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1.
Cell Cycle ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606419

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological malignancy characterized by proliferation and accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Innovative and effective therapeutic approaches that are able to improve the outcome and the survival of MM sufferers, especially the identification of novel natural compounds and investigation of their anti-MM mechanisms, are needed. Here, we investigated the effects and the potential mechanisms against MM of forskolin, a diterpene derived from the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii, in MM cell line MM.1S. CCK-8 assay showed that forskolin significantly inhibited MM.1S cells viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that forskolin induced G2/M phase arrest with a remarkable increase of p-cdc25c, p-cdc2, and a decrease of cyclin B1, indicating the suppression of cdc25C/cdc2/cyclin B pathway. Moreover, we found that forskolin induced mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis which was accompanied by the increase of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Bim and Bid, the decrease of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, the changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Of note, we demonstrated that forskolin induced a decrease of p-C-Raf, p-MEK, p-ERK1/2 and p-p90Rsk, and an increase of p-PERK, p-eIF2α and CHOP, which indicated that the inhibition of Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and activation of PERK/eIF2α/CHOP pathway were involved, at least partially, in forskolin-induced MM.1S cells apoptosis. These findings confirm the anti-MM action of forskolin and extend the understanding of its anti-MM mechanism in MM.1S cells, as well as reinforcing the evidence for forskolin as a natural chemotherapeutic compound against MM.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27099, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477146

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Transcatheter occlusion and surgical ligation are the treatments of choice for most patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in children. Fifty-five children who had PDA completed a pulmonary function test and a symptom-limited treadmill exercise test from 2016 to 2018 at 1 medical center in southern Taiwan. The study group was divided into surgical ligation and catheterization groups, which were compared to a healthy control group matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Data about the performance on the exercise test, including metabolic equivalent at anaerobic threshold and peak, were analyzed. No differences in the pulmonary function and ventilatory parameters were observed between the surgery, catheterization, and control groups. Heart rate at peak and at anaerobic threshold significantly differed in the investigated groups. The post hoc analysis showed that the surgery group had a lower heart rate at peak and threshold compared to the catheterization and control groups (P = .02, P < .001, respectively). No significant difference was found between the catheterization group and the control group. A larger and younger group of patients were recruited, allowing for newer data about the cardiopulmonary function to be obtained. The findings suggest that patients with PDA could undergo physical training after intervention. The imposition of restrictions to limit sports activities should be avoided.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Testes de Função Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472552

RESUMO

Trans/cis stereoisomers with multiple functionalities play an important role in chemistry and materials science. In this work, two pure stereoisomers (trans- and cis-TPE-2GA) of the tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivatives bi-substituted by a bio-resourced rigid triterpenoid and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) were synthesized and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR, single crystal analysis, and HR-MS. Both trans- and cis-TPE-2GA are thermally stable even on heating at 160 °C for 30 min, whereas they can undergo trans-to-cis and cis-to-trans photoisomerization under similar UV illumination. The introduction of triterpenoid units endowed isomers with different aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and self-assembly properties and distinct crystallinity. Trans- and cis-TPE-2GA exhibit different evolution of the fluorescent intensity in water/acetone mixture with the increase in the water fraction, which are closely related to the different evolution of the aggregate morphology, from nanorods to nanospheres for trans-TPE-2GA, while from twisted ribbons, to nanotubes and nanospheres for cis-TPE-2GA. In the solid state, the mechano-chromic properties are shown by cis-TPE-2GA, while no mechano-chromic effect is observed for trans-TPE-2GA under the same grinding conditions because of their distinct crystallinity. Finally, theoretical calculation and photophysical study demonstrate that despite both isomers being assigned to the charge transfer state emission, cis-TPE-2GA has a slightly lower energy gap, a higher quantum yield, and a longer lifetime in comparison with trans-TPE-2GA, which explained their difference in the fluorescence and mechano-chromic properties. This work may improve the understanding of the TPE-based trans and cis stereoisomers, which will be beneficial in the design of novel TPE-based functional materials.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4344-4359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581037

