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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 711540, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603201

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and arterial stiffness in Chinese adults. Methods: We performed a cohort study involving 2002 Chinese adults with no history of myocardial infarction or stroke. All the participants attended three visits (the baseline visit in 2008, the 2nd visit in 2009 and the 3rd visit in 2013). We used four measures to define the VVV of FPG across the three visits: the standard deviation (SD), the coefficient of variation (CV), the average successive variability (ASV) and the variability independent of the mean (VIM). We used brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) to measure arterial stiffness at the 2nd and the 3rd visits. Results: Compared with the lowest tertile of all the four measurements of VVV of FPG, significantly increased levels of ba-PWV change, ratio of ba-PWV change and the occurrence of the elevated ba-PWV were found in the highest tertile. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) comparing participants in the highest tertile vs. the lowest tertile of FPG-SD was 1.37 (1.01-1.86) for risks of having elevated ba-PWV, even after adjustment for covariates including the mean FPG. Similar results were found for FPG-CV and FPG-VIM. Conclusion: Greater long-term variability of FPG was associated with an increased risk of arterial stiffness, suggesting that the VVV of FPG could be used for an early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis.

2.
Metabolism ; 124: 154874, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517014

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further test the joint effects and interactions between NAFLD status and individual metabolic element, as well as the total 'ABCs' metabolic goal achievement, on the CVD and CKD risk among 101,296 patients with prediabetes or diabetes from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We conducted the study based on the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) study, a large-scale, population-based prospective cohort. After excluding alcohol abuse and other cause of hepatic diseases, we used fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 as a proxy of NAFLD and stratified the probability of fibrosis by aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (AAR) with cut-offs of 0.8 and 1.4. 'ABCs' metabolic goal was defined as subjects who had HbA1c < 6.5% (A), SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg (B), and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (C). During 3.8 years follow-up, we validated 2340 CVD events based on medical records and identified 1943 participants developed CKD based on centrally tested eGFR. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.27) for CVD events and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20-1.48) for CKD among NAFLD patients, compared with participants without NAFLD. Of NAFLD patients, relative to individuals with low AAR (<0.8), those with high AAR (≥1.4) were more likely to experience CVD events [1.62 (1.21-2.18)] and CKD [1.63 (1.17-2.28)]. Participants with NAFLD and comorbid poorly controlled metabolic risk factors had higher risk of CVD events or CKD than having either alone, with a significant interaction between poor glycemic control and NAFLD on the risk of vascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with incident CVD and CKD among patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Such associations were substantially modified by the comprehensive achievement of metabolic goal.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 12002-12011, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590865

RESUMO

Xylitol is a widely used natural sweetener for the reduction of excessive sugar consumption. However, concerns of xylitol consumption existed as it is a highly permeable substance in the colon that could cause diarrhea and other adverse symptoms. To assess the relationship between xylitol dosage and diarrhea, especially the influences of diarrhea on physiological characteristics, the immune system, and gut microbiota in rats, the control, low-dose (L), medium-dose (M), and high-dose (H) groups were fed with 0, 1, 3, and 10% of xylitol, respectively, correspondingly for 15 days, followed by a 7-day recovery. Only medium- and high-dose xylitol would cause diarrhea in rats. Quantitative imaging of colonic tissue and the expression levels of proinflammatory factors revealed a higher degree of immune responses in the rats from H groups but statistically stable in M groups, despite that light diarrhea was observed. A shift of the gut microbiota composition was observed in the rats from H groups, including significant decreases of genera Ruminococcaceae and Prevotella and a notable increase and colonization of Bacteroides, accompanied with changes of short-chain fatty acid production. Tolerance and adaptation to xylitol consumption were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that diarrhea caused by the high dosage of xylitol can exert distinctive changes on gut microbiota and lay the foundation to explore the mechanism underlying the shift in gut microbiota composition.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478265

