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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150381, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818786

RESUMO

Suspended sediments in the estuary play an important role in regulating the erosion-accretion and shaping the geomorphological patterns. Yet, it can be strongly impacted by the human activities. Constructions of basin and estuarine engineering in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), including constructions of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) further upstream of the Yangtze River and Deep Waterway Project (DWP) in the estuary, have greatly modified the distribution of estuarine suspended sediment concentration (SSC). In this study, we retrieved the surface water SSC in the YRE from a total of 149 Landsat-TM/ETM+/OLI images (from 1984 to 2020) and 515 GOCI images (from 2011 to 2020) to obtain its long-term dynamics. The results indicate that the SSC estimation model performed well with a mean absolute percentage error of 12.83% and a root mean square error of 0.027 g/L. The SSC in the YRE demonstrated an overall declining pattern over the past 37 years, particularly during the flood season, which was related to the decrease in the sediment discharge of Yangtze River. The SSC in different sub-regions across the entire YRE responded differently to the reduced sediment discharge caused by the impoundment of the TGD. The SSC in the inner estuary responded promptly with a 40.3% decline noted immediately after the impoundment of the TGD, whereas hysteresis of SSC changes was found in the estuarine turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and have begun to decline by 20.0-30.0% in the recent 5 years. Constructions of local estuarine engineering, such as the DWP also exert important controls on the estuarine SSC dynamics by blocking the lateral transport of suspended sediments between the shoal and the river channel. Our results highlight the strong influence of engineering constructions on the SSC dynamics in the world large river-influenced estuaries.

2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131747, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358893

RESUMO

Pyrimidine and purine bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) are important precursors of organic chloramines (OC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlor(am)ination. In this study, OC and DBP formation derived from pyrimidine and purine bases during chlor(am)ination, post-chlor(am)ination after pretreated by UV alone and UV/chlorination were systematically investigated with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs, 265 and 275 nm) and low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV, 254 nm). The results revealed that higher OC formation was observed during chlorination than that during chloramination of pyrimidine and purine bases. The degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Both solution pH and UV wavelength played vital influence on the degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases. In terms of fluence-based rate constants (kobs), the degradation rates of pyrimidine and purine bases decreased in the order of 275 nm > 265 nm > 254 nm in alkaline conditions. The synergistic effects of kobs, chlorine,kobs, •OH and kobs, RCS contributed to the differences of pyrimidine and purine bases degradation at different pH values and UV wavelengths. A vital suppression of OC formation was observed during post-chlorination after pretreated by 275 nm UV-LED/chlorination. In addition, compared with LPUV (254 nm), less DBP formation was observed at UV-LED (275 nm), especially during the UV/chlorine process. The phenomena obtained in this study indicated that 275 nm UV-LED combined with chlorine could be a preferred method to promote pyrimidine and purine bases degradation and control OC and DBP formation in practical water treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Zootaxa ; 5057(1): 145-150, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811216

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Sweltsa Ricker, 1943 from Zhejiang Province, China are described and compared with similar species. The new species are Swelsta bicurvata Li, W.L. Li, W.H. sp. nov. and Sweltsa zhejiangensis Li, W.H. Wang, sp. nov.


Assuntos
Insetos , Neópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595700

RESUMO

Activated coke-based catalysts have attracted extensive attention in denitration by selective catalytic reduction by NH3 (NH3-SCR), due to their excellent catalytic performance at low temperature. In the paper, the V2O5/AC catalyst was prepared by the impregnation method to investigate the effect of pre-oxidation process on its NH3-SCR activity. Activity test results show that the V2O5/AC catalyst with 4-h pre-oxidation exhibits the best NOx removal efficiency, which reaches the NOx conversion is over 75% in the range of 200-240 °C and exhibits an excellent resistance to SO2 and H2O. Characterization results demonstrate that the V4+ was oxidized by oxygen molecule during pre-oxidation process, which contributes to the formation of V5+ ions and surface-active oxygen species. The surface-active oxygen species are conducive to promoting the "fast SCR" reaction; thus, the pre-oxidized process can contribute to the superior NH3-SCR performance for V2O5/AC catalyst at low temperature.

