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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(8): 1995-2007, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531714

RESUMO

Quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is vital for the development of the downstream industries, and is an important channel for implementing the strategy of "higher quality, higher price, and priority for the high quality" for traditional Chinese medicine. At the moment, the quality of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is mainly evaluated based on chemical component examination. Considering the weak preliminary research foundation and poor research conditions, traditional experience-based evaluation is undervalued in the quality rating of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. However, traditional experience is a summary of the quality of Chinese medicinal materials based on clinical experience, which thus can be a potential basis for the quality evaluation of the decoction pieces. It is a challenge in the evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces to objectify the traditional experience-based evaluation from multiple aspects such as chemistry, effect, and characterization via modern techniques. Therefore, this study developed the "experience-ingredients-activity-electronic sensing" evaluation system for Chinese medicinal decoction pieces on the basis of experience-based assessment, chemical ingredients that can truly reflect the traditional experience, biological effect assessment, and electronic sensory evaluation, which is expected to quantify the traditional experience of quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces via chemistry, biology, and sensory simulation. The evaluation system can serve as a reference for clinical experience-based quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , China , Eletrônica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Restrição Física
2.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although inflammation is found to be related to arteriopathy pathogenesis, it is yet to be determined the distinct correlations of specific inflammatory biomarker types contributing to different cerebral large vessel diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between multiple inflammatory biomarkers and cerebral atherosclerosis and dolichoectasia in a community-based sample. METHODS: A total of 960 participants of the Shunyi study were included. A panel of 14 circulatory inflammatory biomarkers was assessed and then grouped in three sets as systemic, endothelial-related, and media-related inflammation, based on underlying different inflammatory cascades. Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS), dolichoectasia estimated by magnetic resonance angiography, and carotid plaques estimated by ultrasound were also performed. RESULTS: Endothelial-related inflammatory group was related to the presence of ICAS (R2 = 0.215, p = 0.024) and carotid plaques (R2 = 0.342, p = 0.013). Backward stepwise elimination showed that E-selectin was prominent (ß = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.85, p = 0.001; ß = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93, p = 0.005). Systemic inflammatory group was associated with an increased basilar artery diameter (R2 = 0.051, p < 0.001), and backward stepwise elimination showed that IL-6 was prominent (ß = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.11, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Different types of inflammatory biomarkers were associated with atherosclerosis and dolichoectasia, respectively, implying dissimilar inflammatory processes. Further confirming of their distinct anti-inflammatory roles as potential therapeutic targets is warrant.