RESUMO

The renaissance of aqueous Zn ion batteries has drawn intense attention to Zn metal anode issues, including dendrites growth, dead Zn, low efficiency, and other parasitic reactions. However, against the widely used 2D Zn foil, in fact, the Zn powder anode is a more practical choice for Zn-based batteries in industrial applications, but the related solutions are rarely investigated. Herein, we focus on the Zn powder anode and disclose its unknown failure mechanism different from Zn foils. By utilization of 2D flexible conductive Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes with hexagonal close-packed lattice as electrons and ions redistributor, a stable and highly reversible Zn powder anode without dendrite growth and low polarization is constructed. Low lattice mismatch (∼10%) enables a coherent heterogeneous interface between the (0002) plane of deposited Zn and (0002) plane of the Ti3C2Tx MXene. Thus, the Zn2+ ions are induced to undergo rapid uniform nucleation and sustained reversible stripping/plating with low energy barriers via the internally bridged shuttle channels. Paired with cyano group iron hexacyanoferrate (FeHCF) cathode, the FeHCF//MXene@Zn full battery delivers superior cycle durability and rate capability, whose service life with a CE of near 100% touches 850% of bare Zn powder counterparts. The proposed Ti3C2Tx MXene redistributor strategy concerning high-speed electrons/ions channel, low-barrier heterogeneous interface, is expected to be widely applied to other alkali metal anodes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463419

RESUMO

Shape complementarity is a biological craft for precisely binding substrates at protein-protein interfaces. An analogy to such a function can be drawn conceptually for crystalline porous solids; yet the manifested entities are rare in reticular chemistry. The bottleneck-shaped pores carved out of a metal-organic framework, Zn(MIBA)2 (aka. MAF-stu-13), can perfectly accommodate benzene molecules. Remarkably, its framework adapts to the optimal guest binding-the enhanced host-guest interactions in the neck in turn minimize the guest-guest repulsion in the pore to the extent it turns into attraction-as demonstrated by the combined X-ray structural and DFT computational studies. This adaptive material can be used for liquid-phase production of ultrahigh-purity (≥99 %) cyclohexane, achieving a balance between uptake capacity and separation selectivity and surpassing the performances of other porous and nonporous crystals reported recently (e.g. product purity 99.4 % vs. 97.5 % to date).

6.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347432

RESUMO

The two key problems for the industrialization of Li-S batteries are the dendrite growth of lithium anode and the shuttle effect of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs). Herein, we report the Janus separator prepared by coating anionic Bio-MOF-100 and its derived single-atom zinc catalyst on each side of the Celgard separator. The anionic metal-organic framework (MOF) coating induces the uniform and rapid deposition of lithium ions, while its derived single-atom zinc catalyzes the rapid transformation of LiPSs, thus inhibiting the lithium dendrite and shuttle effect simultaneously. Consequently, compared with other reported Li-S batteries assembled with single-atomic catalysts as separator coatings, our SAZ-AF Janus separator showed stable cyclic performance (0.05% capacity decay rate at 2 C with 1000 cycles), outstanding performance in protecting lithium anode (steady cycle 2800 h at 10 mAh cm-2), and equally excellent cycling performance in Li-SeS2 or Li-Se batteries. Our work provides an effective separator coating design to inhibit shuttle effect and lithium dendrite.

7.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational hyperglycemia increases the risk of diabetes in later life. However, the risk of future cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to gestational hyperglycemia remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gestational hyperglycemia on the subsequent risk of CVD and its modifying factors among elderly Chinese women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of elderly women from the baseline survey of Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. Women with gestational hyperglycemia (n = 82), and controls matched by age and study site (n = 410) were included. Information on CVD, including reported coronary heart disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction, was collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. RESULTS: Women with gestational hyperglycemia were more likely to develop diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-4.18) and CVD (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.05-3.74). Even without progressing to type 2 diabetes, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.18-7.00). However, subgroup analysis indicated that compared with those without gestational hyperglycemia or hypertension, women with both gestational hyperglycemia and hypertension had higher risk of CVD (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.65-9.58), whereas the risk estimate did not significantly change in women with gestational hyperglycemia alone (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.71-6.57). Stratified analysis indicated that among those with overweight/obesity, inactive physical activity, or unhealthy dietary habits, gestational hyperglycemia increased the risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese women, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD in later life. This association was independent of the progression to diabetes and might be modified by lifestyle factors and hypertension.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between individual and combined cardiometabolic morbidities and incident cardiovascular events in Chinese adults. DESIGN: A prospective, nationwide, and population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 133572 participants aged ≥ 40 years were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. RESULTS: Compared with participants without diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, participants with only diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.90) or only hypertension (2.04; 1.82-2.28) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD events, while participants with only dyslipidemia (0.97; 0.84-1.12) exhibited no significantly higher risk for CVD events. When analyzed collectively, participants with diabetes plus hypertension (HR, 2.67; 95%CI, 2.33-3.06), diabetes plus dyslipidemia (1.57; 1.32-1.87), and hypertension plus dyslipidemia (2.12; 1.88-2.39) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD. Moreover, participants with the combination of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibited the highest risk for CVD events (HR, 3.06; 95%CI, 2.71-3.46). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for CVD associated with diabetes based on fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L, oral glucose tolerance test-2h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L, and hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% were 1.64 (1.51-1.78), 1.57 (1.45-1.69), and 1.54 (1.42-1.66), respectively; associated with hypertension based on systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were 1.89 (1.76-2.03) and 1.74 (1.60-1.88), respectively; associated with dyslipidemia based on total cholesterol ≥6.22 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.14 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.04 mmol/L, and triglycerides ≥2.26 mmol/L were 1.18 (1.08-1.30), 1.30 (1.17-1.44), 1.00 (0.92-1.09), and 1.10 (1.01-1.20), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia showed additive associations with the risk of CVD events in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448477

