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1.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(1): 218-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of imiquimod in comparison with other treatments in patients with BCC. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed in the database of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Outcomes of interest included histological/composite clearance rate, success rate, complete response rate, tumor free survival, and adverse events. Pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effects or random-effects model were determined for each outcome. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies involving 4256 patients were identified. Imiquimod was associated with significantly higher histological clearance rate (RR = 9.28, 95%CI: 5.56, 15.49; P < .001) and composite clearance rate (RR = 34.24, 95%CI: 21.29, 55.06; P = .001). Moreover, imiquimod also significantly increased complete response rate (RR = 3.15, 95%CI: 1.55, 6.38; P = .001) but had no effect in the success rate (RR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.89, 1.08; P = .727) and probability of tumor-free survival (RR = 1.15, 95%CI: 0.98, 1.35; P = .088), as compared with other treatments. There were more patients in imiquimod group who developed adverse events than in other treatment group (RR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.39, 2.88; P < .001). CONCLUSION: This study indicated the effects of imiquimod in improving the histological/composite clearance rates as compared with other treatments. However, its treatment-related adverse events also should be noticed. Our findings supported that, imiquimod could be used as the first-choice treatment for BCC.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(24): 14264-14272, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731833

RESUMO

Soils are often co-contaminated with As, Pb, and Cd. To what extent ingested metal(loid)s interact with each other in the gastrointestinal tract and influence their RBA (relative bioavailability) is largely unknown. Three soils predominantly contaminated with As (MS, mining/smelting impacted), Pb (WR, wire rope production impacted), and Cd (EP, enamel pottery production impacted) were administered to mice individually or in binary and tertiary combinations with sodium arsenate, Cd chloride, and/or Pb acetate. In binary combinations, ∼10-fold higher Pb addition decreased As-RBA in MS (26.0 ± 6.28% to 17.1 ± 1.08%), while ∼10-fold higher As addition decreased Pb-RBA in WR (61.3 ± 2.41% to 28.8 ± 5.45%). This was possibly due to the formation of insoluble Pb arsenate in mouse intestinal tract, as indicated by the formation of precipitates when As and Pb co-occurred in water or simulated human gastrointestinal fluids. Due to competition for shared absorption transporters, ∼10- and 100-fold higher Pb addition decreased Cd-RBA in EP (95.8 ± 12.9% to 67.8 ± 12.8% and 62.8 ± 8.24%). Tertiary combinations showed that interactions between two metal(loid)s were affected by the presence of the third metal(loid). Our study suggests that As oxyanion could interact with Pb or Cd ions in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, and the interactions vary depending on concentration and solution characteristics.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(18): 10545-10559, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442034

RESUMO

Metal contamination in soil, dust, and food matrices impacts the health of millions of people worldwide. During the past decades, various animal bioassays have been developed to determine the relative bioavailability (RBA) of As, Pb, and Cd in contaminated soils, dust, and foods, which vary in operational approaches. This review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different animal models (swine and mice), dosing schemes (single gavage dose, repeated gavage dose, daily repeated feeding, and free access to diet), and end points (blood, urine, and tissue) in metal-RBA measurement; compares metal-RBA obtained using mouse and swine bioassays, different dosing schemes, and different end points; and summarizes key findings on As-, Pb-, and Cd-RBA values in contaminated soils, dust, and foods. Future directions related to metal-RBA research are highlighted, including (1) comparison of metal-RBA determinations between different bioassays and different laboratories to ensure robust bioavailability data, (2) enhancing the metal-RBA database for contaminated dust and foods, (3) identification of physiological and physicochemical mechanisms responsible for variability in metal-RBA values, (4) formulation of strategies to decrease metal-RBA values in contaminated soils, dust, and foods, and (5) assessing the impacts of cocontaminants on metal-RBA measurement.