RESUMO

The Solanaceae plants distributed in China belong to 105 species and 35 varietas of 24 genera. Some medicinal plants of Solanaceae are rich in tropane alkaloids(TAs), which have significant pharmacological activities. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, pharmacological activities, and biosynthetic pathways of TAs in Solanaceous plants were summarized. Besides, the phylogeny of medicinal plants belonging to Solanaceae was visualized by network diagram. Fourteen genera of Solanaceae plants in China contain TAs and have medical records. TAs mainly exist in Datura, Anisodus, Atropa, Physochlaina, and Hyoscyamus. The TAs-containing species were mainly concentrated in Southwest China, and the content of TAs was closely related to plant distribution area and altitude. The Solanaceae plants containing TAs mainly have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, and antitussive effects. Modern pharmacological studies have proved the central sedative, pupil dilating, glandular secretion-inhibiting, and anti-asthma activities of TAs. These pharmacological activities provide a reasonable explanation for the traditional therapeutic efficacy of tropane drugs. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, and modern pharmacological activities of TAs-containing species in Solanaceae were analyzed for the first time. Based on these data, the genetic relationship of TAs-containing Solanaceae species was preliminarily discussed, which provided a scientific basis for the basic research on TAs-containing solanaceous species and was of great significance for the development of natural medicinal plant resources containing TAs.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Solanaceae , Vias Biossintéticas , Filogenia , Solanaceae/genética , Tropanos
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4689-4696, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581077

RESUMO

The sustainable use of medicinal plants is the foundation of the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and the acquisition of information on medicinal plants is the basis for the development of TCM. The traditional methods of investigating medicinal plant resources are disadvantageous in strong subjectivity and poor timeliness, making it difficult to real-time monitor medicinal plant resources. In recent years, remote sensing technology has become an important means of obtaining information on medicinal plants. The application of this technology has made up for the shortcomings of traditional methods. The open-access remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution satellites provide an opportunity for extracting information on medicinal plant resources. This study firstly introduced the principles of remote sensing technology, summarized the satellites and the parameters commonly used in the field of medicinal plant resources, and compared the survey methods of remote sensing technology with traditional methods. Secondly, it reviewed the applications of remote sensing technology in the extraction of information on the cultivation of medicinal plants and the common methods for extracting the planting structure information of medicinal plants based on remote sensing technology. Thirdly, the applications of remote sensing technology in the investigation and monitoring of medicinal plants were further analyzed with the research objects divided into wild and cultivated medicinal plants according to the characteristics of the habitats. Finally, it pointed out the key unsolved technical problems in the remote sensing monitoring of medicinal plant resources, and proposed solutions for the intelligent information processing of medicinal plants based on remote sensing big data, which is expected to provide references for the development of remote sensing technology in derivative application in medicinal plant resources.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
6.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Task-oriented functional walking is important in stroke patients. We aimed to investigate effects of a quad-cane with auxiliary laser illuminator (laser-cane) among stroke patients. METHODS: This was a randomized-prospective study. Patients in the experimental group (EG) received 15-min of walking training with laser-cane and 15-min of traditional physical therapy. Patients in the control group (CG) received the same rehabilitation without laser-cane. The rehabilitation lasted for 4 weeks, twice per week. Primary outcome were gait parameters. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and Barthel index (BI). Outcomes were measured at baseline, at the end of the rehabilitation (visit-1), and 4 weeks later (visit-2). RESULTS: Both the groups (both n = 15) showed improvement of cadence, relative stance and swing phase duration of non-paretic side, BBS, and TUG at both visits. In the intragroup comparison, the EG additionally improved at stride length, relative stance and swing phase duration of paretic side, and gait speed at both visits; temporal swing symmetry, and toe-off angle of non-paretic side at the visit-2. Intergroup comparing for changing of outcomes with the CG, stride length and gait speed increased, relative stance phase duration of the non-paretic site decreased, and the temporal swing symmetry improved at the visit-1; relative stance phase duration of the paretic side decreased and the temporal stance symmetry improved at the visit-2 in the EG. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation with laser-cane improved the balance, activity of daily living, gait symmetry and gait parameters of stroke patients.

7.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(15): e2100194, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145688

