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1.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is widely used in agriculture and forestry to prevent and control pests. The effects of environmental CAP residue on non-target insect metamorphosis development have not been reported. Our research aimed to investigate the sublethal effect of CAP on larvae-pupae transformation process in silkworm, and also explore the mechanism of sublethal CAP exposure mediated pupation metamorphosis defects. RESULT: Sublethal CAP exposure affected the growth and development of silkworm larvae and caused defects in pupation metamorphosis. After CAP exposure, the formation of prepupa procuticle, ecdysial membrane, and new epidermis was inhibited. Also, the level of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the mRNA levels of 20E signaling pathway related genes, EcR, USP, E74, E75 and Ftz-f1 were significantly reduced. Moreover, the genes involved in chitin synthesis, such as ChsA, CDA1 and CDA2, were down-regulated. Injection of 20E led to upregulation of the chitin synthesis-related genes and increased formation of new epidermis in CAP treated silkworm. However, the 20E injection failed to rescue the down-regulation of Ftz-f1 and the defects in pupation metamorphosis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that 20E is a target hormone of CAP exposure mediated epidermis formation phenotype. The Ftz-f1 was silenced by CAP and it might be a direct target gene of sublethal CAP exposure. Our study provided new evidences about the effects of sublethal CAP exposure on insect development and metamorphosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Nat Microbiol ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251370

RESUMO

Bacteria have evolved diverse mechanisms to fend off predation by bacteriophages. We previously identified the Dnd system, which uses DndABCDE to insert sulfur into the DNA backbone as a double-stranded phosphorothioate (PT) modification, and DndFGH, a restriction component. Here, we describe an unusual SspABCD-SspE PT system in Vibrio cyclitrophicus, Escherichia coli and Streptomyces yokosukanensis, which has distinct genetic organization, biochemical functions and phenotypic behaviour. SspABCD confers single-stranded and high-frequency PTs with SspB acting as a nickase and possibly introducing nicks to facilitate sulfur incorporation. Strikingly, SspABCD coupled with SspE provides protection against phages in unusual ways: (1) SspE senses sequence-specific PTs by virtue of its PT-stimulated NTPase activity to exert its anti-phage activity, and (2) SspE inhibits phage propagation by introducing nicking damage to impair phage DNA replication. These results not only expand our knowledge about the diversity and functions of DNA PT modification but also enhance our understanding of the known arsenal of defence systems.

3.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126438, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169693

RESUMO

Bombyx mori is an important economic insect. However, the environmental pollution caused by the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides has significantly affected the safe production of sericulture. In this paper, we determined the LC50 of acetamiprid, a kind of neonicotinoid insecticides, to 5th instar silkworm larvae, examined its residues in hemolymph and midgut of silkworm after continuous exposure to low-dose of acetamiprid, and investigated the transcription level of detoxifying-related genes and the activity of detoxifying enzymes. The results showed that acetamiprid was highly toxic (24-h LC50, 1.50 mg/L) to silkworm larvae. After continuous exposure to low-dose of acetamiprid (0.15 mg/L), the acetamiprid residue concentrations in hemolymph and midgut were 0.90 and 0.58 µg/mg, respectively, at 48 h, but all decreased at 96 h. At 24 h of acetamiprid exposure, the transcription levels of CYP4M5 and CYP6AB4 and the P450 enzyme activity were significantly enhanced. However, the transcription levels of CarE and CarE-11 and the activity of CarE enzymes were both inhibited by acetamiprid exposure. After 24 h-72 h of acetamiprid exposure, the transcription levels of GSTe3 and GSTd1 were significantly up-regulated, and the GST enzyme activity was also significantly elevated from 48 h to 96 h. Furthermore, the expression levels of FoxO, CncC and Keap1, the key upstream genes of detoxification enzymes, showed a similar trend as the GST genes. These results indicated that acetamiprid was reduced in midgut and the expression of GSTs was upregulated may via FoxO/CncC/Keap1 signaling pathway, which plays a key role in detoxification responses.

