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1.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 930-938, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as sustained attention cognitive deficit are consistently reported to be impaired in bipolar disorders. However, whether these deficits exist across mood states and euthymic state are lacking. We compared rs-FC of IFG and sustained attention of bipolar patients in (hypo) mania, depression and euthymia, with controls. We also explored the interrelationships between clinical, cognitive, and imaging measurements. METHODS: Participants included 110 bipolar subjects: 46 manic/hypomanic, 35 euthymic, and 29 depressed, matched with 41 healthy controls (HCs) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI scans. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were performed focused on bilateral IFG seeds. Clinical symptoms and sustained attention function were measured. Stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted to explore predictors of sustained attention measurements. RESULTS: Increased rs-FC between right IFG and bilateral frontal pole/superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, as well as decreased rs-FC between right IFG and sensorimotor areas, anterior middle cingulate gyrus were found in all three bipolar subgroups compared with HCs. Impaired sustained attention measurement was found in bipolar manic/hypomanic and depressive subgroups compared with HCs. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant impact of the manic symptoms and psychotic symptoms on the performance of sustained attention task. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that IFG seed-based resting-state functional networks involved in emotion regulation and cognitive function were trait-like deficit in bipolar patients. Higher manic levels and psychotic symptoms were predictors of a worse sustained attention performance.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Atenção , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Ciclotímico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 567-576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms through which arterial stiffness impacts cognitive function are crucial for devising better strategies to prevent cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of arterial stiffness with white matter integrity and cognition in community dwellings, and to investigate whether white matter injury was the intermediate of the associations between arterial stiffness and cognition. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis on 952 subjects (aged 55.5±9.1 years) who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Both linear regression and tract-based spatial statistics were used to investigate the association between baPWV and white matter integrity. The association between baPWV and global cognitive function, measured as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was evaluated. Mediation analysis was performed to assess the influence of white matter integrity on the association of baPWV with MMSE. RESULTS: Increased baPWV was significantly associated with lower mean global fractional anisotropy (ß= -0.118, p < 0.001), higher mean diffusivity (ß= 0.161, p < 0.001), axial diffusivity (ß= 0.160, p < 0.001), and radial diffusivity (ß= 0.147, p < 0.001) after adjustment of age, sex, and hypertension, which were measures having a direct effect on arterial stiffness and white matter integrity. After adjustment of age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E ɛ4, cardiovascular risk factors, and brain atrophy, we found an association of increased baPWV with worse performance on MMSE (ß= -0.093, p = 0.011). White matter disruption partially mediated the effect of baPWV on MMSE. CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness is associated with white matter disruption and cognitive decline. Reduced white matter integrity partially explained the effect of arterial stiffness on cognition.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113917, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609729

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qingxin Lianzi Yin Decoction (QXLZY), a Chinese classical formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases over 1,000 years. However, the current studies on QXLZY were mostly focused on its clinical efficacy, lacking systematic material basis research on constituents. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to elucidate and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS was employed to clarify the chemical constituents and metabolites of QXLZY. The extraction of diagnostic ion and neutral loss fragment was aimed for searching specific type of constituents. The plasma, urine, bile and feces samples of rats after oral administration of QXLZY were systematically studied. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously detect different types of constitutes. Based on the analysis of ingredients in vivo, the bioactive constituents and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated by using network pharmacological analysis. RESULTS: Totally, 220 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS. Among them, 59 compounds were confirmed by reference standards. Meanwhile, 21 representative components were simultaneously determined within 15 min by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. 123 components (74 prototypes as well as 49 metabolites) were identified or tentatively characterized. By using network pharmacological analysis, baicalein, liquiritigenin, succinic acid, formononetin, wogonin might be the major effective constituents in QXLZY during the treatment of DN. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, saponins and organic acids were the major chemical ingredients of QXLZY. Flavonoids were the main components absorbed into blood, followed by organic acids. Phase II conjugation reaction was the major metabolic type. The pathways that QXLZY in the treatment of DN were probably related to glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation.

