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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2055: 649-678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502173

RESUMO

In recent years, cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a highly promising approach to treat patients with cancer, as the patient's own immune system is harnessed to attack cancer cells. However, the application of these approaches is still limited to a minority of patients with cancer and it is difficult to predict which patients will derive the greatest clinical benefit.One of the challenges faced by the biomedical community in the search of more effective biomarkers is the fact that translational research efforts involve collecting and accessing data at many different levels: from the type of material examined (e.g., cell line, animal models, clinical samples) to multiple data type (e.g., pharmacodynamic markers, genetic sequencing data) to the scale of a study (e.g., small preclinical study, moderate retrospective study on stored specimen sets, clinical trials with large cohorts).This chapter reviews several publicly available bioinformatics tools and data resources for high throughput molecular analyses applied to a range of data types, including those generated from microarray, whole-exome sequencing (WES), RNA-seq, DNA copy number, and DNA methylation assays, that are extensively used for integrative multidimensional data analysis and visualization.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2195-2204, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492228

RESUMO

Iron tetranitro-phthalocyanine was synthesized by the reaction of 4-nitrophthalimide with FeCl3, and was then modified by γ-(trimethoxysilyl)propane-1-thiol to prepare functionalized iron phthalocyanine. A graphene oxide/iron phthalocyanine composite was then prepared, comprising functionalized iron phthalocyanine supported on the surface of graphene oxide via covalent bonds. All these complexes were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) and Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The catalytic properties of the graphene oxide/iron phthalocyanine composite for catalyzing adrenaline oxidation were evaluated by measuring the absorbance intensity at the characteristic peak of the oxidation product. A fiberoptic adrenaline sensor based on a graphene oxide/iron phthalocyanine composite catalyst and fluorescence quenching was fabricated and studied. The relationship between the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and adrenaline was investigated by measuring the phase delay φ. The results showed that the graphene oxide/iron phthalocyanine composite can effectively catalyze adrenaline oxidization, and the optimal conditions are pH = 8.0, T = 30 °C, and mGO-FePc = 4.0 mg/mL; moreover, concentrations of adrenaline can be detected in the range from 1.8×10-6 to 9.2×10-5 mol/L with a sensor response time of 4 min.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2292-2300, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492239

RESUMO

Fluorine-free superhydrophobic cotton fabric was fabricated by coating polyacrylate (PA)/SiO2 nanocomposite. PA/SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared based on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles with double bonds and hexadecyl groups by solution polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and octadecylmethacrylate (OMA). The obtained cotton fabric showed excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 152.2±0.4° and a water shedding angle of 8.0±0.2°, due to the simultaneous introduction of surface topography constructed by modified SiO2 nanoparticles and low surface free energy PA adhesive layer and hexadecyl groups onto cotton fibers. The as-obtained products were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and size distribution analysis. The obtained superhydrophobic fabric coated by PA/SiO2 demonstrated good mechanical stability and self-cleaning. The PA/SiO2 coating treatment caused little loss in the tensile strength, breathability, and whiteness of the treated fabric. This approach with improved human/environmental friendliness can pave the potential way for the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566954

RESUMO

We report a comparative study of the binding of I2 (iodine) in a pair of redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, MFM-300(VIII) and its oxidized, deprotonated analogue, MFM-300(VIV). Adsorption of I2 in MFM-300(VIII) triggers a host-to-guest charge-transfer, accompanied by a partial (∼30%) oxidation of the VIII centers in the host framework and formation of I3- species residing in the MOF channels. Importantly, this charge-transfer induces a significant enhancement in the electrical conductivity (Δσ = 700000) of I2@MFM-300(VIII/IV) in comparison to MFM-300(VIII). In contrast, no host-guest charge-transfer or apparent change in the conductivity was observed upon adsorption of I2 in MFM-300(VIV). High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction of I2@MFM-300(VIII/IV) confirms the first example of self-aggregation of adsorbed iodine species (I2 and I3-) into infinite helical chains within a MOF.