RESUMO

Polymer cubosomes and hexosomes are polymer colloids with inverted lyotropic liquid crystal phases as internal structures. They are composed of regular networks of water-filled channels surrounded by a bilayer membrane made from amphiphilic block copolymers. Due to the uniform, tunable, and highly ordered porous structure, polymer cubosomes and hexosomes present numerous advantages over polymer micelles and vesicles, such as the high loading volumes for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, large specific surface areas, and good mechanical and chemical stabilities. The polymer chemistry also enables unlimited molecular design to endow these polymer colloids with a lot of adjustable physical and chemical properties. Therefore, polymer cubosomes and hexosomes have attracted increasing attention for their potential applications in materials science and nanotechnology. This review outlines the recent progress in this field with an emphasis on the polymer architectures, the self-assembly conditions and mechanisms, and some application examples which are special for these inverted polymer colloids. It is hoped to provide some practical guidance for researchers interested in polymer cubosomes and hexosomes.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Polímeros , Coloides , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Micelas
9.
Gait Posture ; 88: 10-15, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic stroke have reduced capacity for performing activities of daily living (ADLs) and are at increased risk for falls during walking due to long-term changes to muscle tone and force, as well as movement control. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the efficacy of lateral stair walking training on muscle strength of affected lower extremities, balance, ADLs, and gait ability in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: The experimental group received 15 min of lateral stair walking exercise along with 15 min of traditional physiotherapy, whereas the control group received only traditional physiotherapy for 30 min. Both groups received the intervention once a week for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements included muscle strength, postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Fugal-Meyer assessment for lower extremity (FMA-LE), Barthel index (BI), timed up and go test (TUG), and the gait parameters which were determined by the Reha-Watch system. RESULTS: A total of 24 participants completed the study. The experimental group showed significant improvements in hip extensor, flexor, and abductor strength of the affected limb, FMA-LE, BI, TUG, and gait parameters of stride length, velocity, and cadence. Significant differences in affected limb ankle plantar strength (p = 0.024), PASS (p = 0.017), BI (p = 0.039), TUG (p = 0.049), and gait velocity (p < 0.001) were observed between the 2 groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Lateral stair walking training alongside physical therapy resulted in significant improvements in hip muscle strength and gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. Our results support the incorporation of lateral stair walking training into clinical rehabilitation programs. Lateral stair walking training in patients with chronic stroke can be used as an effective treatment to improve gait, balance performance, and ADLs.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019557

RESUMO

Studies on physiotherapists are generally focused on clinical professionalism, with very few examining job performance from a management standpoint. To address this gap, this study sought to investigate the relationship between impression management and organizational citizenship behavior and job performance. This study targeted medical institutions offering rehabilitation and physiotherapy services and conducted a questionnaire survey based on scales developed by domestic and foreign scholars. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 523 valid ones collected. The data was tested and verified using regression analysis and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). In the survey, the Impression Management Scale, Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, and Job Performance Scale indicated that at the individual level, the impression management of physiotherapists is significantly related to their organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. The organizational citizenship behaviors were also found to have a mediating effect between impression management and job performance. At the group level, impression management had a conditioning effect on organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. In terms of statistical methods, group-level variables act as moderators, which affects the power of individual-level explanatory variables on outcome variables, i.e., the influence of the slope. The job behaviors of physiotherapists entail direct service and their performance is closely related to organizational development. Impression management gives people certain purposes and behaviors while organizational citizenship behaviors are a type of non-self-seeking, selfless dedication behaviors. Therefore, the motivation of physiotherapists who demonstrate organizational citizenship behaviors should be further explored.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 596: 324-331, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839357

RESUMO

Polymersomes and related self-assembled nanostructures displaying Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE) are highly relevant for plenty of applications in imaging, biology and functional devices. Experimentally simple, scalable and universal strategies for on-demand self-assembly of polymers rendering well-defined nanostructures are highly desirable. A purposefully designed combination of amphiphilic block copolymers including tunable lengths of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEGm) and hydrophobic AIE polymer poly(tetraphenylethylene-trimethylenecarbonate) (P(TPE-TMC)n) has been studied at the air/liquid interface. The unique 2D assembly properties have been analyzed by thermodynamic measurements, UV-vis reflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The (PEG)m-b-P(TPE-TMC)n monolayers formed tunable 2D nanostructures self-assembled on demand by adjusting the available surface area. Tuning of the PEG length allows to modification of the area per polymer molecule at the air/liquid interface. Molecular detail on the arrangement of the polymer molecules and relevant molecular interactions has been convincingly described. AIE fluorescence at the air/liquid interface has been successfully achieved by the (PEG)m-b-P(TPE-TMC)n nanostructures. An experimentally simple 2D to 3D transition allowed to obtain 3D polymersomes in solution. This work suggests that engineered amphiphilic polymers for AIE may be suitable for selective 2D and 3D self-assembly for imaging and technological applications.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1679-1687, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742803