4.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439457

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the associations of large artery stenosis (LAS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with the risk of ischemic stroke and to investigate their respective and combined contributions. In the prospective population-based Shunyi Study, 1,082 stroke-free participants aged 55.9±9.1 years were included. Participants were followed for incident stroke throughout the study period (2013-2019). Total small vessel disease score was used to measure CSVD burden. Cervico-cerebral large artery stenosis was evaluated via brain magnetic resonance angiography and carotid ultrasound. We estimated the risk of ischemic stroke in relation to LAS and CSVD with Cox regression models. During a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, 34 participants (3.1%) experienced at least one ischemic stroke. Severe LAS (≥50% stenosis versus no stenosis: HR=3.27 (95% CI: 1.31-8.18)) and high CSVD burden (total small vessel disease score 2-4 versus 0 point: HR=12.73 (4.83-33.53)) were associated with increased stroke risk independently. In multivariate models, CSVD burden (7.72%) explained a larger portion of the variation in stroke risk than severity of LAS (3.49%). Our findings identified that both LAS and CSVD were associated with future ischemic stroke in asymptomatic subjects, while those with high CSVD burden deserve more attention in primary prevention of stroke.

5.
Front Neurol ; 11: 598650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281735

RESUMO

Cases of autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy who were initially diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) were rarely reported. Herein, we reported a 31-year-old woman who presented with 7 years of recurrent headache. Her clinical history, symptoms, brain MRI enhancement features, and response to treatment during each attack were reviewed. Her brain MRI 7 years ago demonstrated characteristic pepper-like enhancement of pontine and cerebellum and her symptoms resolved completely after taking a high-dose of steroids. She was suspected with the diagnosis of CLIPPERS, and she experienced five relapses once the oral steroid was tapered below 20 mg/day. During her last relapse, she experienced fever and psychosis, and GFAPα-antibodies were detected in her serum and cerebrospinal fluid by antigen-transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (indirect immunofluorescence assay). She obtained relief again after steroid therapy, and her diagnosis converted to autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy. Autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy may mimic CLIPPERS, both clinically and radiologically. Long-term follow-up is essential for necessary diagnosis revision at each new attack in patients with a diagnosis of CLIPPERS.

6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105062, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the feasibility and clinical utility of head-neck joint high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HNJ-VWI) in the assessment of ischemic stroke. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional HNJ-VWI database. Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke were included. Abnormal findings of intracranial and/or extracranial artery were assessed on three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D TOF MRA) and HNJ-VWI modified from high-resolution 3D T1 sequence and classified into three groups including intracranial, extracranial and coexisting based on the locations. Etiologies of stroke were recorded according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. RESULTS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients were studied. 3D TOF MRA displayed 71.8% (79/110, based on patients) abnormal arteries (stenosis or occlusion) , while HNJ-VWI displayed 96.3% (106/110) abnormal arteries (plaque,wall thickness and occlusion) including four isolated extracranial lesions and ten coexisting lesions. The etiologies of TIA/ischemic stroke included large artery atherosclerosis (80 cases), cerebral small vessel disease (6 cases), cardiogenic (2 cases), dissection (6 cases), vasculitis (4 cases), moyamoya disease (6 cases), others (2 cases) and undetermined (4 cases). For patients with atherosclerosis stroke, re-infarctions were more common in coexisting group than intracranial group (extracranial vs. intracranial vs coexisting: 0% vs. 9.1% vs. 43.7%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HNJ-VWI is a feasible and valuable technique in assessment of ischemic stroke by detecting extracranial and intracranial artery abnormalities with one-step scan.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/irrigação sanguínea , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cell Res ; 30(8): 693-701, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581344

RESUMO

Despite the substantial role that chickens have played in human societies across the world, both the geographic and temporal origins of their domestication remain controversial. To address this issue, we analyzed 863 genomes from a worldwide sampling of chickens and representatives of all four species of wild jungle fowl and each of the five subspecies of red jungle fowl (RJF). Our study suggests that domestic chickens were initially derived from the RJF subspecies Gallus gallus spadiceus whose present-day distribution is predominantly in southwestern China, northern Thailand and Myanmar. Following their domestication, chickens were translocated across Southeast and South Asia where they interbred locally with both RJF subspecies and other jungle fowl species. In addition, our results show that the White Leghorn chicken breed possesses a mosaic of divergent ancestries inherited from other subspecies of RJF. Despite the strong episodic gene flow from geographically divergent lineages of jungle fowls, our analyses show that domestic chickens undergo genetic adaptations that underlie their unique behavioral, morphological and reproductive traits. Our study provides novel insights into the evolutionary history of domestic chickens and a valuable resource to facilitate ongoing genetic and functional investigations of the world's most numerous domestic animal.