3.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although inflammation has been proposed to be a candidate risk factor for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), previous findings remain largely inconclusive and vary according to disease status and study designs. The present study aimed to investigate possible associations between inflammatory biomarkers and MRI markers of CSVD. METHODS: A group of 15 serum inflammatory biomarkers representing a variety of those putatively involved in the inflammatory cascade was grouped and assessed in a cross-sectional study involving 960 stroke-free subjects. The biomarker panel was grouped as follows: systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor α), endothelial-related inflammation (E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), CD40 ligand, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, chitinase-3-like-1 protein and total homocysteine (tHCY)) and media-related inflammation (matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3 and 9, and osteopontin). The association(s) between different inflammatory groups and white matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), enlarged perivascular space (PVS) and the number of deep medullary veins (DMVs) were investigated. RESULTS: High levels of serum endothelial-related inflammatory biomarkers were associated with both increased WMH volume (R2=0.435, p=0.015) and the presence of lacunes (R2=0.254, p=0.027). Backward stepwise elimination of individual inflammatory biomarkers for endothelial-related biomarkers revealed that VCAM-1 was significant for WMH (ß=0.063, p=0.005) and tHCY was significant for lacunes (ß=0.069, p<0.001). There was no association between any group of inflammatory biomarkers and CMBs or PVS. Systemic inflammatory biomarkers were associated with fewer DMVs (R2=0.032, p=0.006), and backward stepwise elimination of individual systemic-related inflammatory biomarkers revealed that hsCRP (ß=-0.162, p=0.007) was significant. CONCLUSION: WMH and lacunes were associated with endothelial-related inflammatory biomarkers, and fewer DMVs were associated with systemic inflammation, thus suggesting different underlying inflammatory processes and mechanisms.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 143, 2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a mental disorder with a high relapse rate. However, specific neuroimaging biomarkers have not been determined for alcohol dependence and its relapse. We conducted data-driven research to investigate resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) during early abstinence from alcohol dependence and its potential ability to predict relapse. METHODS: Participants included 68 alcohol-dependent patients and 68 healthy controls (HCs). The regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) were compared between the alcohol dependence group and the HCs and between the relapse group and the nonrelapse group. The brain regions that presented significantly different ReHo and/or fALFF between the alcohol-dependent patients and HCs and/or between the relapsed and nonrelapsed patients were selected as the seeds to calculate the functional connectivities (FCs). RESULTS: During a 6-month follow-up period, 52.24% of alcohol-dependent patients relapsed. A regression model for differentiating alcohol-dependent patients and HCs showed that reductions in ReHo in the left postcentral region, fALFF in the right fusiform region, and FC in the right fusiform region to the right middle cingulum were independently associated with alcohol dependence, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.841. The baseline FC of the left precentral to the left cerebellum of the relapse group was significantly lower than that of the nonrelapse group. The AUC of this FC to predict relapse was 0.774. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to advancing research on the neurobiological etiology and predictive biomarkers for relapse associated with alcohol dependence.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Recidiva
5.
J Affect Disord ; 299: 416-424, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet addiction (IA) is associated with adverse consequences, especially for younger people. Evidence indicates that IA is associated with depression, but no studies have yet investigated potential common vulnerability between them. METHODS: IA (measured by the Young's 20-item Internet Addiction Test Scale) and depressive symptoms (measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Scale) among 12 043 undergraduates were surveyed at baseline and at a respective 12 month follow-up for each participant. Application of a cross-lagged panel model approach (CLPM) revealed an association between IA and depression after adjusting for demographic variables. RESULTS: Rates of baseline IA and depression were 5.47% (95% CI: 5.07%, 5.88%) and 3.85% (95% CI: 3.51%, 4.20%), respectively; increasing to 9.47% (95% CI: 8.94%, 9.99%) and 5.58% (95% CI: 5.17%,5.99%), respectively, at follow-up. Rates of new-incidences of IA and depression over 12 months were 7.43% (95% CI: 6.95%, 7.91%) and 4.47% (95% CI: 4.09%, 4.84%), respectively. Models in the present analysis revealed that baseline depression had a significant net-predictive effect on follow-up IA, and baseline IA had a significant net-predictive effect on follow-up depression. LIMITATIONS: The follow-up survey response rate was moderate (54.69%) in this analysis of university students. Moreover, the IAT-20 scale did not allow differentiate between specific forms of Internet activity. CONCLUSIONS: Common vulnerability and bidirectional cross-causal effects may both contribute to the association between IA and depression, with common vulnerability likely playing a more significant role than cross-causal effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Universidades , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudantes
6.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211065210, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855528

RESUMO

Our aim is to investigate the association of cerebral deep medullary veins (DMVs) with white matter microstructural integrity and regional brain atrophy in MRI. In a community-based cohort of 979 participants (mean age 55.4 years), DMVs were identified on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Brain structural measurements including gray matter and hippocampus volumes, as well as diffusion tensor metrics, were evaluated. The mean (SD)number of DMVs was 19.0 (1.7). A fewer number of DMVs was related to lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity in multiple voxels on the white matter skeleton (threshold-free cluster enhancement corrected p < 0.05, adjusted for age and sex). Also, fewer DMVs were significantly related to a lower gray matter fraction and a hippocampal fraction (0.10 and 0.11 per DMV, respectively; SE, 0.03 for both; p < 0.001 for both). A significant correlation between DMVs' reduction and cortical atrophy was observed in the bilateral occipital lobes, temporal lobes, hippocampus, and frontal lobes (p < 0.001, adjusted for age, sex, and total intracranial volume). Our results provided evidence that cerebral small venules disease play a role in brain parenchymal lesions and neurodegenerative processes.