Assuntos
Poeira , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioensaio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio , Chumbo , Camundongos , Solo , Suínos
4.
Environ Int ; 130: 104875, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200159

RESUMO

The robustness of in vitro bioaccessibility assays to predict oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of multiple metals in contaminated soils requires validation using additional soil samples. In this study, 11 contaminated soils from mining/smelting areas were analyzed for As-, Cd-, and Pb-RBA using a mouse bioassay and metal bioaccessibility via the UBM gastric phase assay. Metal-RBA varied considerably among soils, with As-RBA (2.5-23%, mean 12%) being generally lower than Cd-and Pb-RBA (3.4-88 and 3.3-59%, mean 42 and 28%), due to higher proportions of As in the residual fractions. Metal-RBA generally decreased with increasing metal concentrations probably due to reduced labile metal fractions. In addition, strong negative correlations were observed between total Fe with As-, Cd-, and Pb-RBA (R2 = 0.46-0.77), suggesting the role of Fe in controlling metal-RBA in soils. Like RBA, metal bioaccessibility by the UBM assay also varied among samples. However, strong in vivo-in vitro correlations (IVIVCs) were observed between metal-RBA and bioaccessibility (R2 = 0.52-0.81). Further, there were little differences when As-, Cd-, and Pb-IVIVCs established using soils from this study and soils pooled from literature were compared, suggesting the robustness of the UBM assay to predict metal-RBA in contaminated soils.

5.
Plant Physiol ; 179(4): 1330-1342, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617050

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is a fungal pathogen that causes rice (Oryza sativa) blast. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) are key components in vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells and are known to contribute to fungal pathogen resistance. Syntaxin of Plants121 (SYP121), a Qa-SNARE, has been reported to function in nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the functions of SYP121 in host resistance to rice blast are largely unknown. Here, we report that the rice SYP121 protein, OsSYP121, accumulates at fungal penetration sites and mediates host resistance to rice blast. OsSYP121 is plasma membrane localized and its expression was obviously induced by the rice blast in both the blast-resistant rice landrace Heikezijing and the blast-susceptible landrace Suyunuo (Su). Overexpression of OsSYP121 in Su resulted in enhanced resistance to blast. Knockdown of OsSYP121 expression in Su resulted in a more susceptible phenotype. However, knockdown of OsSYP121 expression in the resistant landrace Heikezijing resulted in susceptibility to the blast fungus. The POsSYP121 ::GFP-OsSYP121 accumulated at rice blast penetration sites in transgenic rice, as observed by confocal microscopy. Yeast two-hybrid results showed that OsSYP121 can interact with OsSNAP32 (Synaptosome-associated protein of 32 kD) and Vesicle-associated membrane protein714/724. The interaction between OsSYP121 and OsSNAP32 may contribute to host resistance to rice blast. Our study reveals that OsSYP121 plays an important role in rice blast resistance as it is a key component in vesicle trafficking.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Magnaporthe/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/imunologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(1): 503-511, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521329

RESUMO

Mushrooms accumulate arsenic (As), yet As concentrations, speciation, and localization in cultivated mushrooms across a large geographic distribution are unknown. We characterized 141 samples of nine species from markets in nine capital cities in China, with samples of Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Agaricus bisporus being analyzed for As speciation and localization. Total As concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 8.31 mg kg-1 dw, with A. bisporus (0.27-2.79 mg kg-1) containing the most As followed by P. ostreatus and L. edodes (0.04-8.31 and 0.12-2.58 mg kg-1). However, As in A. bisporus was mostly organic including nontoxic arsenobetaine, while P. ostreatus and L. edodes contained mainly inorganic As (iAs). On the basis of in situ imaging using LA-ICP-MS, As in L. edodes was localized to the surface coat of the cap, while As in P. ostreatus was localized to the junction of the pileus and stipe. When As speciation and daily mushroom consumption (1.37 g d-1 dw) are considered, daily mushroom consumption may result in elevated iAs exposure, with increased bladder and lung cancer rates up to 387 cases per 100000. Our study showed that market mushrooms could be a health risk to the general public so its production should be monitored.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Arsênico , Pleurotus , Cogumelos Shiitake , China , Humanos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 358: 427-433, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014932