9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 72, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The remarkable abilities of the human brain are distinctive features that set us apart from other animals. However, our understanding of how the brain has changed in the human lineage remains incomplete, but is essential for understanding cognition, behavior, and brain disorders in humans. Here, we compared the expression trajectory in brain development between humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to explore their divergent transcriptome profiles. RESULTS: Results showed that brain development could be divided into two stages, with a demarcation date in a range between 25 and 26 postconception weeks (PCW) for humans and 17-23PCWfor rhesus macaques, rather than birth time that have been widely used as a uniform demarcation time of neurodevelopment across species. Dynamic network biomarker (DNB) analysis revealed that the two demarcation dates were transition phases during brain development, after which the brain transcriptome profiles underwent critical transitions characterized by highly fluctuating DNB molecules. We also found that changes between early and later brain developmental stages (as defined by the demarcation points) were substantially greater in the human brain than in the macaque brain. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying prolonged timing during early human brain development, we carried out expression heterochrony tests. Results demonstrated that compared to macaques, more heterochronic genes exhibited neoteny during early human brain development, consistent with the delayed demarcation time in the human lineage, and proving that neoteny in human brain development could be traced to the prenatal period. We further constructed transcriptional networks to explore the profile of early human brain development and identified the hub gene RBFOX1 as playing an important role in regulating early brain development. We also found RBFOX1 evolved rapidly in its non-coding regions, indicating that this gene played an important role in human brain evolution. Our findings provide evidence that RBFOX1 is a likely key hub gene in early human brain development and evolution. CONCLUSIONS: By comparing gene expression profiles between humans and macaques, we found divergent expression trajectories between the two species, which deepens our understanding of the evolution of the human brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/genética , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
10.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536634

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between central arterial stiffness and aging-related intracranial arteriopathy is not well investigated in the general population. In a population-based study, we investigated arterial stiffness in relation to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis on 1,123 subjects (aged 56.0±9.3 years, 37.9% men) of the population-based Shunyi study in China. Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia were evaluated via brain magnetic resonance angiography. Multivariate regression models were constructed to investigate the association between baPWV and intracranial large artery diseases. RESULTS: Increased baPWV was significantly associated with higher prevalence of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (odds ratio for the highest quartile of baPWV compared with the lowest quartile, 3.66 [95% confidence interval, 1.57-8.54]), after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate analysis. BaPWV was not associated with the presence of basilar artery dolichoectasia and dilation of basilar artery and internal carotid artery. When the diameters of intracranial arteries were regarded as continuous variables, increased baPWV was inversely related to the internal carotid artery diameter in fully adjusted models (ß±SE, -0.083±0.042, p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study demonstrates that arterial stiffness was more likely associated with intracranial stenotic arteriopathy other than intracranial dilative arteriopathy.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2656, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461609

RESUMO

The earthworm is particularly fascinating to biologists because of its strong regenerative capacity. However, many aspects of its regeneration in nature remain elusive. Here we report chromosome-level genome, large-scale transcriptome and single-cell RNA-sequencing data during earthworm (Eisenia andrei) regeneration. We observe expansion of LINE2 transposable elements and gene families functionally related to regeneration (for example, EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor) particularly for genes exhibiting differential expression during earthworm regeneration. Temporal gene expression trajectories identify transcriptional regulatory factors that are potentially crucial for initiating cell proliferation and differentiation during regeneration. Furthermore, early growth response genes related to regeneration are transcriptionally activated in both the earthworm and planarian. Meanwhile, single-cell RNA-sequencing provides insight into the regenerative process at a cellular level and finds that the largest proportion of cells present during regeneration are stem cells.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Oligoquetos/genética , Regeneração/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Oligoquetos/citologia , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Regeneração/fisiologia , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 38-47, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frontal-limbic circuit is hypothesized as sub-serving emotional regulation. We performed whole brain resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) analysis by studying the key hubs of frontal-limbic circuit: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula subregions, bilateral amygdala (Amy) as seeds, separately, to discriminate bipolar depression (BipD) from unipolar depression (UniD). METHODS: We compared seed-based rs-FC of the frontal-limbic seeds with whole brain among 23 BipD participants; 23 age, gender, and depression severity matched patients with UniD, and 23 healthy controls (HCs). We also used support vector machine learning to study classification based on the rs-FC of ACC, bilateral insula subregions, and bilateral Amy seeds with whole brain. RESULTS: BipD showed increased rs-FC between the left ventral anterior insula (vAI) seed and the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG) and left postcentral gyrus, as well as increased rs-FC between left amygdala seed and the left aSMG when compared to HCs and UniD. Compared to UniD, BipD was associated with increased rs-FC between right dorsal anterior insula seed and right superior frontal gyrus, as well as increased rs-FC between left posterior insula seed and right precentral gyrus and right thalamus. Combined rs-FC of ACC, bilateral insula subregions and bilateral Amy seeds with the whole brain discriminated BipD from UniD with an accuracy of 91.30%. CONCLUSIONS: Rs-FC of the emotional regulation circuit is more widely disturbed in BipD than UniD. Using rs-FC with this circuit may lead to further developments in diagnostic decision-making.