4.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of loading dose on micafungin by simulating different dosage regimens. METHODS: A published study of micafungin in ICU patients was employed to simulate nine different dosage regimens which were sorted out three groups in terms of three maintenance doses. Using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to simulate concentration-time profiles of micafungin, calculate probabilities of target attainment (PTAs), and cumulative fractions of response (CFRs) in terms of AUC/MIC targets. PTAs were calculated using AUC/MIC cut-offs: 285 (Candida parapsilosis), 3000 (all Candida spp.), and 5000 (non-parapsilosis Candida spp.). PTA or CFR > 90% was considered optimal for a dosage regimen. RESULTS: The concentration-time profiles of micafungin-simulated dosage regimens were obtained. PTA values were over 90% while applying the loading dose in each group of regimens: for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata (AUC/MIC = 5000), all regimens with loading dose provided PTAs of ≥ 90% for MIC ≤ 0.008 mg/L. The PTAs (AUC/MIC = 3000) were over 90% for MIC ≤ 0.008 mg/L in any regimen. However, for MIC inferior to 0.016 mg/L, only loading dosage regimens provided PTAs exceeding 90%. For C. parapsilosis (AUC/MIC = 285), the maximum MIC of achieving a PTA ≥ 90% was 0.25 mg/L both in the regimens of B (150 mg maintenance dose) and C (200 mg maintenance dose) with loading dose. In addition, CFR of any regimen with loading dose was ≥ 90% against C. albicans and C. glabrata. None of the dosage regimens achieved an expected CFR against C. parapsilosis. CONCLUSIONS: The dosage regimen of micafungin which had a loading dose of 1.5 times was more suitable for ICU patients infected by Candida spp.

5.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(1): e21664, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091635

RESUMO

The high-temperature stress gene GrpE plays an important role in coping with high-temperature stress. The mutation of key sites of this gene can improve the high-temperature resistance of organisms. In the present study, using complementary DNAs from the silkworm fat body as the template, the open reading frame sequence of the GrpE gene (BmGrpE) was amplified and was found to be 644 bp in length and encode a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 24.1 kDa. The presence of a binding site for the heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) at -1440 bp upstream of its coding region indicates that BmGrpE may respond to high-temperature stress. BmGrpE was constitutively expressed throughout developmental stages, with the highest level observed in the 5th instar larvae stage. Moreover, in 5th instar larvae (the 3th day), BmGrpE was expressed in all tissues examined, with the highest levels in the fat body, silk gland, and midgut. Interestingly, under high-temperature stress, TiO2 nanoparticle treatment increased the messenger RNA levels of BmGrpE in the fat body and silk gland. After treatment with dsRNA of BmGrpE, the cell viability of BmN cells was significantly decreased under 34°C and H2 O2 stress (p < .05). Mutation of BmGrpE (H163L) enhanced the resistance of BmN cells under high-temperature stress. These results provide new clues for the study of molecular mechanisms of insect resistance to high temperatures.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993902

RESUMO

Siderite is a naturally occurring mineral that can be found extensively in coal. The structural evolution of siderite in the process of coaling and its performance in the transformation of NO in the presence of NH3 were investigated in this work. In addition, the effects of the coexisting component, including vapor, SO2, and the alkali metal K, were also discussed. Heat treatment was performed at 450, 500, 550, 600, and 700 °C to obtain siderite-derived α-Fe2O3, which was then evaluated in de-NOx via the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 in a fixed bed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET), the X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to investigate the variations in the morphology and structure of the thermally treated siderite. The results showed that siderite was gradually oxidized and decomposed into α-Fe2O3 with a nanoporous structure and large surface area of 27.27 m2 g-1 after calcination under an air atmosphere. The α-Fe2O3 derived from siderite at 500 °C (H500) exhibited an excellent SCR performance, where the NO conversion rate was great than 90% between 250 and 300 °C due to the pore structure and high specific surface area, additional adsorbed oxygen states, abundant oligomeric Fe oxide clusters, and large amount of acid sites. Regardless of the vapor content, SO2 concentration, and reaction temperature, the α-Fe2O3 derived from siderite at 500 °C (H500) still favored the conversion of NO. When the reaction temperature was lower than 350 °C, H500 favored the conversion of NO even in the presence of an alkali metal (K). The experimental data demonstrated the positive effect of siderite-derived α-Fe2O3 in SCR technology and provided insight into NO behavior in coaling flue gas after NH3 injection.