7.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(7): 636-644, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to explore precipitating and social risk factors for internet addiction (IA) in university undergraduate students, and to provide evidence for interventions and the early prevention of IA in different genders. METHODS: Four thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight college sophomores completed an online survey on their internet use-related behaviours and social risk factors. RESULTS: We found that more male (8.3%) than female students (5.4%) had moderate and severe IA. The main online activity in the moderate and severe IA groups was online gaming in males and online streaming in females. Roommates engaging in similar internetbased entertainment was a risk factor of IA only for males, while not being in a romantic relationship was a risk factor of IA for females only. Infatuation with the internet before college and adjustment problems for college life were shared risk factors for both genders in the mild and moderate IA groups. CONCLUSION: IA was a common phenomenon in college students with shared and unique precipitating and social risk factors in males and females. The gender-sensitive risk factors for IA warranted earlier and individualized intervention and prevention strategies for IA in this population.

8.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 118, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species domestication is generally characterized by the exploitation of high-impact mutations through processes that involve complex shifting demographics of domesticated species. These include not only inbreeding and artificial selection that may lead to the emergence of evolutionary bottlenecks, but also post-divergence gene flow and introgression. Although domestication potentially affects the occurrence of both desired and undesired mutations, the way wild relatives of domesticated species evolve and how expensive the genetic cost underlying domestication is remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the demographic history and genetic load of chicken domestication. RESULTS: We analyzed a dataset comprising over 800 whole genomes from both indigenous chickens and wild jungle fowls. We show that despite having a higher genetic diversity than their wild counterparts (average π, 0.00326 vs. 0.00316), the red jungle fowls, the present-day domestic chickens experienced a dramatic population size decline during their early domestication. Our analyses suggest that the concomitant bottleneck induced 2.95% more deleterious mutations across chicken genomes compared with red jungle fowls, supporting the "cost of domestication" hypothesis. Particularly, we find that 62.4% of deleterious SNPs in domestic chickens are maintained in heterozygous states and masked as recessive alleles, challenging the power of modern breeding programs to effectively eliminate these genetic loads. Finally, we suggest that positive selection decreases the incidence but increases the frequency of deleterious SNPs in domestic chicken genomes. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a new landscape of demographic history and genomic changes associated with chicken domestication and provides insight into the evolutionary genomic profiles of domesticated animals managed under modern human selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Domesticação , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Genoma , Genômica , Humanos
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 247, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research using whole-brain neuroimaging techniques has revealed structural differences of grey matter (GM) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. However, some of the findings diverge from other neuroimaging studies and require further replication. The quantity of relevant research has, thus far, been limited and the association between GM and abstinence duration of AUD patients has not yet been systematically reviewed. METHODS: The present research conducted a meta-analysis of voxel-based GM studies in AUD patients published before Jan 2021. The study utilised a whole brain-based d-mapping approach to explore GM changes in AUD patients, and further analysed the relationship between GM deficits, abstinence duration and individual differences. RESULTS: The current research included 23 studies with a sample size of 846 AUD patients and 878 controls. The d-mapping approach identified lower GM in brain regions including the right cingulate gyrus, right insula and left middle frontal gyrus in AUD patients compared to controls. Meta-regression analyses found increasing GM atrophy in the right insula associated with the longer mean abstinence duration of the samples in the studies in our analysis. GM atrophy was also found positively correlated with the mean age of the samples in the right insula, and positively correlated with male ratio in the left middle frontal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: GM atrophy was found in the cingulate gyrus and insula in AUD patients. These findings align with published meta-analyses, suggesting they are potential deficits for AUD patients. Abstinence duration, age and gender also affect GM atrophy in AUD patients. This research provides some evidence of the underlying neuroanatomical nature of AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 609458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584384