13.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X20918467, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312169

RESUMO

Our aim is to investigate whether vascular risk factors are associated with cerebral deep medullary veins (DMVs) and whether DMVs are associated with MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) or risk of stroke. In a community-based cohort of 1056 participants (mean age 55.7 years), DMVs were identified on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and counted in periventricular regions. Neuroimaging markers including lacunes, whiter matter hyperintensity (WMH), microbleeds, enlarged perivascular space, and brain atrophy were evaluated. The number of DMVs decreased with age (p = 0.007). After adjusting for age and sex, the number of DMVs was not associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Fewer DMVs was associated with increase of WMH and lacunes, but the association vanished after adjustment for vascular risk factors. However, fewer DMVs were independently associated with brain atrophy (p < 0.001). DMVs were not associated with three-year risk of stroke. Our results suggest that DMV is significantly different from other MRI markers of CSVD regarding risk factors, association with other CSVD markers, and risk of stroke. Nonetheless, the significant association between DMV and brain atrophy suggested the potential role of venules in age-related neurodegenerative process, which deserves further investigation.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 596-601, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237518

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging(MALDI-MSI) is a novel technique for in-situ distribution of various substances in tissue without labeling. This technique is increasingly applied to the study of medicinal plants owing to its high spatial resolution and its potential of in-situ analysis in small molecules. In this study, the structural information and their fragmentation patterns of the midazole alkaloids(1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium chloride and 1,3-dibenzyl-2,4,5-trimethylimi-dazolium chloride) and benzylglucosinolate in the medicinal plant Maca(Lepdium meyeni) root were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid phase combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-HR-MS). The localization of these active ingredients in the cross-sections of Maca root was performed by MALDI-MSI. These results demonstrated that the two types of imidazole alkaloids had a similar distributed pattern. They were located more in the cortex and the periderm than those in the medulla of a lateral root, while the localization of benzylglucosinolate was concentrated in the center of the root rather than in the cortex and the periderm. The precise spatial distribution of various secondary metabolites in tissue provides an important scientific basis for the accumulation of medicinal plant active ingredients in tissues. In addition, this imaging method is a promising technique for the rapid evaluation and identification of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine in plant tissues, as well as assisting the research on the processing of medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Plantas Medicinais/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
15.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 46, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093779

RESUMO

Following publication of the original paper [1], the authors reported an error in the affiliation of Xin-Tian Hu, who is also affiliated with "Kunming Primate Research Center, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China".

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(4): 1995-2000, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913629

RESUMO

Molecular ferroelectrics are attracting tremendous interest because of their easy and environmentally friendly processing, light weight, low acoustical impedance, and mechanical flexibility, which are viable alternatives or supplements to conventional ceramic ferroelectrics. However, reports of ceramic-like molecular ferroelectrics that can be applied in the polycrystalline form have been scarce. Here, according to the "quasi-spherical theory", we successfully synthesized a ceramic-like molecular ferroelectric with an m3mFmm2 type phase transition at 357 K, 1,5-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octonium tetrafluoroborate ([3.2.1-dabco]BF4), which can show excellent ferroelectric performance in the polycrystalline thin-film form at room temperature. On the basis of the reported molecular ferroelectric [2.2.2-dabco]BF4 (2.2.2-dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octonium) with an Aizu notation of 4/mmmFmm2 and two polar axes, we changed the [2.2.2-dabco]+ cation to the [3.2.1-dabco]+ cation to reduce the molecular symmetry and keep the quasi-spherical shape simultaneously, making the number of polar axes up to six. Moreover, the spontaneous polarization Ps gets successfully increased from 4.9 µC cm-2 in [2.2.2-dabco]BF4 to 5.5 µC cm-2 in [3.2.1-dabco]BF4. This precise molecular design strategy offers an efficient pathway to design ceramic-like molecular ferroelectrics.

