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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14751, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611588

RESUMO

Of particular significance to human population history in Eurasia are the migratory events that connected the Near East to Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Utilizing 315 HV*(xH,V) mitogenomes, including 27 contemporary lineages first reported here, we found the genetic signatures for distinctive movements out of the Near East and South Caucasus both westward into Europe and eastward into South Asia. The parallel phylogeographies of rare, yet widely distributed HV*(xH,V) subclades reveal a connection between the Italian Peninsula and South Caucasus, resulting from at least two (post-LGM, Neolithic) waves of migration. Many of these subclades originated in a population ancestral to contemporary Armenians and Assyrians. One such subclade, HV1b-152, supports a postexilic, northern Mesopotamian origin for the Ashkenazi HV1b2 lineages. In agreement with ancient DNA findings, our phylogenetic analysis of HV12 and HV14, the two exclusively Asian subclades of HV*(xH,V), point to the migration of lineages originating in Iran to South Asia before and during the Neolithic period. With HV12 being one of the oldest HV subclades, our results support an origin of HV haplogroup in the region defined by Western Iran, Mesopotamia, and the South Caucasus, where the highest prevalence of HV has been found.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40842-40849, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577412

RESUMO

In this article, the effect of a porous material's flexibility on the dynamic reversibility of a nonwetting liquid intrusion was explored experimentally. For this purpose, high-pressure water intrusion together with high-pressure in situ small-angle neutron scattering were applied for superhydrophobic grafted silica and two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different flexibility [ZIF-8 and Cu2(tebpz) (tebpz = 3,3',5,5'tetraethyl-4,4'-bipyrazolate)]. These results established the relation between the pressurization rate, water intrusion-extrusion hysteresis, and porous materials' flexibility. It was demonstrated that the dynamic hysteresis of water intrusion into superhydrophobic nanopores can be controlled by the flexibility of a porous material. This opens a new area of applications for flexible MOFs, namely, a smart pressure-transmitting fluid, capable of dissipating undesired vibrations depending on their frequency. Finally, nanotriboelectric experiments were conducted and the results showed that a porous material's topology is important for electricity generation while not affecting the dynamic hysteresis at any speed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626362

RESUMO

Zymomonas mobilis is a model bacterial ethanologen and has been engineered to produce lignocellulosic biofuels and biochemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. We have previously identified promoters of different strengths using systems biology datasets and characterized them using the flow cytometry-based dual reporter-gene system. Here, we further demonstrated the capability of applying the dual reporter-gene system and omics datasets on discovering inducible promoters. Ten candidate ethanol-inducible promoters were identified through omics datasets mining and clustering. Using the dual reporter-gene system, these promoters were characterized under natural growth, ethanol stress, and ethanol-induced condition to investigate the transcriptional strength and ethanol inducibility. The results demonstrated that three promoters of P0405, P0435, and P0038 driving the expression of native genes of ZMO0405, ZMO0435, and ZMO0038, correspondingly, are potential ethanol-responsive promoters and may be growth related. This study not only identified and verified three ethanol-inducible promoters as biological parts, which can be used to synchronize the expression of heterologous pathway genes with the ethanol production process of Z. mobilis, but also demonstrated the power of combining omics datasets and dual reporter-gene system to identify biological parts for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications in Z. mobilis and related microorganisms.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e028904, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Upper body fat has been associated with an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the associations between mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), a novel indicator of upper body fat, and a wide spectrum of cardiometabolic risk profiles in Chinese population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from a well-defined community in 2014, Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6287 Chinese adults (2310 men and 3977 women) aged 40 years or older. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the associations of MUAC with cardiometabolic disorders including central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and subclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: In the overall participants, after multivariable adjustment, each 1 SD (3.13 cm) increment in MUAC was positively associated with central obesity (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.85 to 2.28), hypertension (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19) and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). Multivariable-adjusted ORs for subclinical atherosclerosis were gradually increased across increasing quartiles of MUAC with the lowest quartile as reference (quartile 2: OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.58; quartile 3: OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.62; quartile 4: OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.80; p for trend=0.005). Similar but more prominent associations were observed among women than men. In addition, MUAC was significantly interacted with diabetes (p for interaction=0.04) and insulin resistance (p for interaction=0.01) on subclinical atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: A greater MUAC was positively associated with higher risks of several cardiometabolic disorders and subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(80): 11992-11995, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498358

