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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095018

RESUMO

Sugar alcohols are the prominent alternatives of sugars in food, medical, and health industries. The ruthenium supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Ru/MWCNTs) catalysts were prepared based on the Ru valence regulation strategy and applied for selective sugar hydrogenation to prepare various sugar alcohols including xylitol, arabinitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and galactitol for the first time, with high selectivity (>99.0%) and yield (>98.0%) under mild conditions (≤110 °C, 3.0 MPa H2 pressure). The hydrogenation reaction of xylose was further optimized and under mild conditions (100 °C, 3.0 MPa H2 pressure, and 500 rpm), which were lower than ever reported for high efficient synthesis of xylitol, 99.8% xylose conversion and 99.0% xylitol yield were achieved after 120 min of reaction.

2.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 59, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923352

RESUMO

Aims: To examine whether electrocardiography (ECG) could provide additional values to the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction among different cardiovascular risk subgroups. Methods: A total of 7,872 community residents aged ≥40 years were followed up for a median of 4.5 years. A 12-lead resting ECG was examined for participants at baseline. CVD events including myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality were collected. Cox proportional hazards models were used and models of traditional risk factors with and without ECG were compared. Results: At baseline, 2,470 participants (31.3%) had ECG abnormalities. During follow-up, 464 participants developed CVD events. ECG abnormalities were associated with an increased risk of CVD after adjustment for the traditional risk factors in participants with a 10-year atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk ≥10% (hazard ratio, HR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.11, 1.91). Adding ECG abnormalities to the traditional CVD risk factors improved reclassification for those who did not experience events [net reclassification index: 8.0% (95% CI: 2%, 19.5%)], discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement: 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1%, 1.9%), and calibration (goodness of fit P value from 0.600 to 0.873) in participants with a 10-year ASCVD risk ≥10%. However, no significant association and improvement were found in participants with a 10-year ASCVD risk <10%. Conclusions: ECG screening might provide a marginal improvement in CVD risk prediction in adults at high risk. However, ECG should not be recommended in adults at low risk.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772153

RESUMO

To develop new cellulases for efficient utilization of the lignocellulose, an endoglucanase (CoCel5A) gene from Colletotrichum orchidophilum was synthesized and a recombinant Pichia pastoris GS115/pPIC9K/cocel5A was constructed for secretory expression of CoCel5A. After purification, the protein CoCel5A was biochemically characterized. The endoglucanase CoCel5A exhibited the optimal activity at 55-75 °C and high thermostability (about 85% residual activity) at the temperature of 55 °C after incubation for 3 h. The highest activity of CoCel5A was detected when 100 mM citric acid buffer (pH 4.0-5.0) was used and excellent pH stability (up to 95% residual activity) was observed after incubation in 100 mM citric acid buffer (pH 3.0-6.0) at 4 °C for 24 h. Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (n = approx. 500) (CMC) and ß-D-glucan were the best substrates for CoCel5A among the tested substrates. The kinetic parameters Vmax, Km, and Kcat/Km values against CMC were 290.70 U/mg, 2.65 mg/mL, and 75.67 mL/mg/s, respectively; and 228.31 U/mg, 2.06 mg/mL, and 76.45 mL/mg/s against ß-D-glucan, respectively, suggesting that CoCel5A has high affinity and catalytic efficiency. These properties supported the potential application of CoCel5A in biotechnological and environmental fields.

4.
Liver Int ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Low-grade albuminuria, as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction and kidney damage, has been recognized as a risk factor for metabolic disorders. Epidemiological studies manifesting the association of low-grade albuminuria with the risk of incident NAFLD and fibrosis were not available. We aimed to investigate the association of low-grade albuminuria with incident NAFLD and fibrosis by glycemic status. METHODS: A prospective population-based study was performed in 3308 participants without NAFLD at recruitment. Baseline urinary albumin excretion was obtained by a first-voided early morning spot urine sample. At follow-up visit, incident NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound after excluding alcohol abuse and other cause of hepatic diseases. Fatty liver index (FLI) was employed to reflect liver fat content. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4) and Hepamet fibrosis score (HFS), respectively. RESULTS: After 4.3 years of follow-up, 622 (18.8%) were detected as incident NAFLD. Participants with low-grade albuminuria imposed a 40.4% [1.404 (1.112-1.772)] greater risk on incident NAFLD, and 52.0% [1.520 (1.141-2.026)], 87.4% [1.874 (1.291-2.720)] and 40.4% [1.404 (1.038-1.898)] higher risks on newly-onset higher values of FLI, NFS and FIB-4, respectively. The effect of low-grade albuminuria was stronger in the subgroup of non-diabetic population. CONCLUSIONS: Low-grade albuminuria was independently associated with incident NAFLD and a higher probability of fibrosis, especially among non-diabetic individuals.