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol dependence (AD) is a chronic recurrent brain disease that causes a heavy disease burden worldwide, partly due to high relapse rates after detoxification. Verified biomarkers are not available for AD and its relapse, although the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) may play important roles in the mechanism of addiction. This study investigated AD- and relapse-associated functional connectivity (FC) of the NAc and mPFC with other brain regions during early abstinence. Methods: Sixty-eight hospitalized early-abstinence AD male patients and 68 age- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-functional magnetic resonance imaging (r-fMRI). Using the NAc and mPFC as seeds, we calculated changes in FC between the seeds and other brain regions. Over a follow-up period of 6 months, patients were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) scale to identify relapse outcomes (AUDIT ≥ 8). Results: Thirty-five (52.24%) of the AD patients relapsed during the follow-up period. AD displayed lower FC of the left fusiform, bilateral temporal superior and right postcentral regions with the NAc and lower FC of the right temporal inferior, bilateral temporal superior, and left cingulate anterior regions with the mPFC compared to controls. Among these FC changes, lower FC between the NAc and left fusiform, lower FC between the mPFC and left cingulate anterior cortex, and smoking status were independently associated with AD. Subjects in relapse exhibited lower FC of the right cingulate anterior cortex with NAc and of the left calcarine sulcus with mPFC compared to non-relapsed subjects; both of these reductions in FC independently predicted relapse. Additionally, FC between the mPFC and right frontal superior gyrus, as well as years of education, independently predicted relapse severity. Conclusion: This study found that values of FC between selected seeds (i.e., the NAc and the mPFC) and some other reward- and/or impulse-control-related brain regions were associated with AD and relapse; these FC values could be potential biomarkers of AD or for prediction of relapse. These findings may help to guide further research on the neurobiology of AD and other addictive disorders.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113917, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609729

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qingxin Lianzi Yin Decoction (QXLZY), a Chinese classical formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases over 1,000 years. However, the current studies on QXLZY were mostly focused on its clinical efficacy, lacking systematic material basis research on constituents. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to elucidate and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS was employed to clarify the chemical constituents and metabolites of QXLZY. The extraction of diagnostic ion and neutral loss fragment was aimed for searching specific type of constituents. The plasma, urine, bile and feces samples of rats after oral administration of QXLZY were systematically studied. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously detect different types of constitutes. Based on the analysis of ingredients in vivo, the bioactive constituents and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated by using network pharmacological analysis. RESULTS: Totally, 220 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS. Among them, 59 compounds were confirmed by reference standards. Meanwhile, 21 representative components were simultaneously determined within 15 min by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. 123 components (74 prototypes as well as 49 metabolites) were identified or tentatively characterized. By using network pharmacological analysis, baicalein, liquiritigenin, succinic acid, formononetin, wogonin might be the major effective constituents in QXLZY during the treatment of DN. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, saponins and organic acids were the major chemical ingredients of QXLZY. Flavonoids were the main components absorbed into blood, followed by organic acids. Phase II conjugation reaction was the major metabolic type. The pathways that QXLZY in the treatment of DN were probably related to glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ácidos/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Masculino , Metaboloma , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 930-938, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as sustained attention cognitive deficit are consistently reported to be impaired in bipolar disorders. However, whether these deficits exist across mood states and euthymic state are lacking. We compared rs-FC of IFG and sustained attention of bipolar patients in (hypo) mania, depression and euthymia, with controls. We also explored the interrelationships between clinical, cognitive, and imaging measurements. METHODS: Participants included 110 bipolar subjects: 46 manic/hypomanic, 35 euthymic, and 29 depressed, matched with 41 healthy controls (HCs) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI scans. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were performed focused on bilateral IFG seeds. Clinical symptoms and sustained attention function were measured. Stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted to explore predictors of sustained attention measurements. RESULTS: Increased rs-FC between right IFG and bilateral frontal pole/superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, as well as decreased rs-FC between right IFG and sensorimotor areas, anterior middle cingulate gyrus were found in all three bipolar subgroups compared with HCs. Impaired sustained attention measurement was found in bipolar manic/hypomanic and depressive subgroups compared with HCs. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant impact of the manic symptoms and psychotic symptoms on the performance of sustained attention task. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that IFG seed-based resting-state functional networks involved in emotion regulation and cognitive function were trait-like deficit in bipolar patients. Higher manic levels and psychotic symptoms were predictors of a worse sustained attention performance.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Atenção , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Ciclotímico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal
13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 567-576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms through which arterial stiffness impacts cognitive function are crucial for devising better strategies to prevent cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of arterial stiffness with white matter integrity and cognition in community dwellings, and to investigate whether white matter injury was the intermediate of the associations between arterial stiffness and cognition. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis on 952 subjects (aged 55.5±9.1 years) who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Both linear regression and tract-based spatial statistics were used to investigate the association between baPWV and white matter integrity. The association between baPWV and global cognitive function, measured as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was evaluated. Mediation analysis was performed to assess the influence of white matter integrity on the association of baPWV with MMSE. RESULTS: Increased baPWV was significantly associated with lower mean global fractional anisotropy (ß= -0.118, p < 0.001), higher mean diffusivity (ß= 0.161, p < 0.001), axial diffusivity (ß= 0.160, p < 0.001), and radial diffusivity (ß= 0.147, p < 0.001) after adjustment of age, sex, and hypertension, which were measures having a direct effect on arterial stiffness and white matter integrity. After adjustment of age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E ɛ4, cardiovascular risk factors, and brain atrophy, we found an association of increased baPWV with worse performance on MMSE (ß= -0.093, p = 0.011). White matter disruption partially mediated the effect of baPWV on MMSE. CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness is associated with white matter disruption and cognitive decline. Reduced white matter integrity partially explained the effect of arterial stiffness on cognition.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Rigidez Vascular , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anisotropia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , China , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(9): 1473-1480, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439457