5.
Ecol Evol ; 11(20): 13898-13911, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707826

RESUMO

Understanding connectivity over different spatial and temporal scales is fundamental for managing of ecological systems. However, controversy exists for wintertime ecological connectivity between the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and inner southwestern Yellow Sea. Here, we investigated ecological connectivity between the YRE and inner southwestern Yellow Sea in wintertime by precisely pinpointing the source of the newly colonized populations of a winter-spawning rocky intertidal invertebrate, Littorina brevicula (Philippi, 1844), on artificial structures along the coast of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) using mitochondrial ND6 sequences and microsatellite data. Clear phylogeographic and genetic differentiation were detected between natural rocky populations south and north of the YRE, which resulted from the lack of hard substrate for rocky invertebrates in the large YRD coast. For the newly colonized populations on the coast of YRD, most individuals (98%) to the south of ~33.5°N were from natural rocky populations to the south of the YRE and most of those (94%) to the north of ~33.5°N were from the northern natural rocky populations, which demonstrated strong ecological connectivity between the inner southwestern Yellow Sea and the YRE in winter time. We presented the first genetic evidence that demonstrated a northward wintertime coastal current in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, and precisely illustrated the boundary of the coastal current recently proposed by numerical experiment. These results indicated that the YRE serves as an important source of materials and energy for the inner southwestern Yellow Sea in winter, which can be crucial for the function of the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578057

RESUMO

Copolymers containing MQ silicone and acrylate were synthesized by controlling the additive amount of compositions. Subsequently, fouling release coatings based on the copolymer with the incorporation of non-reactive phenylmethylsilicone oil were prepared. The surface properties of the coating (CAMQ40) were consistent with that of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer, which ensured good hydrophobicity. Moreover, the seawater volume swelling rate of all prepared coatings was less than 5%, especially for CAMQ40 with only 1.37%. Copolymers enhanced the mechanical properties of the coatings, while the enhancement was proportional to the molar content of structural units from acrylate in the copolymer. More importantly, the adhesion performance between the prepared coatings and substrates indicated that pull-off strength values were more than 1.6 MPa, meaning a high adhesion strength. The phenylmethylsilicone oil leaching observation determined that the oil leaching efficiency increased with the increase in the structural unit's molar content from MQ silicone in the copolymer, which was mainly owing to the decrease in compatibility between oil and the cured coating, as well as the decrease in mechanical properties. High oil leaching efficiency could make up for the decrease in the biofouling removal rate due to the enhancement of the elastic modulus. For CAMQ40, it had an excellent antifouling performance at 30 days of exposure time with more than 92% of biofouling removal rate, which was confirmed by biofilm adhesion assay.

7.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553308

RESUMO

Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a clinical condition that specifically occurs in the oral cavity, characterized by retarded wound healing in oral mucosa accelerating the exposure of bone. Moreover, the pathological mechanism remains poorly understood. Gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) play a critical role in gingival healing and soft tissue regeneration. Although previous studies have showed that bisphosphonates (BPs) are highly toxic to healthy GMSC, there is overall lack of direct evidence demonstrating the characterization of GMSCs derived from BRONJ patients. In present study, we isolated GMSCs for the first time from the central area of BRONJ patients' gingiva (center-BRONJ GMSCs) and the peripheral area (peri-BRONJ GMSCs), and found that they exhibited decreased proliferation, adhesion, migration capacities and underwent early apoptosis in vitro compared control GMSCs. Notably, the central and peripheral BRONJ GMSCs transplantation in a mice excisional skin model also displayed lower cell survival rate and poor healing effects than that of controls. Mechanistically, TGF-ß1 signaling pathway was suppressed not only in BRONJ patients' gingival lesions but also in BRONJ GMSCs transplantation animal model. The results above suggested that under the microenvironment of BRONJ patients, the dysfunction of GMSCs and the suppressed TGF-ß1 signaling pathway may be the vital factors in impaired gingival healing, thus contributing to persistent exposure of underlying bone and development of BRONJ. This study provides new insights into the prevention for BRONJ by improving the functions of GMSCs and upregulating TGF-ß1 in accelerating gingival wound healing. Schematic illustration of the dysfunction of BRONJ GMSCs in vitro and BRONJ GMSCs transplantation in a mice skin model delaying cutaneous wound healing mainly via suppressing TGF-ß1 signaling pathway.