RESUMO

A luminescent edge-interlocked heteroleptic metallocage based on Cu3(pyrazolate)3 was prepared through a ligand replacement reaction from a homoleptic metallocage and a new ligand. Its structure was confirmed by XRD and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Theoretical calculations revealed the new ligand was evidently responsible for the bathochromic shift of the optimal excitation. This work provides a heteroleptic strategy to regulate the interlocking fashion and photophysical mechanism of metallocages based on Cu3(pyrazolate)3.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(45): 16071-16076, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469218

RESUMO

In the evolution of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for carbon capture, a lasting challenge is to strike a balance between high uptake capacity/selectivity and low energy cost for regeneration. Meanwhile, these man-made materials have to survive from practical demands such as stability under harsh conditions and feasibility of scale-up synthesis. Reported here is a new MOF, Zn(imPim) (aka. MAF-stu-1), with an imidazole derivative ligand, featuring binding pockets that can accommodate CO2 molecules in a fit-like-a-glove manner. Such a high degree of shape complementarity allows direct observation of the loaded CO2 in the pockets, and warrants its optimal carbon capture performances exceeding the best-performing MOFs nowadays. Coupled with the record thermal (up to 680 °C) and chemical stability, as well as rapid large-scale production, both encoded in the material design, Zn(imPim) represents a most competitive candidate to tackle the immediate problems of carbon dioxide capture.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 555: 449-459, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400537

RESUMO

Ultrafine Co7Fe3 nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets (denoted as Co7Fe3/NPCSs) are successfully synthesized by utilizing porous plant tissue as a precursor. The morphological, structural, and chemical contents of the Co7Fe3/NPCSs and other control samples are analyzed by X-ray (powder) diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The glucose oxidation and detection performances of each catalyst are evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The experimental results demonstrate that the electrocatalytic abilities of the resultant catalysts toward glucose oxidation decrease in the order of Co7Fe3/NPCSs > Co/NPCSs > CoFe/NPCSs > Fe2C-Co3Fe7/NPCSs > Fe2C/NPCSs. The experimental results prove that a small number of Fe atoms in Co7Fe3 can increase the number of active Co4+ sites. Meanwhile, the ultrafine Co7Fe3 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed along the porous carbon nanosheets' surfaces, which further improved the dispersion of the abundant electrochemically available active sites. Due to the synergistic effect of the hierarchical porous structures, high-density active sites and excellent electron conductivity, the optimal Co7Fe3/NPCSs display the best glucose detection efficiency of all the catalysts examined. For instance, the Co7Fe3/NPCSs exhibit large sensitivity values (795.28 µA cm-2 mM-1 between 0.001 and 2.20 mM and 401.98 µA cm-2 mM-1 between 2.20 and 14.00 mM), a rapid response time (2.2 s), a low detection limit (1.0 µM), excellent anti-interference toward electroactive molecules, a perfect reproducibility and a superior long-term stability. The Co7Fe3/NPCSs also exhibit a satisfying efficiency for glucose detection in human serum samples. Finally, our low-cost synthetic strategy can advance research used for designing 3D hierarchical meso/macroporous noble-metal-free catalysts without any tedious steps or templates.