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies have associated obesity with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial stiffness, but the causality remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the causality of obesity with CKD and arterial stiffness using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: We genotyped 14 body mass index (BMI)-associated variants validated in East Asians in 11384 Chinese adults. A genetic risk score based on the 14 variants and the 14 individual single nucleotide polymorphisms were respectively used as instrumental variables (IVs). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2. Arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity >1550 cm/s. RESULTS: Using the genetic risk score as the IV, we demonstrated causal relations of each 1-standard deviation increment in BMI with CKD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-5.00) and arterial stiffness (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.22-2.39). Using the 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms individually as IVs, each 1-standard deviation increment in BMI casually associated with CKD (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.39-4.79) and arterial stiffness (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.24-2.81) in the inverse-variance weighted analysis, and MR-Egger regression revealed no evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (Both P for intercept≥0.34). The causality between obesity and CKD was validated in two-sample MR analysis among Europeans (681275 of Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits and 133413 of CKD Genetics). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided novel insights into causality of obesity with CKD and arterial stiffness, highlighting the importance of weight management for primary prevention and control of subclinical vascular diseases.

10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(11): 2551-2560, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322974

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations of metabolic abnormalities with incident diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and to explore whether dyslipidaemia, particularly high fasting triglyceride (TG), was associated with the development of DKD. METHODS: In total, 11 142 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were followed up during 2011-2016. Incident DKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship of metabolic abnormalities at baseline and at follow-up with risks of DKD. High TG was defined by TG ≥1.70 mmol/L. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was defined by HDL-c <1.0 mmol/L for men or <1.3 mmol/L for women. RESULTS: Participants who developed DKD had higher levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, and lower levels of HDL-c at both baseline and follow-up visits. The DKD group also had higher levels of post-load plasma glucose and TG at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both high TG at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, p = .012) and high TG at follow-up (OR = 1.71, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risks of DKD. Patients with high TG levels at both baseline and follow-up had higher risk of DKD compared with constantly normal TG (OR = 1.65, p < .001) after adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes, a high TG level was an independent risk factor for the development of DKD. Tight TG control might delay the occurrence of DKD.

11.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153640, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), a complication of diabetes, has serious impacts on human health. As the pathogenesis of DNP is very complex, clinical treatments for DNP is limited. Koumine (KM) is an active ingredient extracted from Gelsemium elegans Benth. that exerts an inhibitory effect on neuropathic pain (NP) in several animal models. PURPOSE: To clarify the anti-NP effect of KM on rats with DNP and the molecular mechanisms involving the Notch- Jκ recombination signal binding protein (RBP-Jκ) signaling pathway. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered streptozocin (STZ) by intraperitoneal injection to induce DNP. The effect of KM on mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with DNP was evaluated using the Von Frey test. Microglial polarization in the spinal cord was examined using western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. The Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway was analysed using western blotting. RESULTS: KM attenuated DNP during the observation period. In addition, KM alleviated M1 microglial polarization in STZ-induced rats. Subsequent experiments revealed that Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway was activated in the spinal cord of rats with DNP, and the activation of this pathways was decreased by KM. Additionally, KM-mediated analgesia and deactivation of the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway were inhibited by the Notch signaling agonist jagged 1, indicating that the anti-DNP effect of KM may be regulated by the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: KM is a potentially desirable candidate treatment for DNP that may inhibit microglial M1 polarization through the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuralgia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Polaridade Celular , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281124