5.
J Lipid Res ; 61(10): 1320-1327, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703886

RESUMO

Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but analysis on Lp(a) and renal dysfunction is scarce. We aimed to investigate prospectively the association of serum Lp(a) with the risk of reduced renal function, and further investigated whether diabetic or hypertensive status modified such association. Six thousand two hundred and fifty-seven Chinese adults aged ≤40 years and free of reduced renal function at baseline were included in the study. Reduced renal function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 During a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, 158 participants developed reduced renal function. Each one-unit increase in log10-Lp(a) (milligrams per deciliter) was associated with a 1.99-fold (95% CI 1.15-3.43) increased risk of incident reduced renal function; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the highest tertile of Lp(a) was 1.61 (95% CI 1.03-2.52) compared with the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.03). The stratified analysis showed the association of serum Lp(a) and incident reduced renal function was more prominent in participants with prevalent diabetes [OR 4.04, 95% CI (1.42-11.54)] or hypertension [OR 2.18, 95% CI (1.22-3.89)]. A stronger association was observed in the group with diabetes and high Lp(a) (>25 mg/dl), indicating a combined effect of diabetes and high Lp(a) on the reduced renal function risk. An elevated Lp(a) level was independently associated with risk of incident reduced renal function, especially in diabetic or hypertensive patients.

6.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions involving both exercise and dietary modification are effective in reducing steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, exercise alone may reduce liver fat and is known to have other positive effects on health. The primary aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of exercise alone without dietary intervention on NAFLD and to examine correlations across changes in liver fat and metabolic markers during exercise. METHODS: Relevant online databases were searched from earliest records to May 2020 by two researchers. Studies were included where the trial was a randomized controlled trial, participants were adults, exercise intervention was longer than 4 weeks, no dietary intervention occurred, and the effect of the intervention on liver fat was quantified via magnetic resonance imaging/proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS: Of 21 597 studies retrieved, 16 were included involving 706 participants. Exercise was found to have a beneficial effect on liver fat without dietary modification (-2.4%, -3.13 to -1.66) (mean, 95% CI). Pearson correlation showed significant relationships between change in liver fat and change in weight (r = 0.67, P = .007), liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.76, P = .002) and alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.91, P < .001), and cardiorespiratory fitness VO2 peak (peak volume oxygen consumption) (r = -0.88, P = .004). By multivariate regression, change in weight and change in VO2 peak significantly contributed to change in liver fat (R2 = 0.84, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review found that exercise without dietary intervention improves liver fat and that clinical markers may be useful proxies for quantifying liver fat changes.

7.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 13, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489786