8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365039

RESUMO

Importance: Whether optimal cardiovascular health metrics may counteract the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with prediabetes or diabetes is unclear. Objective: To investigate the associations of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among participants with prediabetes or diabetes as compared with participants with normal glucose regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study was a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study of 20 communities from various geographic regions in China. The study included 111 765 participants who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed between 2011 and 2016. Exposures: Prediabetes and diabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. Seven ICVHMs were adapted from the American Heart Association recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The composite of incident fatal or nonfatal CVD, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure. Results: Of the 111 765 participants, 24 881 (22.3%) had normal glucose regulation, 61 024 (54.6%) had prediabetes, and 25 860 (23.1%) had diabetes. Mean (SD) age ranged from 52.9 (8.6) years to 59.4 (8.7) years. Compared with participants with normal glucose regulation, among participants with prediabetes, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CVD was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.16-1.55) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43-0.75) for participants who had at least 5 ICVHMs; among participants with diabetes, the hazard ratios for CVD were 2.05 (95% CI, 1.76-2.38) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.56-1.15) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and at least 5 ICVHMs, respectively. Such pattern of association between ICVHM and CVD was more prominent for participants younger than 55 years (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.63; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.58, 95% CI, 1.13-2.21; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.44-2.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.71-3.54; compared with normal glucose regulation) than for participants 65 years or older (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50-1.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79-1.31; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.46-1.35; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.36-2.22, compared with normal glucose regulation; P values for interaction ≤.02). Additionally, the hazard ratio for CVD per additional ICVHM was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) among participants with prediabetes and was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.89) among participants with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: Participants with prediabetes or diabetes who had 5 or more ICVHMs exhibited lower or no significant excess CVD risks compared with the participants with normal glucose regulation.

9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 598, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463823

RESUMO

Understanding the effect of aspect on landform characteristics and erosion rates is an important prerequisite for soil and water conservation in hilly areas. In a cultivated area of the Chinese Loess Plateau, hillslope length, gradient and aspect (east, west, south, and north) were measured on two typical Mao (round loess hill), and net soil loss and location (upper, middle and lower positions) were studied using the 137Cs tracing loss ratio. Hillslope length on different aspects was in the order, north > west > east >south, but gradient changes were inconsistent and more complicated. Southern slopes were shorter and steeper, while on northern slopes, it was the opposite. Erosion rate on hillslopes with different aspects ranged from 1440 to 2631 t/km2 · a, and on northern slopes they were c.24-81% larger than on southern slopes. Upper and middle hillslope positions usually had higher erosion rates than lower positions. The greatest erosion rates were at upper positions on northern slopes, and upper positions on south slopes had relatively lower erosion rates. For hillslope positions influenced by wind erosion in winter and spring, the 137Cs loss ratio could be > 80%, while for the same positions on south slopes without wind erosion, it was < 80%. Our findings demonstrate that aspect is a key driver of landform characteristics and erosion rates on hillslopes, and they could be usefully employed for the prevention and control of soil erosion in this region.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Vento , Radioisótopos de Césio , China , Estações do Ano
10.
Atherosclerosis ; 289: 8-13, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological evidence on the association between elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) with risk of stroke remains inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between serum Lp (a) level and the risk of stroke among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. METHODS: A community-based prospective cohort study of 8500 participants aged 40 years or older was conducted in Jiading district, Shanghai, China, in 2010. The incident strokes were documented at follow-up visit during 2014-2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, 444 incident cases of stroke occurred. The incidences of stroke were 4.44%, 5.14% and 6.14% from the lowest to the highest serum Lp (a) tertile, respectively. A significant association between serum Lp (a) tertile and the risk of incident stroke was observed (p for trend<0.05). Compared with individuals in the lowest tertile of serum Lp (a), the multivariable adjusted hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident stroke in Lp (a) tertile 3 were 1.34 (1.06-1.70). CONCLUSIONS: Serum Lp (a) concentration was associated with increased risk of incident stroke in Chinese adults.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2117-2126, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive assessment of serum lipidomic aberrations before type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset has remained lacking in Han Chinese. We evaluated changes in lipid coregulation antecedent to T2DM and identified novel lipid predictors for T2DM in individuals with normal glucose regulation (NGR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the discovery study, we tested 667 baseline serum lipids in subjects with incident diabetes and propensity score-matched control subjects (n = 200) from a prospective cohort comprising 3,821 Chinese adults with NGR. In the validation study, we tested 250 lipids in subjects with incident diabetes and matched control subjects (n = 724) from a pooled validation cohort of 14,651 individuals with NGR covering five geographical regions across China. Differential correlation network analyses revealed perturbed lipid coregulation antecedent to diabetes. The predictive value of a serum lipid panel independent of serum triglycerides and 2-h postload glucose was also evaluated. RESULTS: At the level of false-discovery rate <0.05, 38 lipids, including triacylglycerols (TAGs), lyso-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylcholines, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamines (PUFA-PEps), and cholesteryl esters, were significantly associated with T2DM risk in the discovery and validation cohorts. A preliminary study found most of the lipid predictors were also significantly associated with the risk of prediabetes. Differential correlation network analysis revealed that perturbations in intraclass (i.e., non-PUFA-TAG and PUFA-TAGs) and interclass (i.e., TAGs and PUFA-PEps) lipid coregulation preexisted before diabetes onset. Our lipid panel further improved prediction of incident diabetes over conventional clinical indices. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed novel changes in lipid coregulation existing before diabetes onset and expanded the current panel of serum lipid predictors for T2DM in normoglycemic Chinese individuals.