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the associations of large artery stenosis (LAS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with the risk of ischemic stroke and to investigate their respective and combined contributions. In the prospective population-based Shunyi Study, 1,082 stroke-free participants aged 55.9±9.1 years were included. Participants were followed for incident stroke throughout the study period (2013-2019). Total small vessel disease score was used to measure CSVD burden. Cervico-cerebral large artery stenosis was evaluated via brain magnetic resonance angiography and carotid ultrasound. We estimated the risk of ischemic stroke in relation to LAS and CSVD with Cox regression models. During a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, 34 participants (3.1%) experienced at least one ischemic stroke. Severe LAS (≥50% stenosis versus no stenosis: HR=3.27 (95% CI: 1.31-8.18)) and high CSVD burden (total small vessel disease score 2-4 versus 0 point: HR=12.73 (4.83-33.53)) were associated with increased stroke risk independently. In multivariate models, CSVD burden (7.72%) explained a larger portion of the variation in stroke risk than severity of LAS (3.49%). Our findings identified that both LAS and CSVD were associated with future ischemic stroke in asymptomatic subjects, while those with high CSVD burden deserve more attention in primary prevention of stroke.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/complicações , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Constrição Patológica/complicações , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
15.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 41(3): 561-568, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312169

RESUMO

Our aim is to investigate whether vascular risk factors are associated with cerebral deep medullary veins (DMVs) and whether DMVs are associated with MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) or risk of stroke. In a community-based cohort of 1056 participants (mean age 55.7 years), DMVs were identified on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and counted in periventricular regions. Neuroimaging markers including lacunes, whiter matter hyperintensity (WMH), microbleeds, enlarged perivascular space, and brain atrophy were evaluated. The number of DMVs decreased with age (p = 0.007). After adjusting for age and sex, the number of DMVs was not associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Fewer DMVs was associated with increase of WMH and lacunes, but the association vanished after adjustment for vascular risk factors. However, fewer DMVs were independently associated with brain atrophy (p < 0.001). DMVs were not associated with three-year risk of stroke. Our results suggest that DMV is significantly different from other MRI markers of CSVD regarding risk factors, association with other CSVD markers, and risk of stroke. Nonetheless, the significant association between DMV and brain atrophy suggested the potential role of venules in age-related neurodegenerative process, which deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Veias Cerebrais/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/epidemiologia , Veias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 28(3): 283-292, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536634

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between central arterial stiffness and aging-related intracranial arteriopathy is not well investigated in the general population. In a population-based study, we investigated arterial stiffness in relation to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis on 1,123 subjects (aged 56.0±9.3 years, 37.9% men) of the population-based Shunyi study in China. Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia were evaluated via brain magnetic resonance angiography. Multivariate regression models were constructed to investigate the association between baPWV and intracranial large artery diseases. RESULTS: Increased baPWV was significantly associated with higher prevalence of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (odds ratio for the highest quartile of baPWV compared with the lowest quartile, 3.66 [95% confidence interval, 1.57- 8.54]), after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate analysis. BaPWV was not associated with the presence of basilar artery dolichoectasia and dilation of basilar artery and internal carotid artery. When the diameters of intracranial arteries were regarded as continuous variables, increased baPWV was inversely related to the internal carotid artery diameter in fully adjusted models (ß±SE, -0.083±0.042, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study demonstrates that arterial stiffness was more likely associated with intracranial stenotic arteriopathy other than intracranial dilative arteriopathy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
17.
Front Neurol ; 11: 598650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281735