RESUMO

Background: Prolonged heart rate corrected QT (QTc) interval was reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Objective: There exists little data on the association between QTc interval and cardiovascular risk in Asian populations. We prospectively investigated the association of QTc interval with CVDs and vascular traits in a large cohort of Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 7,605 participants aged 40 years or older from a well-defined community without CVDs at baseline were included and followed up for an average of 4.5 years. Association of baseline QTc interval with incident CVDs was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Associations of QTc interval with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and risk of microalbuminuria and peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) were secondarily examined. Results: Prolonged QTc interval (≥460 ms in women and ≥450 ms in men) was associated with 51% higher risk of total major CVDs (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.20, 1.90]), particularly, 48% increased risk of stroke (95% CI [1.16, 1.88]). Prolonged QTc interval was positively associated with baPWV (ß = 38.10 cm/s, standard error [SE] = 8.04, P < 0.0001) and CIMT (ß = 0.01 mm, SE = 0.01, P = 0.04). Prolonged QTc interval was associated with increased risk of incident microalbuminuria (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65, 95% CI [1.21, 2.24]) and PAD (2.49, 95% CI [1.35, 4.59]). Conclusions: Prolonged QTc interval is positively and significantly associated with increased risk of CVDs and related vascular traits in Chinese population.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1902-1909, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between famine exposure and adulthood diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 77,925 participants from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study who were born around the time of the Chinese Great Famine and free of diabetes at baseline. They were divided into three famine exposure groups according to the birth year, including nonexposed (1963-1974), fetal exposed (1959-1962), and childhood exposed (1949-1958). Relative risk regression was used to examine the associations between famine exposure and ICVHMs on diabetes. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3.6 years, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was 4.2%, 6.0%, and 7.5% in nonexposed, fetal-exposed, and childhood-exposed participants, respectively. Compared with nonexposed participants, fetal-exposed but not childhood-exposed participants had increased risks of diabetes, with multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) (95% CIs) of 1.17 (1.05-1.31) and 1.12 (0.96-1.30), respectively. Increased diabetes risks were observed in fetal-exposed individuals with nonideal dietary habits, nonideal physical activity, BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2, or blood pressure ≥120/80 mmHg, whereas significant interaction was detected only in BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.0018). Significant interactions have been detected between number of ICVHMs and famine exposure on the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = 0.0005). The increased risk was observed in fetal-exposed participants with one or fewer ICVHMs (RR 1.59 [95% CI 1.24-2.04]), but not in those with two or more ICVHMs. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of diabetes associated with famine exposure appears to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1929-1936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the individual and combined associations of lifestyle and metabolic factors with new-onset diabetes and major cardiovascular events among a Chinese population aged ≥40 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline lifestyle information, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and glycemic status were obtained in a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study of 170,240 participants. During the up to 5 years of follow-up, we detected 7,847 individuals with new-onset diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria and 3,520 cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure. RESULTS: On the basis of 36.13% (population-attributable fraction [PAF]) risk attributed to metabolic risk components collectively, physical inactivity (8.59%), sedentary behavior (6.35%), and unhealthy diet (4.47%) moderately contributed to incident diabetes. Physical inactivity (13.34%), unhealthy diet (8.70%), and current smoking (3.38%) significantly contributed to the risk of major cardiovascular events, on the basis of 37.42% PAF attributed to a cluster of metabolic risk factors. Significant associations of lifestyle health status with diabetes and cardiovascular events were found across all metabolic health categories. Risks of new-onset diabetes and major cardiovascular events increased simultaneously according to the worsening of lifestyle and metabolic health status. CONCLUSIONS: We showed robust effects of lifestyle status on new-onset diabetes and major cardiovascular events regardless of metabolic status and a graded increment of risk according to the combination of lifestyle and metabolic health, highlighting the importance of lifestyle modification regardless of the present metabolic status.

10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(9): e23423, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the plasma long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profile in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients and the value of candidate lncRNAs for predicting KOA risk. METHODS: Plasma was obtained for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in eight KOA patients and eight healthy controls (Ctrls). Ten candidate lncRNAs were then selected from the differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs according to the rank of absolute value of Log2 (fold change). Afterward, RT-qPCR was used to examine 10 candidate lncRNAs expressions in plasma of 100 KOA patients and 100 Ctrls. RESULTS: In eight KOA patients and eight Ctrls, principal component analysis and heatmap plots disclosed that lncRNA and mRNA expression profile could distinguish KOA patients from Ctrls. Then Volcano plot identified 418 upregulated lncRNAs, 347 downregulated lncRNAs, 521 upregulated mRNAs, and 333 downregulated mRNAs in KOA patients compared to Ctrls. Next, enrichment analyses revealed that DE lncRNAs were mainly enriched in biological processes, molecular functions, and signaling pathways related to inflammation and bone formation. In 100 KOA patients and 100 Ctrls, eight candidate lncRNAs were dysregulated in KOA patients compared to Ctrls, including lncRNA ABCF2P2, lncRNA RP13-16H11.7, lncRNA CTC-340A15.2, lncRNA RP4-735C1.6, lncRNA RP11-293G6-B.8, lncRNA RP11-1246C19.1, lncRNA RP11-303E16.6, and lncRNA RP5-882C2.2. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that these eight candidate lncRNAs presented with values for predicting KOA risk. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression elucidated that six candidate lncRNAs could independently predict KOA risk. CONCLUSION: We disclosed a landscape of circulating lncRNA expression profile in KOA patients, and discovered several specific lncRNAs which could assist in KOA management.