7.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(2): 289-309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919614

RESUMO

Haemaphysalis longicornis is an ixodid tick that can spread a wide variety of pathogens, affecting humans, livestock and wildlife health. The high reproductive capability of this species is initiated by the ingestion of a large amount of blood ingested by the engorged female tick. The degree of ovarian development is proportional to the number of eggs laid. Studying the regulatory mechanism of tick ovary development is relevant for the development of novel tick control methods. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics to study the dynamic changes in protein expression and protein phosphorylation during ovarian development of engorged female H. longicornis ticks. Synergistic action of many proteins (n = 3031) is required to achieve ovarian development and oocyte formation rapidly. Through bioinformatics analysis, changes in protein expressions and phosphorylation modifications in regulating the ovarian development of female ticks are described. Many proteins play an essential role during ovarian development. Also, protein phosphorylation appeared an important reproductive strategy to enable ticks to efficiently convert large amounts of blood in the ovaries into egg-producing components and ultimately produce many eggs.

8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110011, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796255

RESUMO

Organophosphate pesticides are widely applied worldwide for agricultural purposes, and their exposures often result in adverse effects on Bombyx mori. The insect gut is a complicated ecosystem inhabited by a large number of microbes that play important roles in insect physiology and behavior. Recent studies have reported that alteration of their microbiota due to stressful conditions or environmental changes has been linked to a compromised health status and a susceptibility to diseases. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effects of phoxim exposure on intestinal microbes in silkworms. The results showed that phoxim exposure increased the bacterial community evenness and altered the structure of gut microbiota in silkworm larvae. The abundances of several genera, such as Methylobacterium and Aurantimonadaceae, in phoxim-treated larval guts were significantly reduced compared with the H2O-treated group, whereas the abundances of non-dominant bacteria, such as Staphylococcus, were significantly increased. Moreover, phoxim inhibited the expressions of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) at the mRNA level and enhanced the pathogenesis of Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) against silkworm larvae, suggesting that the immune system was inhibited after phoxim exposure. Therefore, the gut microbial community shifts were apparent after phoxim exposure. The compositional and structural changes of intestinal microbes caused by phoxim exposure might affect the normal function of the intestinal tract of silkworm. These results highlighted the importance of the gut bacterial community when investigating the mechanisms of midgut injury after pesticide exposure in Bombyx mori.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135604, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771849

RESUMO

Novel iron/carbon composites were successfully prepared via coupling of cellulose with iron oxides (e.g. α-FeOOH, Fe2O3 and Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) at different temperatures under nitrogen atmosphere. Characterization by various techniques implied that chemical interaction between cellulose and Fe3O4/Fe0 existed in the as-prepared iron/carbon composites. The site of interaction between cellulose and iron precursors was illustrated (mainly combined with COO-). The self-reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ or even Fe0 and the interaction between carbon and Fe3O4/Fe0 in the calcination process realized the strong magnetism of the composites. Batch experiments and spectroscopic techniques indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of MHC-7 for U(VI) (105.3 mg/g) was significantly higher than that of MGC-7 (86.0 mg/g) and MFC-7 (79.0 mg/g), indicating that Fe2O3 can be regarded as the remarkable iron resource for the iron/carbon composites. XPS results revealed that the oxygen-containing groups were responsible for the adsorption process of U(VI) on iron/carbon composites, and the adsorption of carbon and reduction of Fe0/Fe3O4 toward U(VI) were synergistic during the reaction process. In addition, the iron/carbon composites exhibited a good recyclability, recoverability and stability for U(VI) adsorption in the regeneration experiments. These findings demonstrated that the iron/carbon composites can be considered as valuable adsorbents in environmental cleanup and the Fe2O3 was a promising iron resource for the preparation of iron/carbon composites.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Ferro/química , Urânio/química , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/química , Adsorção , Carbono , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Compostos Férricos/química , Nitrogênio
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135273, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806321