RESUMO

To determine the effects of dietary constituents on soil Pb oral bioavailability, Pb relative bioavailability (RBA) in 3 soils contaminated by zinc smelting (ZS), wire-rope production (WR), and metal mining (MM) was measured under fasted and fed states with 9 foods. Under fasted state, Pb-RBA was 84.4 ±â€¯10.3, 82.6 ±â€¯4.70, and 32.3 ±â€¯1.10% for ZS, WR, and MM soils; however, it decreased by 1.3-3.5 fold to 23.9-58.8, 25.6-49.9, and 14.8-24.2% under fed states with foods excluding Pb-RBA with egg in WR soil (97.3 ±â€¯4.46%), and with cabbage and egg in MM soil (40.0 ±â€¯8.62 and 44.4 ±â€¯0.96%). In the presence of foods, egg and pork with significantly higher protein and fat contents leaded to the highest soil Pb-RBA (44.4-97.3%), while Pb-RBA determined with mineral-rich mouse feed was 1.6-7.9 fold lower (9.41-13.5%), suggesting high fat and protein foods tended to increase soil Pb-RBA, while high mineral diets decreased soil Pb-RBA. The increased Pb-RBA of MM soil with cabbage compared to fasted state was due to high organic content in cabbage, which could increase soil Pb solubility by inhibiting Fe and Pb co-precipitation in the intestine. For accurate assessment of health risks of contaminated soils, dietary influence on soil Pb-RBA should be considered.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
8.
Front Physiol ; 9: 432, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740343

RESUMO

Insects have a complex chemosensory system that accurately perceives external chemicals and plays a pivotal role in many insect life activities. Thus, the study of the chemosensory mechanism has become an important research topic in entomology. Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major agricultural polyphagous pest that causes significant agricultural economic losses worldwide. However, except for a few genes that have been discovered, its olfactory and gustatory mechanisms remain uncertain. In the present study, we acquired 144,479 unigenes of S. exigua by assembling 65.81 giga base reads from 6 chemosensory organs (female and male antennae, female and male proboscises, and female and male labial palps), and identified many differentially expressed genes in the gustatory and olfactory organs. Analysis of the transcriptome data obtained 159 putative chemosensory genes, including 24 odorant binding proteins (OBPs; 3 were new), 19 chemosensory proteins (4 were new), 64 odorant receptors (57 were new), 22 ionotropic receptors (16 were new), and 30 new gustatory receptors. Phylogenetic analyses of all genes and SexiGRs expression patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were investigated. Our results found that several of these genes had differential expression features in the olfactory organs compared to the gustatory organs that might play crucial roles in the chemosensory system of S. exigua, and could be utilized as targets for future functional studies to assist in the interpretation of the molecular mechanism of the system. They could also be used for developing novel behavioral disturbance agents to control the population of the moths in the future.

9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10069, 2017 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855665

RESUMO

Allergic reactions and severe systemic toxicity are two major challenges for the clinical application of docetaxel (DTX) for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We developed a novel lung-targeted DTX-loaded liposome (DTX-LP), an efficient drug delivery system, with a patented DBaumNC technology to overcome these deficiencies. In the present study, we describe the targeting activity, tumor inhibition rate (TIR), survival, pathology, tumor apoptosis and metabolism of DTX after intravenous injection of DTX-LP compared to the DTX injection (DTX-IN) formulation based on the VX2 orthotopic lung cancer rabbit model. Biodistribution studies revealed the highest accumulation in lung and tumor within 12 h after the injection of DTX-LP. The increased TIR indicates that the growth of tumor was slowed. Pathology tests demonstrated that DTX-LP can reduce metastasis and toxicity to non-targeted organs, leading to greatly extended survival time and improved survival of tumor-bearing rabbits. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry confirmed that DTX-LP is highly efficacious in tumor tissue, leading to a significant increase of tumor apoptosis and decrease of proliferation and angiogenesis. The results from this study demonstrate the increased intrapulmonary tumor targeting activity, enhanced antitumor effect and reduced toxicity of DTX-LP compared to DTX-IN and highlight its clinical prospects for NSCLC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Lipossomos/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Docetaxel/química , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/mortalidade , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Coelhos , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 339: 256-263, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28654790