11.
Liver Int ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to famine and adulthood obesity increased the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adulthood. However, the joint effects on adulthood NAFLD risk are not clear. AIM: This study aimed to explore the joint effects of famine exposure and adulthood obesity on NAFLD risk in later life. METHODS: We included 7632 subjects aged ≥40 years from a community-dwelling population. Participants were divided into 4 famine exposure groups according to the birth year, including nonexposed (1963-1974), fetal-exposed (1959-1962), childhood-exposed (1949-1958) and adolescent-exposed (1941-1948). General obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI: overweight ≥24.0 kg/m2 , obesity ≥28.0 kg/m2 ) and abdominal obesity assessed by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, men/women: moderate ≥0.90/0.85, high ≥0.95/0.90). RESULTS: Compared with nonexposed, fetal- and childhood-exposed participants show an increased risk of NAFLD with multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.28 (1.02-1.61) and 1.40 (1.04-1.88) respectively. After further adjusting BMI and WHR, the increased risk was observed only in childhood-exposed participants (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04-2.05). Significant interaction between famine exposure and general obesity on the risk of NAFLD was observed in women (P for interaction = .02). No significant interactions were detected between famine exposure and abdominal obesity (all P for interaction >.05). Compared with normal-BMI and -WHR participants, those with both general and abdominal obesity in adulthood had 20.74 (95% CI: 12.00-35.96), 14.45 (8.76-23.86), 23.02 (16.28-32.57) and 13.04 (8.30-20.48)-fold higher risk in nonexposed, fetal-, childhood- and adolescent-exposed groups respectively. CONCLUSION: Coexistence of early life famine exposure and adulthood obesity was associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.

12.
J Diabetes ; 12(11): 781-790, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472582

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading global risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Recommendations from current guidelines of blood pressure (BP) management differ in many ways; therefore, we did an overview and comparative analysis of major clinical guidelines of BP management in people with and without diabetes, including the definition and classification of hypertension, initiation of antihypertensive drug therapy, BP control targets, and antihypertensive treatment strategies. BP management in patients with diabetes was discussed in great detail using both hypertension and diabetes guidelines. We conclude that high-level evidence from high-quality clinical studies is urgently needed to settle uncertainties on BP management recommendations.

13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(4): 217-226, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438959

RESUMO

Objective: Liver fibrosis is an important predictor of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and liver fibrosis share many common metabolic dysfunctions. We aimed to explore the association between PAD and risk of fibrosis deterioration in NAFLD patients. Methods: The study recruited 1,610 NAFLD patients aged ≥ 40 years from a well-defined community at baseline in 2010 and followed up between August 2014 and May 2015. Fibrosis deterioration was defined as the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) status increased to a higher category at the follow-up visit. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index of < 0.90 or > 1.40. Results: During an average of 4.3 years' follow-up, 618 patients progressed to a higher NFS category. PAD was associated with 92% increased risk of fibrosis deterioration [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio ( OR): 1.92, 95% confidence interval ( CI): 1.24, 2.98]. When stratified by baseline NFS status, the OR for progression from low to intermediate or high NFS was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.00), and progression from intermediate to high NFS was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 4.80). There was a significant interaction between PAD and insulin resistance (IR) on fibrosis deterioration ( P for interaction = 0.03). As compared with non-PAD and non-IR, the coexistence of PAD and IR was associated with a 3.85-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 7.18) increased risk of fibrosis deterioration. Conclusion: PAD is associated with an increased risk of fibrosis deterioration in NAFLD patients, especially in those with IR. The coexistence of PAD and IR may impose an interactive effect on the risk of fibrosis deterioration.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Front Med ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350764