12.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet is one of the important risk factors of diabetes, which is one of the major public health problems in China. The Internet tools provide large-scale passively collected data that show people's dietary preferences and their relationship with diabetes risk. METHODS: 212 341 708 individuals' dietary preference labels were created based on Internet data from online search and shopping software. Metabolic data obtained from the 2010 China Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance, which had 98 658 participants, was used to estimate the relation between dietary preferences geographical distribution and diabetes risk. RESULTS: Chinese dietary preferences had different geographical distribution, which is related to the local climate and consumption level. Fried food preference proportion distribution was significantly positively correlated with diabetes prevalence, hypertension prevalence and body mass index (BMI). Similarly, grilled food preference proportion distribution had significantly positive correlation with the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. In contrast, spicy food preference proportion distribution was negatively correlated with diabetes prevalence. Sweet food preference proportion distribution was positively related to diabetes prevalence. Using dietary preferences data to predict regional prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and BMI, the average values of error (95% CI) between the three paired predicted and observed values were 9.8% (6.9%-12.7%), 7.5% (5.0%-10.0%) and 1.6% (1.2%-2.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fried food, grilled food, and sweet food preferences were positively related to diabetes risk whereas spicy food preference was negatively correlated with diabetes risk. Dietary preferences based on passively collected Internet data could be used to predict regional prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and BMI and showed good value for public health monitoring.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 9198-9205, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330102

RESUMO

A Ti3(AlxCu1-x)C2 phase with Cu atoms with a degree of ordering in the A plane is synthesized through the A site replacement reaction in CuCl2 molten salt. The weakly bonded single-atom-thick Cu layers in a Ti3(AlxCu1-x)C2 MAX phase provide actives sites for catalysis chemistry. As-synthesized Ti3(AlxCu1-x)C2 presents unusual peroxidase-like catalytic activity similar to that of natural enzymes. A fabricated Ti3(AlxCu1-x)C2/chitosan/glassy carbon electrode biosensor prototype also exhibits a low detection limit in the electrochemical sensing of H2O2. These results have broad implications for property tailoring in a nanolaminated MAX phase by replacing the A site with late transition elements.

14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(7): 477-485, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the association between Lp(a) levels and MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 10,336 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older was conducted in Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum Lp(a) levels and MetS. RESULTS: In the overall population, 37.5% of participants had MetS. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the highest quartile had a lower prevalence of MetS (30.9% vs. 46.9%, P for trend < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that compared with participants in the bottom quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the top quartile had decreased odds ratio (OR) for prevalent MetS [multivariate-adjusted OR 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.51); P < 0.0001]. Additionally, Lp(a) level was conversely associated with the risk of central obesity, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol, but not with hypertension. Stratified analyses suggested that increasing levels of Lp(a) was associated with decreased risk of MetS in all the subgroups. CONCLUSION: Serum Lp(a) level was inversely associated with the risk of prevalent MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.