RESUMO

Few of the current methods of improving air quality, including end-pipe treatment, industrial, energy and transportation structure adjustments, are from the viewpoint of the spatial pattern optimization of pollutant emissions. Therefore, based on factors such as natural environment, human health, pollutant transmission capability, and meteorological diffusion conditions, our research group used the threshold approach, natural breaks, spatial erasure, and other methods to define the layout area suitable for atmospheric pollution sources. Based on these results, the emissions pattern was optimized to achieve air quality improvement. Taking Guangdong Province as an example, we examined the application of the emissions pattern optimization of air quality improvement and atmospheric environment zoning. The results indicate that the first class area of environmental air quality accounts for 9% of total province area, the densely populated area accounts for 3%, the sensitive area of the national air quality monitor stations accounts for 15%, the pollutant accumulation area accounts for 22%, and the layout area suitable for atmospheric pollution sources primarily distributed in the west part of the province accounts for 60%. By shifting the non-thermal power industrial sources into those area, the concentration level of PM2.5 will decrease by 4% at the provincial scale and 10% at the city scale. Emissions pattern optimization has become an innovative aided support technology for the continuous improvement of air quality. In practical applications, it can be combined with energy and industrial structure adjustments, pollution control technology enhancements, and cross-regional prevention and control to formulate the most feasible air quality improvement plan.

14.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(3): 229-240, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502185

RESUMO

Radix Astragali (RA), a traditional Chinese medicine from the dried root of Astragalus species, is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world. The major bioactive constituents of RA are triterpene glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids, and these compounds mostly exert pharmacological activities on the cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, and hepatic systems. This review summarizes the recent studies on RA and provides a comprehensive summary regarding the status of resources, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical application, and patent release of RA. We hope this review can provide a guidance for further development of therapeutic agents from RA.

15.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 1): 83-92, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863084

RESUMO

The COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which developed into a pandemic in 2020, has become a major healthcare challenge for governments and healthcare workers worldwide. Despite several medical treatment protocols having been established, a comprehensive rehabilitation program that can promote functional recovery is still frequently ignored. An online consensus meeting of an expert panel comprising members of the Taiwan Academy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation was held to provide recommendations for rehabilitation protocols in each of the five COVID-19 stages, namely (1) outpatients with mild disease and no risk factors, (2) outpatients with mild disease and epidemiological risk factors, (3) hospitalized patients with moderate to severe disease, (4) ventilator-supported patients with clear cognitive function, and (5) ventilator-supported patients with impaired cognitive function. Apart from medications and life support care, a proper rehabilitation protocol that facilitates recovery from COVID-19 needs to be established and emphasized in clinical practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Controle de Infecções , Reabilitação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/reabilitação , Consenso , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reabilitação/métodos , Reabilitação/normas , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan
16.
ACS Nano ; 15(1): 884-893, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370534

RESUMO

Structuring pores into stable membrane and controlling their opening is extremely useful for applications that require nanopores as channels for material exchange and transportation. In this work, nanoporous vesicles with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties were developed from the amphiphilic polymer PEG550-TPE-Chol, in which the hydrophobic part is composed of a tetraphenylethene (TPE) group and a cholesterol moiety and the hydrophilic block is a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mn = 550 Da). Two stereoisomers, trans-PEG550-TPE-Chol and cis-PEG550-TPE-Chol, were successfully synthesized. These thermally stable stereoisomers showed distinct self-assembly behavior in water: trans-PEG550-TPE-Chol formed classical vesicles, while cis-PEG550-TPE-Chol self-assembled into cylindrical micelles. Interestingly, trans/cis mixtures of PEG550-TPE-Chol (trans/cis = 60/40), either naturally synthesized without isomers' separation during the synthesis or intentionally mixed using trans- and cis-isomers, constructed perforated vesicles with nanopores. Moreover, under the illumination of high intensity UV light (365 nm, 15 mW/cm2), the classical vesicles of trans-PEG550-TPE-Chol were perforated by its cis counterparts generated from the trans-cis photoisomerization, while the cylindrical micelles of cis-PEG550-TPE-Chol interweaved to form meshes and nanoporous membranes due to the trans-isomers produced by cis-trans photoisomerization. All of these assemblies in water emitted bright cyan fluorescence under UV light, while their constituent molecules were not fluorescent when solubilized in organic solvent. The AIE fluorescent normal vesicles and nanoporous vesicles may find potential applications in biotechnology as light-gated delivery vehicles and capsules with nanochannels for material exchange.