RESUMO

The association between serum uric acid and the risk of incident diabetes in Chinese adults remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate this association in a community-dwelling population aged ≥ 40 years in Shanghai, China. Oral glucose tole3rance test was conducted during baseline and follow-up visits. Relative risk regression was utilized to examine the associations between baseline gender-specific serum uric acid levels and incident diabetes risk. A total of 613 (10.3%) incident diabetes cases were identified during the follow-up visit after 4.5 years. Fasting plasma glucose, postload glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c during the follow-up visit progressively increased across the sex-specific quartiles of serum uric acid (all Ps < 0.05). The incidence rate of diabetes increased across the quartiles of serum uric acid (7.43%, 8.77%, 11.47%, and 13.43%). Multivariate adjusted regression analysis revealed that individuals in the highest quartile had 1.36-fold increased risk of diabetes compared with those in the lowest quartile of serum uric acid (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.36 (1.06-1.73)). Stratified analysis indicated that the association was only observed in women. Accordingly, serum uric acid was associated with the increased risk of incident diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

15.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 36(6): e3322, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicated that sleep characteristics may play important roles in the development of metabolic disorders. However, little is known as to the association between bedtime and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in individuals with pre-diabetes and diabetes. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 10 375 adults aged ≥40 years, 1960 of 3484 eligible pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals were identified for the current study. NAFLD was diagnosed using liver ultrasonography at baseline and at follow-up. Information on bedtime was obtained at baseline using a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: We documented 433 incident cases of NAFLD among this study population. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model, later bedtime was associated with increased risk of NAFLD (29% increased risk per hour of later bedtime). Compared to individuals with bedtime ≤20:00, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of NAFLD for bedtime of 20:00-22:00 and ≥22:00 were 1.56 (1.04-2.34) and 2.05 (1.31-3.20), respectively. In the subgroup analysis, significant associations were observed among those who were overweight or physically inactive, or those with metabolic syndrome or elevated 10-year risks for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. When estimating the joint effect of bedtime and other sleep characteristics, higher risk of incident NAFLD was observed in groups of late bed/early rise, late bed/napping (yes), late bed/bad sleeper, or late bed/shorter sleep durations. CONCLUSIONS: Later bedtime was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident NAFLD in adults with pre-diabetes and diabetes, underscoring the importance of sleep behaviour management in the prevention of NAFLD.

16.
Chem Rev ; 120(16): 8039-8065, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302477

RESUMO

Reticular chemistry has proven as a notable/distinctive discipline aimed at the deliberate assembly of periodic solids, offering great opportunities to effectively deploy the gained knowledge on net-topologies as a guide and toolbox for designed syntheses, based on the assembly of molecular building blocks into targeted and anticipated structures of crystalline extended solids. The effective practice of reticular chemistry has enriched the repertoire of crystal chemistry and afforded notable accelerating development of crystalline extended frameworks, especially metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, we review a special class of trinodal MOF structures based on the reticulation of special minimal edge-transitive nets (nets with transitivity [3 2], three distinct nodes and two kind of edges) derived from edge-transitive nets (one kind of edge). The rationale for deriving these special minimal edge-transitive nets is reviewed, and their associated net-coded building (net-cBUs) for the design of trinodal MOFs is presented and discussed. The resultant inclusive list of the enumerated minimal edge-transitive nets provides a unique toolbox for the material's designer as it offers ideal blueprints for the deliberate design and rational assembly of building blocks with embedded multiple branch points into intricate trinodal MOFs.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014175, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233751

RESUMO

Background Previous studies reported that early-life exposure to undernutrition is associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but the association with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate whether exposure to Chinese famine in early life is associated with risk of CVD. Methods and Results We used data from REACTION (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study), which recruited a total of 259 657 community-dwelling adults aged 40 years or older from 25 centers across mainland China between 2011 and 2012. Compared with the nonexposed participants, those who had been exposed to famine in early life had a significantly increased risk of total CVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. In the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratios (95% CI) for total CVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease in fetal famine exposure were 1.35 (1.20-1.52), 1.59 (1.08-2.35), 1.40 (1.11-1.78), and 1.44 (1.26-1.65), respectively; those odds ratios in childhood famine exposure were 1.59 (1.40-1.81), 2.20 (1.52-3.20), 1.82 (1.45-2.28), and 1.80 (1.56-2.09), respectively; and those in adolescent famine exposure were 1.52 (1.27-1.81), 2.07 (1.28-3.35), 1.92 (1.42-2.58), and 1.83 (1.50-2.24), respectively. The main finding of our study is that, compared with those who lived in the less severely affected famine area, individuals in the severely affected famine area had significantly increased risk of total CVD in all 3 exposed groups. Conclusions Early-life exposure to undernutrition is associated with significantly increased risk of CVD in later life, especially among those who were in the severely affected famine area.