Assuntos
Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between birth weight and diabetes in a Chinese population, and the effects of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors in later life on this association. METHODS: Data from 49 118 participants aged ≥40 years with recalled birth weight from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study, a nationwide population-based cohort, were used. Diabetes diagnosis was based on oral glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c measurements. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of birth weight and risk of diabetes in later life. RESULTS: Increased risk of diabetes was associated with lower or higher birth weight. Compared with individuals with a birth weight of 2500 to 3499 g, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of diabetes for individuals with a birth weight of <2500, between 3500 and 3999, and ≥4000 g were 1.28 (1.11-1.47), 1.11 (1.04-1.19), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34), respectively. Significant associations were prominent in participants with a current BMI ≥24 kg/m2 , but not detected in those with a normal BMI (OR 1.20 [95% CI 0.96-1.49], 1.11 [95% CI 0.98-1.25], and 1.10 [95% CI 0.89-1.37], respectively). Moreover, there was no increased risk of diabetes in individuals with a low birth weight but with healthy dietary habits (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.29) or ideal physical activity (OR 1.41; 95% CI 0.97-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between birth weight and the risk of diabetes. Healthy lifestyles (healthy dietary habits or ideal physical activity) may eliminate the negative effects of low birth weight in the development of diabetes, but not the effect of high birth weight.

16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(4): 260-271, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) could predict a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the association between ideal CVH and subclinical atherosclerosis in a population cohort of Chinese adults aged ⪖ 40 years. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis of 8,395 participants who had complete data at baseline and a prospective analysis of 4,879 participants who had complete data at 4.3 years of follow-up. Ideal CVH metrics were defined according to the American Heart Association. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by plaques in carotid arteries, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). RESULTS: Both the prevalence and incidence of atherosclerosis measures were found to be decreased with increasing numbers of ideal CVH metrics at baseline (all P values for trend < 0.01). The levels of CIMT and UACR at follow-up showed an inverse and significant association with the numbers of ideal CVH metrics at baseline (both P values for trend < 0.05) but a borderline significant association with baPWV (P for trend = 0.0505). Taking participants with 0-1 ideal metric as reference, we found that participants with 5-6 ideal metrics had significantly lower risks of developing carotid plaques (odds ratio, OR = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.27-0.79), increased CIMT (OR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.84), and increased baPWV (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.34-0.97) after full adjustments. A significant interactive effect of age and CVH was detected on CIMT and baPWV progression (both P values for interaction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The numbers of ideal CVH metrics showed a significant and inverse association with the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, whereas its dose-response effect was attenuated in individuals aged ≥ 60 years and partially weakened in male participants.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 299-303, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of ceramic onlay to repair serious defects in young permanent molars. METHODS: Sixty patients with defects in young permanent molars were selected. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was restored with ceramic onlay, and the other used resin composite to direct filling. Follow-up visit was conducted at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Modified USPHS/Ryge criteria were used to evaluate the effect of restoration. The occlusal courses were recorded by the T-Scan Ⅲ system in intercuspal position. Gingival and food impaction were recorded. The effect of the two restorative methods, the recovery of occlusal function, and the gingival and approximal conditions were analyzed. RESULTS: At 12 months after restoration, the marginal fitness in the onlay group was significantly better than that in the resin group (P<0.05). At 12 and 24 months after restoration, the surface smoothness in the onlay group was significantly better than that in the resin composite group (P<0.05). At each follow-up visit, the resin group had significantly lower per-cen-tage of occlusal force than contralateral molar (P<0.05). The percentage of occlusal force in the onlay group and the con-trala-teral molar showed no statistical difference (P>0.05). The gingival and approximal conditions also demon-strated no stati-stical differences (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The ceramic onlay repair method is better than resin composite filling in marginal fitness, surface smoothness, and recovery of the occlusal function when restoring young permanent molars with serious defects.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Restaurações Intracoronárias , Dente Molar , Força de Mordida , Cerâmica , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Humanos , Cimentos de Resina
18.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1539-1548, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uncertainty remains regarding the predictive value of various glycemic measures as they relate to the risk of diabetes and its complications. Using the cutoffs recommended by the American Diabetes Association's 2010 criteria, we determined the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postload glucose (2h-PG), and HbA1c with the outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline medical history, FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c were obtained from a population-based cohort of 193,846 adults aged ≥40 years in China during 2011-2012. A follow-up visit was conducted during 2014-2016 in order to assess incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality. RESULTS: We documented 8,063 cases of diabetes, 3,014 CVD-related events, 1,624 cases of cancer, and 2,409 deaths during up to 5 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CIs) of diabetes associated with prediabetes based on FPG of 100-125 mg/dL, 2h-PG of 140-199 mg/dL, or HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol) were 1.60 (1.43-1.79), 2.72 (2.43-3.04), and 1.49 (1.36-1.62), respectively. Restricted cubic spline analyses suggested J-shaped associations of FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c levels with CVD, cancer, and mortality. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with untreated diabetes based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL, 2h-PG ≥200 mg/dL, or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) were 1.18 (1.05-1.33), 1.31 (1.18-1.45), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34) for CVD; 1.10 (0.92-1.32), 1.44 (1.25-1.67), and 1.08 (0.92-1.28) for cancer; and 1.37 (1.20-1.57), 1.57 (1.41-1.76), and 1.33 (1.17-1.52) for mortality, respectively. 2h-PG remained significantly associated with outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c as spline terms. Furthermore, 2h-PG significantly improved the ability of the C statistic to predict diabetes, CVD, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: 2h-PG remains independently predictive of outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c. Therefore, in addition to FPG and HbA1c, routine testing of 2h-PG should be considered in order to better assess the risks of outcomes.