6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available research about the anatomic patterns of intertrochanteric fractures is lacking, and fracture mapping has not previously been performed on intertrochanteric fractures. This study aimed to determine the major trajectories of intertrochanteric fracture lines using computed tomography data from a series of surgically treated patients. METHODS: In this study, 504 patients with intertrochanteric fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Fracture patterns were graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification. Fracture lines were transcribed onto proximal femoral templates and graphically superimposed to create a compilation of fracture maps that were subsequently divided into anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial fracture maps to create a three-dimensional (3D) pattern by reducing fragments in the 3D models. The fracture maps were then converted into frequency spectra. The major fracture patterns were assessed by focusing on the lateral femoral wall, lesser trochanter, intertrochanteric crest, and inner cortical buttress. RESULTS: Anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial fracture maps were created. The majority of fracture lines (85.9%, 433/504) on the anterior maps were along the intertrochanteric line where the iliofemoral ligament was attached. In the medial plane, the majority of fracture lines (49.0%, 247/504) shown on the frequency spectrum included the turning point involving the third quadrant. In the posterior plane, the majority of fracture lines (52.0%, 262/504) involved the intertrochanteric crest from the greater to the lesser trochanter. In the lateral plane, the majority of fracture lines (62.7%, 316/504) involved the greater trochanter at the gluteus medius attachment. CONCLUSIONS: The fracture patterns observed in the present study might be used to describe morphologic characteristics and aid with management strategies. Further classifications or modifications that incorporate the fracture patterns identified in this study may be used in future research.

7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 29(10): 915-918, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of reflux and aspiration in children subjected to reinforced laryngeal mask during laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position, and evaluate its feasibility. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 2017 to May 2018. METHODOLOGY: A total of 300 children, who underwent laparoscopic high ligation of the hernial sac in the Trendelenburg position under general anesthesia, were enrolled into the present study. Reflux and aspiration were assessed by precise saliva pH to determine the pH value at laryngeal mask airway, and at sites on laryngeal mask corresponding to the larynx, face and peripheral area. Then, the presence of food residue was observed at various sites to determine whether there was reflux or aspiration during the operation. RESULTS: Suspected reflux (9.67%) was observed in 29 children and suspected aspiration was observed in nine children (3%). There was no definite reflux or aspiration observed in any of the children. Furthermore, the prevalence of suspected reflux was higher in children who were >3 years and overweight, compared to children with a normal body mass index and an age of <3 years. CONCLUSION: With strict fasting and water deprivation, and strict selection of laryngeal mask indications before selective operation, it is feasible to apply reinforced laryngeal mask in laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position in children.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586991

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of analyzing age as a continuous variable on survival outcomes and treatment selection for extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma. RESULTS: The risk of mortality increased with increasing age, without an apparent cutoff point. Patients' age, as a continuous variable, was independently associated with overall survival after adjustment for covariates. Older early-stage patients were more likely to receive radiotherapy only whereas young-adult advanced-stage patients tended to receive non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy. A decreased risk of mortality with radiotherapy versus chemotherapy only in early-stage patients (HR, 0.347, P < 0.001) or non-anthracycline-based versus anthracycline-based chemotherapy in early-stage (HR, 0.690, P = 0.001) and advanced-stage patients (HR, 0.678, P = 0.045) was maintained in patients of all ages. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support making treatment decisions based on disease-related risk factors rather than dichotomized chronological age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on 2640 patients with extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma from the China Lymphoma Collaborative Group database were analyzed retrospectively. Age as a continuous variable was entered into the Cox regression model using penalized spline analysis to determine the association of age with overall survival (OS) and treatment benefits.

9.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587485

RESUMO

Porous materials with well-defined pore structures have received considerable attention in the past decades due to their unique structures and wide applications. Most porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks and porous organic polymers are extended to infinite frameworks or networks by robust covalent or coordination bonds. Porous molecular cages compose of discrete molecules with permanent cavities are an emerging class of porous material and the discrete molecules assemble into solids by weak intermolecular interaction. In comparison to porous extended solids such as metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks, porous molecular cage solids are generally soluble in organic solvents thus allowing solution processing, making them more convenient to apply in many fields. This review mainly focuses on the recent advance of application of porous molecular cages (porous organic cages and metal-organic cages) for enantioselective recognition and separation from 2010 to present, including gas chromatography, capillary electrochromatography, chiral fluorescent recognition, chiral potentiometric sensing and enantioselective adsorption. Furthermore, the two important family members of porous molecular cages, porous organic cages and metal-organic cages, are also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575425