RESUMO

The widespread use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential impact of nanoparticles on human health and the natural environment. Although high doses of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are toxic to animals, low doses of TiO2 NPs have been shown to benefit their growth and immune functions. Intestinal microorganisms are critical in maintaining the normal life activities and ensuring the health of their host. The intestinal microorganisms of lepidopteran insects can promote growth and development, foster insecticide resistance, and improve resilience against diseases. However, to date, there is no report on the effects of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal microbiota of lepidopteran insects. In this work, we examined the effects of a low dose of TiO2 NPs (5 mg/L) on the intestinal microbiota of silkworm (Bombyx mori). The results showed that the exposure to TiO2 NPs did not alter the dominant species of intestinal microbiota significantly, but changed the abundance of individual species of intestinal microorganisms. Specifically, exposure to TiO2 NPs increased the uniformity of intestinal microorganisms. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, involved in the metabolism of nutrients, as well as the abundance of Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas, both involved in detoxification and disease resistance, was increased. Meanwhile, among the non-dominant species, the conditional pathogenic bacteria Serratia exhibited decreased abundance. In addition, exposure to TiO2 NPs also increased the abundance of norank_f_Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, which could help relieve inflammation and regulate immune functions. The current study is the first to report the effects of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal microbiota of lepidopteran insects. The results demonstrated that TiO2 NPs could alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota of B. mori, and thus promote its growth and development, regulate its immune functions, and enhance its resistance to insecticide.


Assuntos
Bombyx/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos , Inseticidas , Larva
11.
Xenobiotica ; 50(2): 186-191, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995884

RESUMO

1. There are still no studies examining the relationship between body composition and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in liver transplantation recipients. We aimed to investigate the influence of body composition on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in liver transplantation recipients.2. Body composition was measured in 80 patients who underwent liver transplantation at Tianjin First Central Hospital, China, between 2015 and 2018. Blood concentrations of tacrolimus were collected from therapeutic drug monitoring data. Pharmacokinetic model fitting and Bayesian estimation were performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) and SPSS was used to examine the effect of body composition on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics.3. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) and clearance (CL/F) of tacrolimus were 179 L and 15.4 L/h, respectively. In liver transplantation recipients with percentage body fat (PBF) ≥ 30%, the apparent V/F of tacrolimus is lower than that in liver transplantation recipients with PBF < 30% at 1 week after liver transplantation.4. The new finding is important due to the severe adverse effects of tacrolimus. In clinical practice, an effective dosage adjustment of tacrolimus may need to be considered in patients with PBF ≥ 30% at 1 week after liver transplantation.

12.
Plant J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692131

RESUMO

Chromosome painting is a powerful technique for chromosome and genome studies. We developed a flexible chromosome painting technique based on multiplex PCR of a synthetic oligonucleotide (oligo) library in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., 2n = 14). Each oligo in the library was associated with a universal as well as nested specific primers for amplification, which allow the generation of different probes from the same oligo library. We were also able to generate double-stranded labelled oligos, which produced much stronger signals than single-stranded labelled oligos, by amplification using fluorophore-conjugated primer pairs. Oligos covering cucumber chromosome 1 (Chr1) and chromosome 4 (Chr4) consisting of eight segments were synthesized in one library. Different oligo probes generated from the library painted the corresponding chromosomes/segments unambiguously, especially on pachytene chromosomes. This technique was then applied to study the homoeologous relationships among cucumber, C. hystrix and C. melo chromosomes based on cross-species chromosome painting using Chr4 probes. We demonstrated that the probe was feasible to detect interspecies chromosome homoeologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangement events. Based on its advantages and great convenience, we anticipate that this flexible oligo-painting technique has great potential for the studies of the structure, organization, and evolution of chromosomes in any species with a sequenced genome.