RESUMO

In recent years, much more emphasis than before has been placed on fire safety regulations by the local and central authorities of China, which makes fire risk assessments more important. In this paper we propose a new fire risk assessment approach for large-scale commercial and high-rise buildings that aims to evaluate the performances of their fire safety systems; this should improve the fire risk management and public safety in those buildings. According to the features of large-scale commercial and high-rise buildings, a fire-risk indexing system was built, and based on it we established a scientific fire risk evaluation system. To this end, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was used to assign a reasonable weight to each fire risk factor in the evaluation system. In addition, we revised the original scores by analyzing the coupling relationships among the fire risk factors. To validate our system, we selected 11 buildings in Shandong province and collected their fire safety data. Then, we calculated the final scores for the fire safety management of those buildings, and the results show that: (1) our fire risk evaluation system can assign reasonable weights; (2) the proposed evaluation system is comprehensive and has strong interpretability, since it exploits the coupling relationships among the risk factors. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in that it integrates opinions from multiple experts and utilizes coupling relationships among the factors. Further, the feedback from the approach can find not only the weaknesses in fire risk management, but also the potential causes of fires. As a result, the feedback from our assessment can assist the safety chiefs and inspectors with improving fire risk management.


Assuntos
Processo de Hierarquia Analítica , Gestão da Segurança , China , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(9): 1595-1605, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recently, automatic surgical skill assessment has received the attention given the increasingly important role of surgical training. The assessment usually involves skill score prediction and further feedback generation. Existing work on skill score prediction is limited with several challenges and deserves more promising outcomes. For the feedback, most work identifies the flaws on the granularity of video frames or clips. It thus remains to be explored how to identify poorly performed gestures (segments) and further how to provide good references for improvement. METHODS: To overcome these problems, a novel method consisting of three correlated frameworks is proposed. The first framework learns to predict final skill scores of surgical trials with two auxiliary tasks. The second framework learns to predict running intermediate skill scores that indicate the problematic gestures, while the third framework explores the optimal gesture sequences as references through a new Policy Gradient based formulation. RESULTS: Our method is experimented on JIGSAWS dataset. The first framework pushes state-of-the-art prediction performance further to 0.83, 0.86 and 0.69 Spearman's correlations for the three surgical tasks under LOUO validation scheme. Moreover, the intermediate scores predicted by the second framework are better in accord with the experts'. Besides, the generated gesture sequences in the third framework reflect the optimality of the gesture flow. CONCLUSION: In summary, multi-task learning with semantic visual features successfully boosts the performance of skill score prediction, while exploring gesture-level annotations and score elements of the final skill score is useful for generating more interpretable feedback. Our presented method potentially contributes towards a complete loop of automated surgical training.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Gestos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação , Humanos
14.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 158, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292406

RESUMO

MAX phases are gaining attention as precursors of two-dimensional MXenes that are intensively pursued in applications for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we report the preparation of V2SnC MAX phase by the molten salt method. V2SnC is investigated as a lithium storage anode, showing a high gravimetric capacity of 490 mAh g-1 and volumetric capacity of 570 mAh cm-3 as well as superior rate performance of 95 mAh g-1 (110 mAh cm-3) at 50 C, surpassing the ever-reported performance of MAX phase anodes. Supported by operando X-ray diffraction and density functional theory, a charge storage mechanism with dual redox reaction is proposed with a Sn-Li (de)alloying reaction that occurs at the edge sites of V2SnC particles where Sn atoms are exposed to the electrolyte followed by a redox reaction that occurs at V2C layers with Li. This study offers promise of using MAX phases with M-site and A-site elements that are redox active as high-rate lithium storage materials.

15.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed at a younger age worldwide and in China. Limited data are available regarding the association between age at diabetes diagnosis and risks of albuminuria. This study sought to examine the independent effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of albuminuria. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide multicenter study with 207 961 participants in mainland China. Age, sex, and study site were matched for 31 366 screen-detected type 2 diabetes cases and 31 366 normal controls. Age, sex, study site, and diabetes duration were matched for 7490 self-reported type 2 diabetes cases and 7490 normal controls. Risks of having albuminuria in matched type 2 diabetes vs controls were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis in strata of age at diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Although the absolute rate of albuminuria is higher in older adults, the odds ratio of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes vs matched controls decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. For participants with diabetes diagnosed at an age of <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, or ≥70 years, the multivariable adjusted risk of albuminuria increased by 81%, 60%, 45%, and 33% for screen-detected diabetes, and 135%, 121%, 90%, and 58% for self-reported diabetes compared with their normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A younger age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with a more significantly elevated risk of albuminuria than an older age at diagnosis in Chinese adults.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e3957-e3968, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125886