8.
Retina ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the screening potential of a deep learning algorithm derived severity score by determining its ability to detect clinically significant severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Fundus photographs were collected, and standard panel diagnosis was generated for each examination by combining 3 independent image-based gradings. All images were analyzed using a deep learning algorithm and a quantitative assessment of retinal vascular abnormality (DeepROP score) were assigned on a 1-100 scale. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) and distribution pattern of all diagnostic parameters and categories of ROP were analyzed. The correlation between the DeepROP score and expert rank ordering according to overall ROP severity of 50 examinations was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9882 individual examinations with 54626 images from 2801 infants were analyzed. 56 (0.6%) examinations demonstrated type 1 ROP, 54 (0.5%) examinations demonstrated type 2 ROP. The DeepROP score had an AUROC of 0.981 for detecting type 1 ROP and 0.986 for type 2 ROP. There was a statistically significant correlation between the expert rank ordering of overall disease severity and the DeepROP score (correlation coefficient 0.758, p<0.001). When hypothetical referral cut-off score of 35 was selected, all cases of severe ROP (type 1 and type 2 ROP) was captured, 8562 (87.6%) eyes with no or mild ROP were excluded. CONCLUSION: The DeepROP score determined by deep learning algorithm was an objective and quantitative indicator for the severity of ROP, and it had potential in automated detecting clinically significant severe ROP.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 570: 15-20, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271431

RESUMO

Glutamate dehydrogenase 3 from Candida albicans (CaGdh3) catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate, playing an important role in the yeast-to-hyphal transition of C. albicans. Here we report the crystal structures of CaGdh3 and its complex with α-ketoglutarate and NADPH. CaGdh3 exists as a hexamer, with each subunit containing two domains. The substrate and coenzyme bind in the cleft between the two domains and their binding induces a conformational change in CaGdh3. Our results will help to understand the catalytic mechanism of CaGdh3 and will provide a structural basis for the design of antifungal drugs targeting the CaGdh3 pathway.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Glutamato Desidrogenase/química , Domínio Catalítico , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , NADP/química , NADP/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Soluções , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Front Genet ; 12: 699342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249110

RESUMO

Due to soil changes, high density planting, and the use of straw-returning methods, wheat common root rot (spot blotch), Fusarium crown rot (FCR), and sharp eyespot (sheath blight) have become severe threats to global wheat production. Only a few wheat genotypes show moderate resistance to these root and crown rot fungal diseases, and the genetic determinants of wheat resistance to these devastating diseases are poorly understood. This review summarizes recent results of genetic studies of wheat resistance to common root rot, Fusarium crown rot, and sharp eyespot. Wheat germplasm with relatively higher resistance are highlighted and genetic loci controlling the resistance to each disease are summarized.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observationally plasma apolipoprotein E (apoE) is positively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD). A Mendelian randomization (MR) study suggesting apoE is unrelated to cardiovascular mortality did not consider specific isoforms. We used MR to obtain estimates of plasma apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 on IHD, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B (apoB). METHODS: We obtained independent genetic instruments from proteome genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and applied them to large outcome GWAS. We used univariable MR to assess the role of each isoform and multivariable MR to assess direct effects. RESULTS: In univariable MR, apoE4 was positively associated with IHD (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09), but apoE2 and apoE3 were less clearly associated. Using multivariable MR an association of apoE2 with IHD (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.38) could not be excluded, and associations of apoE3 and apoE4 with IHD were not obvious. In univariable MR, apoE2 and apoE4 were positively associated with apoB, and a positive association of apoE2 with LDL cholesterol could not be excluded. Using multivariable MR apoE2 was positively associated with LDL cholesterol, and associations with apoB could not be excluded. After adjusting for apoB, no direct effects of apoE isoforms on IHD were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma apoE2 and apoE4 may play a role in lipid modulation and IHD. Whether apoE could be a potential therapeutic target requires further clarification when larger genetic studies of apoE isoforms are available.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Adulto , Apolipoproteína E2/sangue , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/sangue , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/sangue , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isoformas de Proteínas , Triglicerídeos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113037, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216899