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is frequently accompanied by co-morbidities and a systemic proinflammatory state, resulting in coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), as well as myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) and diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with HFpEF using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. A single center study was performed in 19 patients with clinical HFpEF and 15 healthy control subjects who underwent quantitative first-pass perfusion imaging to calculate global MPR. T1 mapping was used to assess fibrosis and to calculate extracellular volume. Spiral cine displacement encoded stimulated echo was used to calculate myocardial strain. Comprehensive 2D echocardiograms with speckle tracking, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and brain natriuretic peptide levels were also obtained. In patients with HFpEF, mean left ventricular EF was 61% ± 9% and left ventricular mass index 45 ± 12 g/m2. Compared with controls, HFpEF patients had reduced global MPR (2.29 ± 0.64 vs 3.38 ± 0.76, p = 0.002) and VO2 max (16.5 ± 6.8 vs 30.9 ± 7.7 ml/kg min, p <0.001) whereas extracellular volume (0.29 ± 0.04 vs 0.25 ± 0.04, p = 0.02), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (35.4 ± 13.7 vs 22.3 ± 5.4 mm Hg, p = 0.004), and average E/e' (15.0 ± 7.6 vs 8.6 ± 2.0, p = 0.005) were increased. Displacement encoded stimulated echo peak systolic circumferential strain (p = 0.60) as well as echocardiographic derived global longitudinal strain (p = 0.07) were similar between both groups. The prevalence of CMD, defined as global MPR <2.5, in the HFpEF group was 69%. In conclusion, HFpEF patients have a high prevalence of CMD and diffuse fibrosis. These parameters may be useful clinical end points for future therapeutic trials.

11.
Plant Cell ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575724

RESUMO

Xanthophylls are a class of carotenoids that are important micronutrients for humans. They are often found esterified with fatty acids in fruits, vegetables and certain grains, including bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Esterification promotes the sequestration and accumulation of carotenoids, thereby enhancing stability, particularly in tissues such as in harvested wheat grain. Here, we report on a plant xanthophyll acyltransferase (XAT) that is both necessary and sufficient for xanthophyll esterification in bread wheat grain. XAT contains a canonical Gly-Asp-Ser-Leu (GDSL) motif and is encoded by a member of the GDSL esterase/lipase (GELP) gene family. Genetic evidence from allelic variants of wheat and transgenic rice calli demonstrated that XAT catalyzes the formation of xanthophyll esters. XAT has broad substrate specificity and can esterify lutein, ß-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin using multiple acyl-donors, yet it has a preference for triacylglycerides, indicating that the enzyme acts via transesterification. A conserved amino acid, Ser-37, is required for activity. Despite xanthophylls being synthesized in plastids, XAT accumulated in the apoplast. Based on analysis of substrate preferences and xanthophyll ester formation in vitro and in vivo using xanthophyll-accumulating rice callus, we propose that disintegration of the cellular structure during wheat grain desiccation facilitates access to lutein promoting transesterification.

12.
Amino Acids ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576457

RESUMO

Blood-retinal barrier breakdown is the main pathological characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was reported to be elevated in DR patients. In this study, we observed the dynamic profile of ADMA, retinal morphology and permeability of BRB at 2, 4 or 8 week of diabetic rats induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60 mg/kg) and in cultured rat retinal pericytes pretreated with D-glucose (30 mM) for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days or ADMA (3, 10, 30 µM) for 24, 48 and 72 h, trying to explore the effects of ADMA on blood-retinal barrier in DR. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and the expression of blood-retinal barrier-specific component connexin 43 (Cx43) were examined in diabetic rats or cultured retinal pericytes to elucidate whether ADMA impacted blood-retinal barrier function via damaging Cx43-GJIC. The results showed that with increasing duration of diabetes, the ultrastructure of blood-retinal barrier of diabetic rats appeared cell junction damage, apoptosis of retinal pericytes and breakdown of barrier successively. The increases in retinal permeability, ADMA levels and Cx43 expression, and abnormal GJIC were observed in diabetic rats and retinal pericytes exposed to D-glucose (30 mM). A glucose-like effect was seen using ADMA or another L-arginine analogue NG-monomethyl-L-arginine or dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs) siRNA, implicating that ADMA aggravated the breakdown of blood-retinal barrier via damaging Cx43-GJIC.

