retinal EC hyper-sprouting induced by Notch blockade. In summary, miR-218 mediates the effect of Notch activation of EC quiescence via MYC and is a potential treatment for angiogenesis-related diseases.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 737899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589530

RESUMO

Background: The population of older adults is growing rapidly with the increasing pace of aging worldwide. The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been a convenient and reliable surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to determine the association between the TyG index and arterial stiffness assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in Chinese older adults. Methods: A total of 2,035 participants aged 60 years or above were enrolled. Demographic, anthropometric, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. TyG index was calculated using ln (fasting triglycerides [mg/dL] × fasting glucose [mg/dL]/2). Arterial stiffness was measured using baPWV. Results: The participants, with the mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of 71.32 (6.75) years, the female proportion of 39.65%, the mean (SD) baPWV of 1,998 (437) cm/s, and the mean (SD) TyG index of 8.86 (0.54), were divided into four groups according to TyG index quartiles. Age-adjusted baPWV presented an increasing trend according to TyG index quartiles. In the fully adjusted linear regression model, the baPWV increased 49 cm/s, with the 95% confidence interval (CI) from 24 to 75 cm/s, per-SD increase in the TyG index. In the fully-adjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of high baPWV (>75th percentile) was 1.32 (1.09, 1.60) for each SD increase in the TyG index. The generalized additive model analysis also confirmed the significant association of the TyG index with baPWV and high baPWV. Conclusion: The TyG index is significantly associated with arterial stiffness assessed by baPWV in Chinese older adults.

11.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536603

RESUMO

The high risk of tumor recurrence presents a big challenge in melanoma therapy. Photothermal therapy (PTT) has merged as a powerful weapon against tumor in recent years, which produces tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and recruits dendritic cells (DCs) to tumor sites through immunogenic cell death (ICD) for immune activation. However, due to the lack of activation signals of DCs, the immune effect induced by PTT is not sufficient to inhibit the recurrence and proliferation of tumor. To efficiently cooperate PTT and immunotherapy to circumvent tumor recurrence, here we constructed a polydopamine (PDA) based core-shell nanoplatform loading CpG ODNs to elicit robust photothermal ablation and antitumor immune responses. Cationized polydopamine coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) shell was proven an efficient photothermal agent that increased the surface temperature of tumor by 16 °C and induced ICD. CpG ODNs effectively induced maturation of DCs by elevating the expression of co-stimulating markers. PTT combined with CpG ODNs achieved a remarkable synergistic treatment effect in the maturation of DCs and activation of T cells in melanoma-bearing mice model compared with PTT or CpG ODNs alone. Furthermore, in a tumor recurrence model, photothermal-immune combination therapy increased the infiltration of CTLs in distant tumor compared with PTT or CpG ODNs alone. The combination therapy overcame insufficient immunity at distant tumor caused by PTT alone and relieved immunosuppression microenvironment of the tumor. Hence, the PDA based core-shell nanoplatform presents a potent photo-immunotherapy against proliferation and recurrence of melanoma. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In order to solve the insufficient immunity induced by photothermal therapy (PTT), CpG ODNs were utilized to enhance the weak immune response mediated by PTT through inducing DCs maturation. Hence, we designed a polydopamine (PDA) based core-shell nanoplatform loading CpG ODNs followed by hyaluronic acid named PPP/CpG/HA to elicit robust photothermal ablation and antitumor immune responses. CpG ODNs were delivered to the tumor site through the targeting effect of the HA shell. The core-shell nanoplatform achieved a remarkable synergistic treatment effect in the maturation of DCs and activation of T cells, thereby overcoming insufficient immunity at distant tumor caused by PTT alone. The core-shell nanoplatform presents a potent photo-immunotherapy against proliferation and recurrence of melanoma.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580976

RESUMO

A versatile terpene synthase (LcTPS2) producing unconventional macrocyclic terpenoids was characterized from Leucosceptrum canum. Engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana expressing LcTPS2 produced six 18-/14-membered sesterterpenoids including five new ones and two 14-membered diterpenoids, representing the first macrocyclic sesterterpenoids from plants and the largest sesterterpenoid ring system identified to date. Surprisingly, none of these macrocyclic terpenoids were detected in L. canum. Two variants F516A and F516G producing approximately 3.3- and 2.5- folds respectively more sesterterpenoids than the wild type enzyme was engineered. Both 18- and 14-membered ring sesterterpenoids displayed significant inhibitory activity on the IL-2 and IFN-γ production of T cells via inhibition of MAPK pathway. The findings will contribute to the development of efficient biocatalysts to create bioactive macrocyclic sesterterpenoids, and also herald a new potential in the well-trodden territory of plant terpenoid biosynthesis.

13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons. METHODS: The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. RESULTS: MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.