17.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170942

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have provided numerous medicinal active ingredients for thousands of years and these ingredients have been used in Chinese medicine (CM) and traditional pharmacologies worldwide. Recently, the exploitation and utilisation of medicinal plant resources has increased significantly. The results of the studies have led to the identification of many active components, such as steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides, in various medicinal plants with different evolutionary levels. Moreover, research on the chemical classification, molecular phylogeny, and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is increasing in popularity. Pharmacophylogeny is an interdisciplinary topic that studies the correlation between plant phylogeny, chemical composition, and curative effects (pharmacological activity and the traditional curative effect) of medicinal plants. In addition, it provides the basic tools to enable research and development of CM resources. This literature review, based on the genetic relationship between phytogroup and species, highlights the formation process, research content, applications, and future directions of pharmacophylogeny.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3981-3987, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893598

RESUMO

Mongolian medicine is an indispensable part in developing traditional Mongolian medicine. This study is aimed to provide a basis for the formulation of clinical and Mongolian medicinal materials standards by clarifying the original plant and species collation of Mongolia medicine of "saradma". Mongolian herbal medicine, as an important part of Mongolian medicine, is needed to study the authentic Mongolian medicine, in order to exert the best therapeutic effect in the application. The Mongolian medicine of "saradma" is a kind of medicinal material for diuresis, reinforcing kidney, and eliminating edema, for which comes from the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and other parts of medicinal plant. The ancient books of Mongolian medicine are the most important reference the research of Mongolian medicine varieties. This review adopts the method of inductive comparison of ancient books in order to summarize the conclusion of Mongolian medicine of "saradma". According to the investigations, Mongolian medicine of "saradma" type is mainly Leguminosae plant, Oxytropis latibracteata, Hedysarum multijugum, Thermopsis barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Vicia amoena, O. caerulea, Astragalus bhotanensis, Hedysarum sikkimense. Compared with modern works, it is found that the drug has a wide range of resources distribution and application. It can be used for the treatment of cold edema, hot edema, nephrogenic edema, edema, swelling and likes caused by different diseases. Based on the research of Mongolian medicine of "saradma" varieties, it was found that the most commonly used varieties in Inner Mongolia were cayan saradma, xara saradam and sira saradma all of which are all top-grade drugs that reduce swelling.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Livros , China , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Fitoterapia
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3988-3996, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893599

RESUMO

This paper explores Mongolian medicine processing methods and the use regularity of excipient by text mining techniques. Relevant books of Mongolian medicine processing were consulted to collect data on Mongolian medicine processing methods and excipient, and select data based on processing methods and excipient noun frequency statistics. Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used for statistical analysis and mining for the usage regularity of different types of Mongolian medicinal materials in different periods. And Cytoscape 3.6.1 software was used for visual presentation. The topological analysis showed the top five processing methods were net production, development, frying, calcining and cooking, and the top five processing excipient were fresh milk, wine, urine, cream and mineral borax. Frequency analysis showed that the plant medicinal materials were mostly recorded in the 18~(th) and 21~(st) centuries, especially in the 21 st century; the processing methods mostly contained water processing, repair processing and other methods. The mineral medicinal materials were mostly recorded in the 18~(th), 19~(th) and 21~(st) centuries; most of the processing methods were the fire processing method. The animal medicinal materials were recorded in the 18~(th), 19~(th) and 21~(st) century; the fire processing method occupied a major position, and the repair processing and the grinding processing were markedly increased in the 21~(st) century. In the use of excipient, liquid excipient were mostly used in plant medicines. Solid excipient were most commonly used in the 18~(th) century. Animal excipient were mostly used during the processing in the 18~(th) century. The use of liquid excipient gradually increased in the 19~(th) and 21~(st) centuries. This study summarizes the traditional processing methods of Mongolian medicine and the usage regularity of excipient, defines the characteristics of Mongolian medicine processing methods and excipient, and the characteristics of the combination of medicinal materials and excipient, so as to provide reference for the clinical use of Mongolian medicine.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Mineração de Dados , Registros , Software
20.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 41(19): e2000385, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812328

RESUMO

The research on soft actuators including liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) becomes more and more appealing at a time when the expansion of artificial systems is blooming. Among the various LCE actuators, the bending deformation is often in the origin of many actuation modes. Here, a new strategy with plasma technology is developed to prepare single-layer main-chain LCEs with thermally actuated bending and contraction deformations. Two distinct reactions, plasma polymerization and plasma-induced photopolymerization, are used to polymerize in one step the nematic monomer mixture aligned by magnetic field. The plasma polymerization forms cross-linked but disoriented structures at the surface of the LCE film, while the plasma-induced photopolymerization produces aligned LCE structure in the bulk. The actuation behaviors (bending and/or contraction) of LCE films can be adjusted by plasma power, reaction time, and sample thickness. Soft robots like crawling walker and flower mimic are built by LCE films with bending actuation.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Robótica , Elastômeros , Campos Magnéticos , Polimerização
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