13.
Oral Oncol ; 98: 92-95, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574415

RESUMO

Lin28, a highly conserved RNA-binding protein, plays an important role in differentiation, metabolism, proliferation, pluripotency, and tumourigenicity. Lin28 overexpression promotes tumour-cell proliferation and metastasis in various human cancers, including head and neck cancer. Multiple studies demonstrate that Lin28 critically contributes to anti-tumour immunity and production of cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Thus, Lin28 has potential application in HNSCC treatment.

14.
J Org Chem ; 84(19): 12617-12625, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525974

RESUMO

A divergent synthesis of Z-iodovinylfurans and 2-acyl furans promoted by NIS via controllable cyclization of ynenones is reported. The reaction proceeded by sequential 5-exo-dig electrophilic cyclization to intermediate 2-(iodomethylene)-2H-furanium cation D, providing a range of synthetically valuable and useful trisubstituted furan derivatives 2 and 3 in moderate to excellent yields. This approach is metal-free, mild, and atom-economic, with good selectivity and high stereoselectivity.

15.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(8): 903-912, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392633

RESUMO

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economic insect of the Lepidoptera. Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) exposure results in reduced growth and development of B. mori and failure in cocooning, seriously affecting the development of sericulture. To study the mechanisms underlying the damage to silkworm caused by sublethal doses of CAP, we examined the oxidative damage, the activities of digestive enzymes in midgut, and the expressions of midgut-related genes at the mRNA level. We found that CAP exposure inhibited the growth of silkworm, decreased the body mass and caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [the levels of O2-, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were increased by 1.62-, 1.87- and 1.46-fold, respectively]. Moreover, we also found that the midgut cells were disintegrated, microvilli disappeared, the stroma became thinner, and the chromatin of nucleus became aggregated after CAP exposure by the analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the activities of digestive enzymes were dysregulated in midgut (the activities of α-amylase and trypsin were decreased 0.69- and 0.20-fold, respectively). Furthermore, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analysis revealed that the expressions of oxidative phosphorylation pathway and antioxidant defense system related genes in midgut were decreased, indicating that it was the oxidative damage in midgut caused by CAP that mainly affected the growth of silkworm, rather than the toxicological effects of CAP. Collectively, this study provided valuable insights into the toxic effects of CAP on insects.


Assuntos
Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , ortoaminobenzoatos/toxicidade , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Front Oncol ; 9: 555, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293980

RESUMO

Purpose: Primary spinal Ewing sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (pPNETs) are extremely rare, and the current understanding of these tumors is poor. The authors aimed to illustrate the clinical characteristics of primary spinal ES/pPNETs and to discuss prognostic factors by survival analysis. Methods: A total of 40 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with primary spinal ES/pPNETs between 2000 and 2018 were enrolled in this study. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method to identify potential prognostic factors. Factors of p ≤ 0.1 in the Log-rank tests were subjected to multivariate analysis by Cox regression analysis. Results: The mean follow-up period was 23.8 (range, 2-93) months, and 24 (60.0%) patients had local recurrence and 11 (27.5%) patients had distant metastasis. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year PFS rates were 57.7, 30.4, and 9.5%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates were 74.8, 50.7, and 12.2%, respectively. The univariate analysis suggested that resection mode, postoperative Frankel score, adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy were potential prognostic factors for OS and PFS. However, after these factors were subjected to multivariate analyses, only adjuvant radiotherapy and resection mode remained as independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: Total en bloc resection can significantly improve PFS for primary spinal ES/pPNETs and adjuvant radiotherapy was a favorable factor for PFS. Total en bloc resection and adjuvant radiotherapy considerably improve OS for patients with primary spinal ES/pPNETs.