14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 302, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used drug-delivering devices for patients with chronic airway diseases. Appropriate peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) and inhaler technique is essential for effective therapy. We aimed at optimizing inhalation therapy through the analysis of PIFRs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma as well as the effect of technique training using In-Check DIAL® to help patients to achieve their optimal inspiratory flow rates. METHODS: The study continuously enrolled patients who were diagnosed as COPD or asthma from respiratory clinics. PIFRs were described and analyzed between the newly-diagnosed and follow-up patients, and the stable and acute exacerbation patients, respectively. Every participant was trained inhaler technique using In-Check DIAL®. PIFRs before and after training was compared by self-control analysis. RESULTS: Among a total of 209 patients, the average age was 56.9 years. For DPIs users, 10.8% patients had a PIFR < 30 L/min and 44.1% patients had a PIFR ≥ 60 L/min before technique training. After technique training, scarcely patient (1.5%) had a PIFR < 30 L/min, and 60.5% patients had a PIFR ≥ 60 L/min. The patient's average PIFR increased by 5.6L/min after training. The increase in PIFR before and after training was significant (p < 0.001) for most patients, but no significant variation was found in patients with acute exacerbation (p = 0.822). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable number of patients with COPD or asthma were not able to achieve the minimum or optimal PIFR for DPIs. Inhaler training can increase patients' PIFRs and improve their ability to use DPIs. Trail registration The study has registered in chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1900024707) and been approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University (B2019-142).

15.
Food Chem ; 371: 131104, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537605

RESUMO

Mint is a widely used aromatic plant, and the aroma varies among different species. The aroma of five mint species, Mentha citrata L. (MC), Mentha piperita L. (MPI), Mentha spicata L. (MSP), Mentha persicaria L. (MPE), and Mentha suaveolens L. (MSU), were comparatively studied on the sensorial and molecular level. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that MC presented a pronounced lemon-like note, MSU is dominated by citrus and floral aromas, MPI has a prominent minty flavor, MSP and MPE have a similar scent, both of which are flavored with a spearmint-like note. Forty-one odorants with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥1 were characterized. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis based on OAVs indicated that α-citral, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthol, carvone, and linalool were potential odor-active markers for five mint species discrimination. This study herein will provide guidance for mint resources utilization and also aid mint breeding with better flavor.

16.
J Control Release ; 338: 662-679, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478751

RESUMO

Inflammatory feed-forward loops including the steps of "inflammatory cell recruitment", "inflammatory signaling pathway activation" and "inflammatory factor production" are essential in the development of breast cancer and its metastasis. Herein, a doxorubicin-loaded micellar low-molecular-weight-heparin-astaxanthin nanoparticle (LMWH-AST/DOX, LA/DOX NP) was developed. The hydrophilic LMWH could decrease the recruitment of neutrophils in liver and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung and tumor through P-selectin blockage. The hydrophobic AST could inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways. Therefore, LA/DOX NPs could block these loops and suppress the liver metastasis by inhibiting the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), inhibit the lung metastasis and alleviate the inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment in tumor. This is the first functional nanoparticle reported to shut down inflammatory feed-forward loops and the formation of NETs, which provides a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer and its liver and lung metastasis.

17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 681250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485119

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most common and aggressive type of tumor of the female reproductive system. Two factors account for this detrimental clinical presentation: (i) the lack of early detection methods and (ii) the inherently aggressive nature of this malignancy. Currently, transcriptomic analyses have become important tools to identify new targets in different cancer types. In this study, by measuring expression levels in ovarian cancer samples and stem cell samples, we identified 24 tumor suppressor genes consistently associated with poor prognosis. Combined results further revealed a potential therapeutic candidate, BTG2, which belongs to the antiproliferative gene family. Our results showed that BTG2 expression regulated ovarian cancer cell proliferation via G1/S phase cell cycle arrest by regulating Cyclin D1, CDK4, p-AKT, and p-ERK expression. BTG2 also inhibited cell migration by modulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, xenograft models confirmed a growth inhibitory effect of BTG2 in ovarian cancer in vivo. BTG2 was significantly associated with ovarian cancer FIGO stage and grade in the clinic. Our findings indicated that BTG2 exerts a suppressive impact on ovarian cancer and could be a potential biomarker.

19.
ACS Omega ; 6(34): 22103-22113, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497902

RESUMO

Studies have shown that anaerobic digestion (AD) has an effect on the liquid and solid product property of sequential pyrolysis, but its influence on the gaseous products is lacking. In this study, syngas produced by pyrolysis from three raw organic solid wastes and the corresponding digestates, i.e., food waste, vinasse, and cow manure were investigated. AD causes a decrease in the contents of volatile solid, fixed carbon, C, H, and N and an increase in the S content. The weight loss of the wastes mainly occurs at 200-550 °C during the pyrolysis and the loss of the food waste and vinasse is higher than that of cow manure. In the carbon (C)-containing gas, AD leads to a decrease in the CH4 content of the syngas, implying that the heat values of the digestates are lower than that of the raw substrates. After AD, the total amount of nitrogen (N)-containing gas from the vinasse increases by 40.1%, while that from cow manure decreases by 14.1%. On the contrary, the total amount of sulfur (S)-containing groups in the syngas from vinasse drop by 22.0%, while that from cow manure increases by 9.1%. In addition, slight changes in the C-, N-, and S-containing gases are found from food waste. The results indicate that AD has a different effect on the N- and S- containing gaseous groups from different organic solid wastes, and the mechanisms deserve further investigation. The findings supply a theoretical foundation for environmental-friendly application of syngas from the digestates.

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