19.
Diabetologia ; 62(9): 1591-1600, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093692

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to be potentially associated with type 2 diabetes; however, there is little evidence associating BPA exposure with glucose metabolic outcomes prior to diabetes onset. We aimed to examine BPA exposure in relation to glucose homeostasis among non-diabetic individuals. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study comprised 2336 Chinese adults aged 40 years or above (62.8% women) and free of diabetes at baseline in 2009, followed for 4 years. Urinary BPA and glucose metabolic traits including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-load plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B were measured at baseline and follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate associations of urinary BPA concentration with markers of glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: After full adjustment for confounders including BMI, each tenfold increase in urinary BPA concentrations was associated with a 3.39% increase in FPG (95% CI 2.24%, 4.55%) and an 11.6% decrease in HOMA-B (95% CI -15.8%, -7.18%) in women. The inverse association between urinary BPA and HOMA-B was more prominent among overweight or obese individuals (change -13.7%; 95% CI -19.3%, -7.61%) compared with those who were of normal weight (change -6.74%; 95% CI -13.2%, 0.20%) (pinteraction = 0.07). Moreover, the ORs of fasting hyperglycaemia and beta cell dysfunction corresponding to a tenfold increase in urinary BPA concentrations were 1.37 (95% CI 1.10, 1.72) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.02, 1.65) in women, respectively. No significant associations existed between urinary BPA and glucose metabolic markers in men. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that exposure to BPA was independently associated with impaired glucose homeostasis before the development of diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5525, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940890

RESUMO

Previous observational studies supported a positive association of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level with serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the causal relationship between HbA1c and either one of them was unclear in the East Asians. We performed a Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in a community-based study sample in Shanghai, China (n = 11,935). To clarify the cause-and-effect relationships of HbA1c with the four interested lipids, an Expanded HbA1c genetic risk score (GRS) with 17 HbA1c-related common variants and a Conservative score by excluding 11 variants were built and adopted as the Instrumental Variables (IVs), respectively. The Expanded HbA1c-GRS was associated with 0.19 unit increment in log-TG (P = 0.009), 0.42 mmol/L TC (P = 0.01), and 0.33 mmol/L LDL-C (P = 0.01); while the Conservative HbA1c-GRS was associated with 0.22 unit in log-TG (P = 0.03), 0.60 mmol/L TC (P = 0.01), and 0.51 mmol/L LDL-C (P = 0.007). No causal relationship was detected for HDL-C. Sensitivity analysis supported the above findings. In conclusions, MR analysis supports a causal role of increased HbA1c level in increment of circulating TG, TC, and LDL-C in a Chinese population.

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