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Little is known about the link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) evolution and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the associations of NALFD status changes and NAFLD fibrosis progression with the risk of incident CKD. METHODS: We conducted a community-based prospective study that included participants aged 40 years or older and free of CKD at baseline in 2010, with follow-up evaluations after a mean of 4.4 years. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) was used to evaluate fibrosis stage and progression. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. All the measurements were performed at baseline and follow-up examination. RESULTS: Among 4042 participants with 4 NAFLD status change groups, incident NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.003-2.06; P = 0.048) compared with non-NAFLD after adjustments for the confounders, including evolution of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, in addition to the baseline levels. However, the risk of incident CKD was not significantly different between NAFLD resolution and persistent NAFLD. Among 534 participants in the persistent NAFLD group, fibrosis progression from low NFS to intermediate or high NFS was associated with a significantly increased risk of incident CKD compared with stable fibrosis in low NFS (OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.22-6.56; P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: NAFLD development and fibrosis progression are associated with increased risk of incident CKD.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 601: 338-345, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087594

RESUMO

Development of high-performance, economic, and stable non-noble metal catalysts is a still formidable challenge in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that must be overcome to alleviate the energy and environmental crisis. Herein, we designed and fabricated N-doped carbon nanoframes encapsulated by CoP nanoparticles (CoP-NCN). The 3D porous structure of the ZIF-67-derived N-doped carbon shortened the charge and mass transport pathways, contributing to enhanced electrocatalytic performance. Moreover, the synergistic effects of excellent conductivity, abundant mesopores, and high-activity CoP nanoparticles led to remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward HER with an extremely low overpotential of 120 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and long-term stability. We further indicate that the fantastic HER catalytic ability of CoP-NCN is attributed to the good conductivity and the abundant active sites. The present study provides a promising avenue toward the design of cost-effective HER electrocatalysts.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas , Carbono , Catálise , Porosidade
19.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139681

RESUMO

Heteroatoms doped carbon catalysts have been intensively studied to take the place of Platinum based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) because of their ideal catalytic activity. Herein, the microporous-mesoporous carbon material catalysts doped with Fe, N, S and F were synthesized through a plain one-pot pyrolysis method with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyli-midazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ([Bmim][TF2N]) and melamine as precursors. Electrochemical analysis shows that the ORR activity and stability of the obtained catalysts are obviously better than Pt/C under alkaline condition. Meanwhile, the catalysts show similar ORR activity and much better durability in 0.1 M HClO4 comparing to Pt/C. Moreover, the tolerance of methanol in both basic and acid solutions is greatly better than Pt/C. The high activity is ascribed to the large specific surface area (SSA), porous structure and the synergistic effect between S, F, pyridine N, graphite N and Fe-Nx. The high stability possibly comes from the appropriate graphitization and the carbon-coating effect. The strategy proposed here has the advantages of facile, low cost, high efficiency and easy large-scale production, which provides new ideas for the preparation of high-performance Fe-N-C electrocatalysts.

20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 177: 108873, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051282

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the impact of diabetes on subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The prospective cohort study included 8451 Chinese adults free of baseline CVD in 2010. NAFLD was diagnosed based on hepatic ultrasonography. Fibrosis-4 index as a non-invasive marker was used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, and carotid plaque. At follow-up during 2014-2016, the composite of incident fatal or nonfatal CVD were ascertained. RESULTS: Of the 8451 participants, 2557 (30.3%) had NAFLD at baseline. Diabetes was associated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in participants with NAFLD (P < 0.001). Similar associations were observed in participants without NAFLD. During a mean 4.6 years of follow-up, 432 incident CVD events occurred. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events associated with diabetes was 1.27 (95% CI 0.90-1.81) in participants with NAFLD and 1.73 (95% CI 1.32-2.26) in those without NAFLD (P for interaction = 0.21). Among participants with NAFLD who had pre-existing diabetes, those with ≥5 years of diabetes duration had an adjusted HR of 2.02 (95% CI 1.12-3.62) for CVD as compared to those with <2 years of duration. When categorizing participants with NAFLD by fibrosis severity, diabetes conferred an increased risk of CVD in those with potential advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with NAFLD, diabetes was associated with prevalent atherosclerosis, and a long duration of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of developing CVD. The effects of diabetes on cardiovascular outcomes did not appreciably differ by NAFLD status.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Complicações do Diabetes , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
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