13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an increase in recent years in the number of people receiving cosmetic facial injection treatments of hyaluronic acid (HA), the incidence of HA embolism has also commensurately increased. HA embolism leads to serious complications including blindness, eye and eyelid movement disorders, skin necrosis and cerebral embolism. However, there is a lack of robust clinical evidence regarding the benefits of treatment for HA embolism by Intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) therapy. METHODS: In this study, we included 24 patients with a decrease in visual acuity and other complications induced by facial HA injection. These patients underwent emergency IAT therapy by injection of hyaluronidase (500-1,500 units) alone or hyaluronidase (750-1,500 units) combined with urokinase (100,000-250,000 units), followed in both cases by a general symptomatic treatment and nutritional therapy. RESULTS: In the 24 patients, 10 patients (42%) ultimately had improvements to visual acuity, even in cases when the clinical application of the thrombolytic treatments had passed the recommended window for optimal treatment. In all cases the patients' facial skin necrosis was restored to nearly normal appearance. In addition, we found that hyaluronidase combined with urokinase was a more effective therapy than hyaluronidase alone. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that IAT therapy is beneficial to patients suffering from blindness induced by HA embolism. IAT therapy was shown to be worthy of clinical application because it alleviated the impairment to patients' vision , and was also beneficial in the recovery from other serious complications including eye movement disorder, eye edema, headaches, and skin necrosis.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581470

RESUMO

China is the world's largest developing country and its regions vary considerably. However, spatial heterogeneity in determinants of urban expansion in prefecture-level cities have not been identified. The present study explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of Chinese urban expansion and adopted a geographically weighted regression (GWR) method to determine this spatial heterogeneity. The results indicated that China experienced massive urban expansion during 1990-2015, with urban areas growing from 4.88 × 104 km2 to 1.06 × 105 km2, 46.42% of which was distributed in the eastern region. The results of the GWR model revealed the spatial heterogeneity in the determinants of urban expansion. Marketization was vital for urban expansion and had a stronger impact in the developed eastern and southern regions than in the less-developed northern and western regions. Globalization and decentralization bi-directionally affected urban expansion. The constraining effects of physical factors were limited and stronger in the developing northern region than in the developed southern region. Identifying the varying determinants of urban expansion is essential for policy-making in various regions.

15.
J Mol Graph Model ; 93: 107453, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569010

RESUMO

The nocturnal reactions of CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 and CF3CH2OCH3 initiated by NO3 radicals are important sources of alkyl radicals and nitric acids. In this paper, the thermodynamics and kinetics of CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 and CF3CH2OCH3 induced by NO3 radical in gas phase are studied in detail by BHandHLYP method combined with 6-311G(d,p) basis set, and the single point correction is calculated by relatively accurate CCSD(T) method. In the temperature range of 200-400 K, the rate constants of title reactions are fitted to the three-parameter Arrhenius formula: k1 = 1.13 × 10-40T9.24exp(1675.99/T) k2 = 2.23 × 10-23T2.81exp(-4476.24/T) k3 = 5.63 × 1043T-19.20exp(-9344.12/T) All the rate constants calculated by the canonical variational transition state theory and the small curvature tunneling are basically consistent with the limited experimental data. By comparing the reaction rate constants of ethyl ether and its isomer methyl propyl ether with NO3 radical at 293 ±â€¯2 K, the higher the symmetry is, the faster the reaction rate of ether is. Thermodynamic calculations and kinetic data of the title reactions indicate that the H-abstraction reactions at the -OCH2- sites are the main reaction pathways. The thermodynamic and kinetic data of the reaction CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 with NO3 radical, showing that the reaction activity could be reduced due to the addition of fluorine atoms, which is further verified by the enthalpies, Gibbs free energies of the title reactions and C-H bond dissociation energies of the CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 and CF3CH2OCH3 molecules. The reaction thermodynamics and kinetics are determined, and the formation mechanisms of the products are proposed, which are crucial to determine the influence of CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 and CF3CH2OCH3 on air quality, as well as its atmospheric lifetime and durability. The atmospheric lifetimes of CH3CH2OCH2CH3, CHF2CF2OCH2CF3 and CF3CH2OCH3 are evaluated in the NO3-concentration range of 5 × 108-2 × 109 molecule cm-3 to fully consider the effects of different regions on their nocturnal migration. The radiation efficiency and global warming potentials (GWPs) have been reported. The products of title reaction CH3CH2OCHCH3, CF3CHOCF2CHF2 and CF3CHOCH3 are further oxidized into organic nitrates in the presence of O2 and NO. Organic nitrites can be isomerized into organic nitrates or degraded to form CH3C(O•)HOCH2CH3, CF3C(O•)HOCF2CHF2 and CH3C(O•)HOCF3 alkoxy radicals and NO2. This work provides deep insight into the night migration and transformation mechanism of the three ethers.