RESUMO

Successful implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires world countries to account for actions that inadvertently generate negative impacts on other countries. These actions/effects are called 'spillovers', and can hinder a country's SDG progress. In this work, we analyse negative social spillover effects, focussing specifically on the occupational health and safety aspects of workers in textile supply chains. We select two indicators: fatal accidents and non-fatal accidents that take place in global supply chains for satisfying consumption of textile products (such as clothing, leather products) by European Union (EU) countries. Specifically, we scan global supply chains originating in countries outside of EU for meeting the demands of its citizens. To this end, we employ a well-established technique of multi-regional input-output analysis, featuring information on 15,000 sectors for 189 countries, to scan international supply chain routes that are linked to consumption of textile products by EU countries. Our findings suggest that Italy, Germany, France, Spain, Poland, Belgium and Portugal are collectively responsible for about 80% of both fatal- and non-fatal accidents that are attributed to the EU's consumption-based footprint. These findings not only call for a need for coherent SDG policies that consider spillover effects, but also the need for these effects to be included in EU's strategic instruments and policy-related tools.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Têxteis , Bélgica , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Polônia , Portugal , Espanha
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12288, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112861

RESUMO

During late 2019 and early 2020, Australia experienced one of the most active bushfire seasons that advected large emissions over the adjacent ocean. Herein, we present a comprehensive research on mixed atmospheric aerosol particulate pollution emitted by wildfires in the atmosphere and the ocean. Based on a wide range of physical and biochemical data, including the Aerosol Robotic Network, multi-satellite observations, and Argo floats, we investigated the spatio-temporal variations and mixed compositions of aerosol particles, deposition in the coastal waters of eastern Australia and the South Pacific Ocean, and biogeochemical responses in the water column. Four types of wildfire-derived mixed particles were classified by using the optical properties of aerosols into four types, including the background aerosols, mineral dust, wildfire smoke particles, and residual smoke. The coarse particles accounted for more than 60% of the mineral dust on 22 November 2019 in the Tasman Sea; afterwards, during the wildfire smoke episode from December 2019 to January 2020, the particles affected large areas of the atmosphere such as eastern Australia, the South Pacific Ocean, and South America. The maximum value of the aerosol optical depth reached 2.74, and the proportion of fine particles accounted for 98.9% in the smoke episode. Mineral dust and smoke particles from the fire emissions changed the particle composition in the surface ocean. Particle deposition accounted for increases in chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) standardized anomaly up to maximum of 23.3 with a lag time of less than 8 days. In the vertical direction, float observations showed the impact of exogenous particles on the water column could up to 64.7 m deep, resulting in Chla of 1.85 mg/m3. The high Chla lasted for a minimum period of two months until it returned to normal level.

14.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 439, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-BOX (BBX) proteins are zinc-finger transcription factors with one or two BBX domains and sometimes a CCT domain. These proteins play an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in resisting abiotic stress. So far, the BBX gene family has been widely studied in other crops. However, no one has systematically studied the BBX gene in cotton. RESULTS: In the present study, 17, 18, 37 and 33 BBX genes were detected in Gossypium arboreum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, respectively, via genome-wide identification. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all BBX genes were divided into 5 main categories. The protein motifs and exon/intron structures showed that each group of BBX genes was highly conserved. Collinearity analysis revealed that the amplification of BBX gene family in Gossypium spp. was mainly through segmental replication. Nonsynonymous (Ka)/ synonymous (Ks) substitution ratios indicated that the BBX gene family had undergone purification selection throughout the long-term natural selection process. Moreover, transcriptomic data showed that some GhBBX genes were highly expressed in floral organs. The qRT-PCR results showed that there were significant differences in GhBBX genes in leaves and shoot apexes between early-maturing materials and late-maturing materials at most periods. Yeast two-hybrid results showed that GhBBX5/GhBBX23 and GhBBX8/GhBBX26 might interact with GhFT. Transcriptome data analysis and qRT-PCR verification showed that different GhBBX genes had different biological functions in abiotic stress and phytohormone response. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive analysis of BBX in G. hirsutum provided a basis for further study on the molecular role of GhBBXs in regulating flowering and cotton resistance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Front Genet ; 12: 680646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163532