RESUMO

Cases of autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy who were initially diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) were rarely reported. Herein, we reported a 31-year-old woman who presented with 7 years of recurrent headache. Her clinical history, symptoms, brain MRI enhancement features, and response to treatment during each attack were reviewed. Her brain MRI 7 years ago demonstrated characteristic pepper-like enhancement of pontine and cerebellum and her symptoms resolved completely after taking a high-dose of steroids. She was suspected with the diagnosis of CLIPPERS, and she experienced five relapses once the oral steroid was tapered below 20 mg/day. During her last relapse, she experienced fever and psychosis, and GFAPα-antibodies were detected in her serum and cerebrospinal fluid by antigen-transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (indirect immunofluorescence assay). She obtained relief again after steroid therapy, and her diagnosis converted to autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy. Autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy may mimic CLIPPERS, both clinically and radiologically. Long-term follow-up is essential for necessary diagnosis revision at each new attack in patients with a diagnosis of CLIPPERS.

18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105062, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the feasibility and clinical utility of head-neck joint high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HNJ-VWI) in the assessment of ischemic stroke. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional HNJ-VWI database. Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke were included. Abnormal findings of intracranial and/or extracranial artery were assessed on three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D TOF MRA) and HNJ-VWI modified from high-resolution 3D T1 sequence and classified into three groups including intracranial, extracranial and coexisting based on the locations. Etiologies of stroke were recorded according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. RESULTS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients were studied. 3D TOF MRA displayed 71.8% (79/110, based on patients) abnormal arteries (stenosis or occlusion) , while HNJ-VWI displayed 96.3% (106/110) abnormal arteries (plaque,wall thickness and occlusion) including four isolated extracranial lesions and ten coexisting lesions. The etiologies of TIA/ischemic stroke included large artery atherosclerosis (80 cases), cerebral small vessel disease (6 cases), cardiogenic (2 cases), dissection (6 cases), vasculitis (4 cases), moyamoya disease (6 cases), others (2 cases) and undetermined (4 cases). For patients with atherosclerosis stroke, re-infarctions were more common in coexisting group than intracranial group (extracranial vs. intracranial vs coexisting: 0% vs. 9.1% vs. 43.7%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HNJ-VWI is a feasible and valuable technique in assessment of ischemic stroke by detecting extracranial and intracranial artery abnormalities with one-step scan.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/irrigação sanguínea , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 72, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The remarkable abilities of the human brain are distinctive features that set us apart from other animals. However, our understanding of how the brain has changed in the human lineage remains incomplete, but is essential for understanding cognition, behavior, and brain disorders in humans. Here, we compared the expression trajectory in brain development between humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to explore their divergent transcriptome profiles. RESULTS: Results showed that brain development could be divided into two stages, with a demarcation date in a range between 25 and 26 postconception weeks (PCW) for humans and 17-23PCWfor rhesus macaques, rather than birth time that have been widely used as a uniform demarcation time of neurodevelopment across species. Dynamic network biomarker (DNB) analysis revealed that the two demarcation dates were transition phases during brain development, after which the brain transcriptome profiles underwent critical transitions characterized by highly fluctuating DNB molecules. We also found that changes between early and later brain developmental stages (as defined by the demarcation points) were substantially greater in the human brain than in the macaque brain. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying prolonged timing during early human brain development, we carried out expression heterochrony tests. Results demonstrated that compared to macaques, more heterochronic genes exhibited neoteny during early human brain development, consistent with the delayed demarcation time in the human lineage, and proving that neoteny in human brain development could be traced to the prenatal period. We further constructed transcriptional networks to explore the profile of early human brain development and identified the hub gene RBFOX1 as playing an important role in regulating early brain development. We also found RBFOX1 evolved rapidly in its non-coding regions, indicating that this gene played an important role in human brain evolution. Our findings provide evidence that RBFOX1 is a likely key hub gene in early human brain development and evolution. CONCLUSIONS: By comparing gene expression profiles between humans and macaques, we found divergent expression trajectories between the two species, which deepens our understanding of the evolution of the human brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/genética , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
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