17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(1): 134-148, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501895

RESUMO

The homing pigeon was selectively bred from the domestic pigeon for a homing ability over long distances, a very fascinating but complex behavioral trait. Here, we generate a total of 95 whole genomes from diverse pigeon breeds. Comparing the genomes from the homing pigeon population with those from other breeds identifies candidate positively selected genes, including many genes involved in the central nervous system, particularly spatial learning and memory such as LRP8. Expression profiling reveals many neuronal genes displaying differential expression in the hippocampus, which is the key organ for memory and navigation and exhibits significantly larger size in the homing pigeon. In addition, we uncover a candidate gene GSR (encoding glutathione-disulfide reductase) experiencing positive selection in the homing pigeon. Expression profiling finds that GSR is highly expressed in the wattle and visual pigment cell layer, and displays increased expression levels in the homing pigeon. In vitro, a magnetic field stimulates increases in calcium ion concentration in cells expressing pigeon GSR. These findings support the importance of the hippocampus (functioning in spatial memory and navigation) for homing ability, and the potential involvement of GSR in pigeon magnetoreception.


Assuntos
Columbidae/genética , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Animais , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Espacial
18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 12: 2507-2513, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819576

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and postoperative pneumonia, and the effects of T2DM and postoperative pneumonia on the mortality in inpatients with surgery. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 43,174 inpatients with surgery in The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao. These patients were divided into four groups according to T2DM and postoperative pneumonia, Group A subjects without T2DM and postoperative pneumonia, Group B subjects with T2DM only, Group C subjects with postoperative pneumonia only and Group D subjects with T2DM and postoperative pneumonia. In-hospital mortality was collected. Results: The incidences of postoperative pneumonia were higher in patients with T2DM than patients without T2DM (T2DM 3.2% vs Non-diabetes 1.7%, χ 2=36.219, P<0.001). The mortalities were 0.3% in Group A, 0.3% in Group B, 4.6% in Group C and 8.6% in Group D. In multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, emergency admissions, coronary heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, hypoproteinemia, stroke and transient ischemic attack, the mortalities of Group C and Group D were 4.515 (95% CI: 2.779~7.336, P<0.001) times and 8.468 (95% CI: 3.567~20.099, P<0.001) times than the mortality of Group A. Conclusion: T2DM is susceptible to postoperative pneumonia. The mortality increased in patients with postoperative pneumonia. When patients with T2DM and postoperative pneumonia at the same time, the mortality increased further. In T2DM patients with postoperative pneumonia, perioperative management should be improved for patient safety.

19.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 258, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain aging is a complex process that depends on the precise regulation of multiple brain regions; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind this process remain to be clarified in non-human primates. RESULTS: Here, we explore non-human primate brain aging using 547 transcriptomes originating from 44 brain areas in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We show that expression connectivity between pairs of cerebral cortex areas as well as expression symmetry between the left and right hemispheres both decrease after aging. Although the aging mechanisms across different brain areas are largely convergent, changes in gene expression and alternative splicing vary at diverse genes, reinforcing the complex multifactorial basis of aging. Through gene co-expression network analysis, we identify nine modules that exhibit gain of connectivity in the aged brain and uncovered a hub gene, PGLS, underlying brain aging. We further confirm the functional significance of PGLS in mice at the gene transcription, molecular, and behavioral levels. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study provides comprehensive transcriptomes on multiple brain regions in non-human primates and provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of healthy brain aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Macaca mulatta/genética , Masculino , Camundongos
20.
Zool Res ; 40(6): 532-540, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393097

RESUMO

Elucidating the closest living relatives of extant primates is essential for fully understanding important biological processes related to the genomic and phenotypic evolution of primates, especially of humans. However, the phylogenetic placement of these primate relatives remains controversial, with three primary hypotheses currently espoused based on morphological and molecular evidence. In the present study, we used two algorithms to analyze differently partitioned genomic datasets consisting of 45.4 Mb of conserved non-coding elements and 393 kb of concatenated coding sequences to test these hypotheses. We assessed different genomic histories and compared with other molecular studies found solid support for colugos being the closest living relatives of primates. Our phylogeny showed Cercopithecinae to have low levels of nucleotide divergence, especially for Papionini, and gibbons to have a high rate of divergence. The MCMCtree comprehensively updated divergence dates of early evolution of Primatomorpha and Primates.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Primatas/genética , Animais , Sequência Conservada , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , RNA não Traduzido/genética
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