RESUMO

Background: Immune system functioning is relevant to vulnerability to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Cytokines are important to immunity. To further elucidate the role of the immune system in COVID-19, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess comprehensively and bi-directionally the role of cytokines in COVID-19. Methods: We assessed primarily whether genetically different levels of 41 cytokines affected risk of any COVID-19 (laboratory confirmed, physician confirmed or self-reported, 36,590 cases, 1,668,938 controls), and conversely if genetic risk of liability to any COVID-19 affected these cytokines (n ≤ 8293) using the most recent genome-wide association studies. We obtained inverse variance weighting (IVW) estimates, conducted sensitivity analyses and used a Benjamini-Hochberg correction to account for multiple comparisons. We also assessed whether any findings were evident for hospitalized COVID-19 (hospitalized laboratory confirmed, 12,888 cases, 1,295,966 controls). Results: Macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP1b; more commonly known as Chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 4 (CCL4) was inversely associated with COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 0.97 per SD, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.99] but not after adjustment for multiple comparisons. This finding replicated for hospitalized COVID-19 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98). Liability to any COVID-19 was nominally associated with several cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) but not after correction. Conclusion: A crucial element of immune response to infection (CCL4) was related to COVID-19, whether it is a target of intervention to prevent COVID-19 warrants further investigation.

16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 593109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987158

RESUMO

Background: A large number of people contracted moderate-type COVID-19 around the world. However, to our knowledge no studies have covered the clinical course of patients with moderate-type COVID-19. This study describes the clinical course of moderate-type patients with COVID-19 from Wuhan City and Yiyang City, and explores factors relevant to the length of hospitalization and symptoms relief. Methods: The study analyzed the clinical course of 107 moderate-type patients with COVID-19 from the outbreak area (Wuhan) and the imported area (Yiyang), and used automatic linear modeling and multivariate linear regression analysis to explore the factors relevant to the length of hospitalization and symptoms relief. Furthermore, we created a scoring system to value the length of hospitalization and symptoms relief. Results: Lymphopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, increased LDH, bilateral lung GGO (ground glass opacity), and lung consolidation were more likely to appear in ordinary inpatients with moderate-type COVID-19 from Wuhan (P < 0.05), compared to infected medical staff from Wuhan and ordinary inpatients with moderate-type COVID-19 from Yiyang. Meanwhile, the length of hospitalization and symptoms relief was longer in ordinary patients with moderate-type COVID-19 from Wuhan (P < 0.05). Onset of symptoms to admission, ESR, leucocytes count, and bilateral lung GGO were linearly related to the length of hospitalization (P < 0.05); onset of symptoms to admission, leucocytes count, bilateral lung GGO, and lung consolidation were linearly related to the length of symptoms relief (P < 0.05). By using the scoring system, we found that the time of hospitalization and symptoms relief lengthened as the scores increased. Conclusions: This study described the clinical course of patients with moderate-type COVID-19, and found that ordinary patients with moderate-type COVID-19 in outbreak areas were more serious and needed stronger treatment and longer treatment time. Onset of symptoms to admission, ESR, leucocytes count, and bilateral lung GGO can be effective predictors of the length of hospitalization. And onset of symptoms to admission, leucocytes count, bilateral lung GGO, and lung consolidation can be effective predictors of the amount of time until symptoms relief. Most importantly, we have created a scoring system, which could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2001010, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861503

RESUMO

In the present study, a novel cold water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LGP) with the average molecular weight of 1.78×106  Da was extracted and purified from Leucopaxillus giganteus and its primary structure as well as in vivo antitumor activity was evaluated. The monosaccharide composition of LGP was determined by ion chromatography to be galactose, xylose, glucose and fucose in a molar ratio of 2.568 : 1.209 : 1 : 0.853. Its backbone was composed of α-D-Glu, α-D-Xyl, α-D-Gal and α-L-Fuc. The results of in vivo antitumor experiment demonstrated that LGP could effectively protect immune organs, has excellent antitumor activity, and inhibit the proliferation of H22 solid tumors in a dose-dependent manner. By analyzing Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential detection assay, we concluded that LGP induced apoptosis of H22 cells via S phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Our results could provide valuable information for the potential application of LGP as an anti-hepatoma agent.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Água/química
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(10): 2209-2216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859529