16.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 145: 223-236, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580946

RESUMO

The intestine is a highly radiosensitive tissue that is susceptible to structural and functional damage due to systemic as well as localized radiation exposure. Unfortunately, no effective prophylactic or therapeutic agents are available at present to manage radiation-induced intestinal injuries. We observed that the vanillin derivative VND3207 improved the survival of lethally irradiated mice by promoting intestinal regeneration and increasing the number of surviving crypts. Pre-treatment with VND3207 significantly increased the number of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells, the transient Ki67+ proliferating cells. Mechanistically, VND3207 decreased oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and maintained endogenous antioxidant status by increasing the level of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, VND3207 maintained appropriate levels of activated p53 that triggered cell cycle arrest but were not sufficient to induce NOXA-mediated apoptosis, thus ensuring DNA damage repair in the irradiated small intestinal crypt cells. Furthermore, VND3207 treatment restores the intestinal bacterial flora structures altered by TBI exposure. In conclusion, VND3207 promoted intestinal repair following radiation injury by reducing reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage and modulating appropriate levels of activated p53 in intestinal epithelial cells.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589456

RESUMO

As two widely-used UV filters, oxybenzone and dioxybenzone are applied in a variety of areas, particularly in sun screen cosmetics. Ultrafast femtosecond transient absorption is utilized to trace the excited states and transient states of the nanocrystalline suspension and solution phase of these two molecules. It turns out an intriguing discovery that the transient species of the oxybenzone nanocrystalline suspension have shorter lifetimes than that in solution. The energy dissipation mechanism of these molecules is simulated by DFT calculations, the potential energy surface calculations and the single crystal structure can well explain the fast decay dynamics of transient states of nanocrystalline of these two molecules.

18.
J Biopharm Stat ; 29(5): 749-759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590626

RESUMO

A question that routinely arises in medical device clinical studies is the homogeneity across demographic subgroups, geographical regions, or investigational sites of the enrolled patients in terms of treatment effects or outcome variables. The main objective of this paper is to discuss statistical concepts and methods for the assessment of such homogeneity and to provide the practitioner a statistical framework and points to consider in conducting homogeneity assessment. Demographic subgroups, geographical regions, and investigational sites are discussed separately as each has its unique issues. Specific considerations are also given to randomized controlled trials, non-randomized comparative studies, and single-arm studies. We point out that judicious use of statistical methods, in conjunction with sound clinical judgment, is essential in handling the issue of homogeneity of treatment effect in medical device clinical studies.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6484-6491, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588754

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates capable of working under laser excitation in a broad wavelength range are highly desirable in diverse application fields. Here, we demonstrate that the bioinspired Ag brochosomes, hollow microscale particles with submicroscale pits, have broadband and omnidirectional SERS performance. The SERS performance of the Ag brochosomes under near-infrared laser excitation makes them promising for applications in biosensing fields, such as the sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and bovine hemoglobin protein. Additionally, the SERS intensity was insensitive to the incident angle of the laser beam, resulting from the spherical structure of the Ag brochosomes. The omnidirectional SERS performance makes the Ag brochosomes have application potential for in-the-field analysis using a hand-held Raman spectrometer for which it is difficult to accurately control the laser beam normal to the SERS substrates. Overall, the broadband and omnidirectional brochosome SERS substrates will find applications in diverse fields, particularly in biomedicine and in-the-field analysis.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical data of patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) were analyzed statistically to identify factors leading to delayed cure after microvascular decompression (MVD). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 600 patients with HFS subjected to MVD from March 2016 to May 2018 was performed. Student t test, chi-square test, logistic regression analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the correlation between delayed cure and its related factors. RESULTS: Among the 600 patients enrolled, 117 had delayed cure after MVD. The shortest duration of delayed cure was 4 days, and the longest was 540 days, with an average of 108 days. The frequency of delayed improvement in these patients was not associated with sex, age, or offending vessel type (p > 0.05); however, delayed cure was positively correlated with the course of the disease, grade of HFS severity, and disappearance of abnormal muscle responses during the operation (p < 0.05). Moreover, a longer disease course was associated with more severe related symptoms and a longer duration of postoperative delayed cure. CONCLUSION: MVD is an effective treatment for HFS. Given that postoperative delayed cure was unavoidable, even with accurate identification of the offending vessel and sufficient decompression of the root exit zone, delayed cure should be considered in patients undergoing reoperation due to lack of remission or relapse after the operation. Additionally, the timing of efficacy assessments should be delayed.

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