18.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 247, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286321

RESUMO

We aim to describe the influence of principal ingredients of Wuzhi capsule, schisandrin A (SIA) and schisantherin A (STA), on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A (CsA) and to quantify the herb-drug interactions (HDIs) between SIA, STA, and CsA. CsA is a first-line immunosuppressant for anti-rejection therapy after solid organ transplantation, while narrow therapeutic window associated with strong hepatotoxicity largely limited its use. Wuzhi capsule, a liver-protective drug, was approved for coadministration with CsA to reduce the hepatotoxicity. There are few studies exploring HDIs of CsA when coadministered with Wuzhi capsule. The essential adjusted physicochemical data and pharmacokinetic parameters of SIA, STA, and CsA were collected. Then physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of SIA, STA, and CsA were built and verified in healthy subjects using Simcyp respectively. The refined PBPK models were used to estimate potential HDIs between CsA and SIA, STA. The simulated plasma concentration-time curves of CsA, SIA, and STA were in good accordance with the observed profiles respectively. CsA pharmacokinetics were improved after coadministration. After a single dose and multiple doses, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of CsA was increased by 47% and 226% when coadministered with STA, respectively, and by 8% and 36% when coadministered with SIA, respectively. PBPK models sufficiently described the pharmacokinetics of CsA, SIA, and STA. Compared with SIA, STA inhibited CsA metabolism to a greater extent. Our result revealed the dose of CsA can be reduced to maintain similar profile when used concomitantly with Wuzhi capsule.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclosporina/farmacocinética , Dioxóis/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Compostos Policíclicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Dioxóis/química , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/química , Masculino , Compostos Policíclicos/química
19.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 585-592, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195314

RESUMO

The search for effective alternatives to traditional antibiotics to avoid antibiotic resistant bacteria is growing worldwide. ZnO nanoparticles are found to effectively inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and ZnO-based layered double hydroxides (ZnO-based LDHs) have been intensively investigated for this purpose. However, the nanocomposites are made in a multi-step preparation process with severe agglomeration and limited bactericidal ability. In this research, ZnO-dotted nanohybrids using Zn3Al-LDHs as precursors (ZnO-dotted LDHs or ZnO/LDHs) were synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. An understanding of the transformation of the LDH precursors to the ZnO/LDHs was conducted with TEM/HRTEM/XRD/FTIR. ZnO/LDHs can be transformed from ZnAl-LDHs, with more ZnO nanodots generated upon heating at 150 and 200 °C for 2 h (Zn3Al-150, Zn3Al-200). Zn3Al-200 nanohybrids showed potent antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at 100-300 µg/mL for 4 days. Antibacterial activity of Zn3Al-200 may be attributed to the synergistic effects (ROS, leached Zn2+ and physical interaction). This research thus suggests a potential economic approach to prepare ZnO/LDH nanocomposites for avoiding the antibiotic resistant bacteria in environmental engineering or clinic fields.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Nanocompostos/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Alumínio/química , Alumínio/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Hidróxidos/química , Hidróxidos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Zinco/química , Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 514(4): 1045-1050, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097226

RESUMO

Global warming is known to affect the growth, development and reproduction of insects. In this study, the larvae developmental process and endogenous hormone levels under high temperature (36 °C) stress were investigated in the lepidopteran model insect Bombyx mori (B. mori). After high temperature treatment, the duration of 5th instar larvae was shortened by 28 ±â€¯2 h, the content of 20-hydroxyecdysone(20E) in hemolymph was significantly increased, and the transcription levels of the 20E response genes E93, Br-C, USP and E75 were up-regulated by 1.35-, 1.25-, 1.28-, and 1.27-fold, respectively. High temperature treatment also elevated the phosphorylation level of Akt and activated the downstream BmCncC/keap1 pathway, and the transcription levels of the 20E synthesis-related genes cyp302a1, cyp306a1, cyp314a1 and cyp315a1 were up-regulated by 1.12-, 1.51-, 2.17- and 1.23-fold, respectively. The transcription levels of cyp302a1 and cyp306a1 were significantly decreased in BmN cells after treatment with the double stranded RNA of BmCncC (dsBmCncC), whereas their transcription levels were significantly increased (2.15- and 1.31-fold, respectively) after treatment with the CncC agonist Curcumin. These results demonstrated that high temperature treatment promoted the metamorphosis and the BmCncC/keap1 pathway played a role in the metamorphosis of B. mori. Our results provided clues for understanding the CncC/keap1 pathway-mediated regulation of metamorphosis of Lepidopteran insects.

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