18.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284597

RESUMO

Two-dimensional carbides and nitrides of transition metals, known as MXenes, are a fast-growing family of materials that have attracted attention as energy storage materials. MXenes are mainly prepared from Al-containing MAX phases (where A = Al) by Al dissolution in F-containing solution; most other MAX phases have not been explored. Here a redox-controlled A-site etching of MAX phases in Lewis acidic melts is proposed and validated by the synthesis of various MXenes from unconventional MAX-phase precursors with A elements Si, Zn and Ga. A negative electrode of Ti3C2 MXene material obtained through this molten salt synthesis method delivers a Li+ storage capacity of up to 738 C g-1 (205 mAh g-1) with high charge-discharge rate and a pseudocapacitive-like electrochemical signature in 1 M LiPF6 carbonate-based electrolyte. MXenes prepared via this molten salt synthesis route may prove suitable for use as high-rate negative-electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage applications.

19.
Environ Res ; 184: 109382, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192991

RESUMO

Animal experiments suggest that bisphenol A (BPA) could potentially induce lipid abnormalities. However, whether BPA exposure associates with altered lipid metabolism in humans has not been fully elucidated. We thus comprehensively investigated the relationship of BPA exposure and its change with lipid profile and development of incident dyslipidemia among Chinese adults. We initially included 1872 participants aged 40 years or older who were free of dyslipidemia at baseline in 2009, and followed them for 4 years. Urinary BPA and serum lipids including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were determined at baseline and follow-up. Linear mixed models were used for repeated measures analyses and linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate longitudinal changes in lipid profile and risk of incident dyslipidemia. In repeated measures analyses, per doubling of urinary BPA concentrations was associated with higher serum levels of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC to HDL-C ratio, and lower levels of HDL-C and TG. In longitudinal change analyses, participants with high BPA at both baseline and follow-up showed an additional 2.94% increase in LDL-C (95% CI: 0.02%, 5.95%) and 6.12% increase in TG (95% CI: 0.74%, 11.8%), as compared with those who maintained low BPA. Furthermore, participants with sustained high BPA at two time points had increased odds of developing hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.66). Our results suggested that high BPA exposure, especially maintained a long time period apart, was associated with deterioration of lipid profiles among middle-aged and elderly adults, supporting a detrimental role of BPA in lipid metabolism.

20.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 172(1): 87-98, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The island of New Guinea was settled by modern human over 50,000 years ago, and is currently characterized by a complex landscape and contains one-seventh of the world's languages. The Eastern Highlands of New Guinea were also the home to the devastating prion disease called kuru that primarily affected Fore-speaking populations, with some 68% of cases involving adult females. We characterized the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of highlanders from Papua New Guinea (PNG) to: (a) gain insight into the coevolution of genes and languages in situ over mountainous landscapes; and (b) evaluate the recent influence of kuru mortality on the pattern of female gene flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sequenced the mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 of 870 individuals from the Eastern and Southern Highlands of PNG using serums collected in the 1950s to 1960s. These highlanders were selected from villages representing 15 linguistic groups within the Trans-New Guinea phylum. Genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances were calculated separately and correlations among those distance matrices were assessed using the Mantel test. RESULTS: Geographic, genetic, and linguistic patterns were independently correlated with each other (p < .05). Increased mtDNA diversity in kuru-affected populations and low Fst estimates between kuru-affected linguistic groups were observed. DISCUSSION: In general, the genetic structure among the Highland populations was shaped by both geography and language, and language is a good predictor of mtDNA affinity in the PNG Highlands. High kuru female mortality increased female gene flow locally, disrupting coevolutionary pattern among genes, languages, and geography.

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