RESUMO

Hand-to-mouth activity is an important pathway for children's exposure to contaminated soils, which is often co-contaminated by Pb and As in mining and smelting sites. To reduce soil Pb risk to humans by oral exposure, phosphate amendments have been used to reduce Pb relative bioavailability (RBA), but its efficiency has not been investigated using validated in vitro assays nor its influence on As-RBA. Here, 5 contaminated soils (A-E) were amended with 0.5% phosphoric acid (PA) to study its effect on Pb- and As- RBA using a newly-developed mouse kidney model and bioaccessibility using 4 in vitro assays including UBM, SBRC, IVG, and PBET. Based on the mouse kidney model, Pb-RBA in PA-amended soils decreased from 14.2-62.5% to 10.1-29.8%. In contrast, As-RBA decreased from 26.5% to 15.9% in soil B but increased from 27.5 to 41.2% in soil D, with changes being insignificant in 3 other soils (35.8-58.8 to 28.1-61.1%). When assessing Pb bioaccessibility in PA-amended soils, decreased bioaccessibility were found using PBET and SBRC. For As, its bioaccessibility increased in PA-amended soils, inconsistent with in vivo data. Our results shed light on the importance of method selection to assess risk in Pb- and As-contaminated soils amended with phosphate.


Assuntos
Arsênico/farmacocinética , Rim/metabolismo , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Fosfatos/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
11.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci ; 36(4): 614-617, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465342

RESUMO

Sonoclot analyzer has been widely used in many countries. But the reference intervals provided by the manufacturer were derived from only 45 participants, and there was no cut-off value for transfusion for Sonoclot analysis. This study aimed to establish reference intervals and transfusion criterion for Sonoclot analysis. Volunteers were recruited from healthy Chinese adults and patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Blood samples were withdrawn from forearm vein and measured for activated clotting time (ACT), clot rate (CR), platelet function (PF), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen concentration (FIB), and platelet count (PLT). The reference intervals were determined by the nonparametric method. Cut-off values were determined by the receiver operating characteristics curve. A total of 135 healthy volunteers and 281 patients were enrolled. The 95% reference intervals were 96-195 s, 22-51 signal U/min, >1.6 for ACT, CR, PF respectively. In the 281 patients, the results of APTT, FIB, PLT, ACT, CR, and PF ranged from 20.5-300.0 s, 0.28-4.11 g/L, (19.0-387.3)×109/L, 80-514 s, 2.9-74 signal U/min, and 0.1-5.1 respectively. The cut-off values for transfusion were >208, ≤14, and ≤1.3 for ACT, CR, PF respectively. The cut-off values of Sonoclot analysis were within the manufacturer's reference intervals, while they were outside the reference intervals established in this study. The results suggested that the manufacturer's reference intervals were not suitable for Chinese. The reference intervals and cut-off values established in this study will be helpful to Chinese patients.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/métodos , Valores de Referência
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(4): 365-73, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21845748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To isolate and purify components from polysaccharides of purple sweet potato (PPSP) and to test their anti-tumor activity. METHODS: DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose exchange chromatography were applied to separate components of PPSP. The anti-tumor activities of each component were measured by MTT assay on Hela and HepG(2) cells and their monosaccharide composition were analyzed by TLC chromatography, followed by infrared spectroscopy studies. RESULTS: Through weak anion exchange chromatography and gradient elution by sodium chloride solution, four components were separated and named as PPSP, PPSPII, PPSPIII and PPSPIV, respectively. MTT tests showed that PPSP II and PPSPIII inhibited Hela and HepG2 tumor cells in a certain extent. The structural analysis revealed that PPSPI was mainly composed of glucose and galactose, PPSP II was composed of glucose and had a typical absorption peak of ß-D-glucose chitosan pyranose, PPSP III was a glycoprotein showing a protein absorption peak. CONCLUSION: Four components were separated from PPSP successfully, among which PPSP II and PPSP III shows anti-tumor activities on Hela and HepG(2) cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos
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