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) severely impairs patients' quality of life and is remarkably refractory to treatment. There are lots of studies about identification of the radiographic features of MRONJ, yet reports about quantitative radiographic analysis for the risk assessment of the severity and recurrence of MRONJ are rarely heard. The aim of this study was to investigate the volumes of osteolytic lesions and radiodensity values of osteosclerotic lesions in MRONJ patients by using ITK-SNAP for severity prediction and prognosis evaluation. Materials and methods: Of 78 MRONJ patients (78 lesions) involved in this retrospective study, 53 were presented as osteolytic lesions and 25 were presented as osteosclerotic changes alone. Comprehensive CBCT images, demographics and clinical data of patients were investigated. The volumetric analysis and radiodensity measurement were performed by ITK-SNAP. SPSS 25.0 were used for statistical analysis. Results: The osteolytic lesion volumes in MRONJ patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates (P=0.004) and patients without osteoporosis (P=0.027) were significantly large. No significant correlation between the volumes and bisphosphonates duration was found (P=0.094). The radiodensity values of osteosclerotic lesions was significantly correlated with bisphosphonates duration (P=0.040). The surrounding area of post-surgical lesions in MRONJ patients with recurrence showed significantly great radiodensity values (P=0.025). No significant correlation between the radiodensity values and the transformation from osteosclerotic lesions to osteolytic lesions was observed (P=0.507). Conclusion: MRONJ patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates develop into large volumes of osteolytic lesions more easily. Long-term bisphosphonates duration is possibly related with higher bone density of osteosclerotic lesions, while higher density is not associated with the transformation from osteosclerotic lesions to osteolytic lesions. A rise of bone mineral density nearby post-surgical lesions is probably a predictor for MRONJ recurrence.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/diagnóstico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Administração Intravenosa , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/epidemiologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/cirurgia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/patologia , Maxila/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9229, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927215

RESUMO

APOE genotypes are associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), several other cardiovascular diseases and dementia. Previous studies have not comprehensively considered all genotypes, especially ε2ε2, nor associations by age and sex, although IHD incidence differs by sex. In the UK Biobank, including 391,992 white British participants, we compared effects of APOE genotypes on IHD and its risk factors. Compared to the ε3ε3 genotype, ε2ε2 was not clearly associated with IHD but was associated with lower plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB). The ε2ε3 genotype conferred lower IHD risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure and plasma apoB than ε3ε3. ε3ε4 and ε4ε4 conferred higher IHD risk, higher pulse pressure and plasma apoB, but lower glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) than ε3ε3. The associations by age and sex were fairly similar, except ε2ε2 compared to ε3ε3 was marginally positively associated with IHD in the younger age group and nominally inversely associated with SBP in men. ε3ε4 compared to ε3ε3 was nominally positively associated with SBP in women. APOE genotypes affect IHD risk increasingly from ε2ε3, ε3ε3, ε3ε4 to ε4ε4, with similar patterns for pulse pressure and plasma apoB, but not for diabetes. Associations with blood pressure differed by sex. Greater understanding of products of APOE and their effects might generate targets of intervention.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
20.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(14): 1607-1616, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926255

RESUMO

The traditional view is that the occurrence and development of hallux valgus (HV) are mainly due to environmental factors. Recent studies have suggested the large contribution of genetic heritability to HV, but it remains elusive about the genetic variants underlying the development of HV. To gain knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of HV pathogenesis by genetic approach, whole exome sequencing studies were performed in 10 individuals (7 affected by HV and 3 unaffected) from three independent families. Specific mutations were found to be related to the pathogenesis of HV and conform to the laws of inheritance. A total of 36 genes with functional candidate single nucleotide variants were identified. Genetic predisposition plays an important role in the development of HV. Interestingly, some of these genes are related to chronic arthritis, such as the complement encoding gene C7, or are related to long toe or long fingers, such as TTN, COL6A3, LARS, FIG4, and CBS. This study identified rare potentially pathogenic mutations represented by genes related to digital anomalies and chronic arthritis underlying the familial types of HV, which acquired new insights into the genetic and physiological foundations of HV, thereby might improve accurate prevention and drug development for HV.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Hallux Valgus/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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