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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 599: 404-415, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962201

RESUMO

Catalytic oxidation is considered a high-efficient method to minimize efficiently toluene emission. It is still a challenge to improve the catalytic performance for toluene oxidation by modifying the surface properties to enhance the oxidation ability of catalyst. Herein, a series of CuaCo1-aOx (a = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) catalysts were synthesized via solvothermal method and applied for toluene oxidation. The effects of the Cu/Co ratio on the texture structure, morphology, redox property and surface properties were investigated by various characterization technologies. The Cu0.4Co0.6Ox catalyst with dumbbell-shaped flower structure exhibited much lower temperature of 50% and 100% toluene conversion and far higher reaction rate (13.96 × 10-2 µmol·g-1·s-1) at 220 °C than the Co based oxides in previous reports. It is found that the good activity can be attributed to the fact that the proper Cu/Co ratio can significantly improve the formation of more surface adsorbed oxygen and Co3+ species, leading to the much higher oxidation ability came from the strong interaction between Cu and Co oxides. It is suggested that toluene should be oxidized more rapidly to CO2 and H2O over the Cu0.4Co0.6Ox catalyst than Co3O4 based on the results of in situ DRIFTS.

2.
Metabolites ; 11(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809004

RESUMO

Fruits provide humans with multiple kinds of nutrients and protect humans against worldwide nutritional deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to understand the nutrient composition of various fruits in depth. In this study, we performed LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomic analyses with ten kinds of fruit, including passion fruit, mango, starfruit, mangosteen, guava, mandarin orange, grape, apple, blueberry, and strawberry. In total, we detected over 2500 compounds and identified more than 300 nutrients. Although the ten fruits shared 909 common-detected compounds, each species accumulated a variety of species-specific metabolites. Additionally, metabolic profiling analyses revealed a constant variation in each metabolite's content across the ten fruits. Moreover, we constructed a neighbor-joining tree using metabolomic data, which resembles the single-copy protein-based phylogenetic tree. This indicates that metabolome data could reflect the genetic relationship between different species. In conclusion, our work enriches knowledge on the metabolomics of fruits, and provides metabolic evidence for the genetic relationships among these fruits.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844344

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widely expressed in mammals and act as regulatory targets in the atherogenesis. The objective of this study was to research the biological role and molecular mechanism of circ_0093887 in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced atherosclerosis (AS) of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cell viability detection was performed by CCK-8 assay. Inflammatory molecules were examined using ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell-cycle progression and cell apoptotic rate. Caspase 3 activity was determined using caspase 3 activity assay. The expression levels of circ_0093887, miR-876-3p, CCND2 and SUCNR1 were assayed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull-down assays were used for the target analysis. EdU assay, wound healing assay/transwell assay and tube formation assay were, respectively, used to assess the effects of circ_0093887/miR-876-3p axis on cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein inhibited cell viability and cell-cycle progression but induced the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis. Circ_0093887 was downregulated and miR-876-3p was upregulated in AS patients and ox-LDL-treated HAECs. Functionally, the overexpression of circ_0093887 abrogated the cell injury of HAEC exposed to ox-LDL. For the functional mechanism, we found that circ_0093887 was a sponge for miR-876-3p and miR-876 targeted CCND2 or SUCNR1. The reverted experiment indicated that the function of circ_0093887 was achieved by sponging miR-876-3p. Meanwhile, miR-876-3p inhibitor relieved the inhibitory regulation of circ_0093887 knockdown in cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Downregulation of miR-876-3p also alleviated the ox-LDL-induced cell injury by upregulating the expression of CCND2 or SUCNR1. Furthermore, circ_0093887 was validated to regulate the levels of CCND2 and SUCNR1 via the sponge effect on miR-876-3p. The protective effects of circ_0093887 on HAECs from ox-LDL were also ​alleviated by repressing the CCND2 and SUCNR1 levels. These findings suggested that circ_0093887 protected HAEC against the ox-LDL-induced inflammatory and apoptotic damages by targeting the miR-876-3p/CCND2 or miR-876/SUCNRA axis. Circ_0093887 could act as a potential therapeutic biomarker for AS patients.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651590

RESUMO

Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a group-10 two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide that exhibits the most prominent atomic-layer-dependent electronic behavior of "semiconductor-to-semimetal" transition when going from monolayer to bulk form. This work demonstrates an efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion for direct solar-to-hydrogen (H2) production based on 2D layered PtSe2/Si heterojunction photocathodes. By systematically controlling the number of atomic layers of wafer-scale 2D PtSe2 films through chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the interfacial band alignments at the 2D layered PtSe2/Si heterojunctions can be appropriately engineered. The 2D PtSe2/p-Si heterojunction photocathode consisting of a PtSe2 thin film with a thickness of 2.2 nm (or 3 atomic layers) exhibits the optimized band alignment and delivers the best PEC performance for hydrogen production with a photocurrent density of -32.4 mA cm-2 at 0 V and an onset potential of 1 mA cm-2 at 0.29 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) after post-treatment. The wafer-scale atomic-layer controlled band engineering of 2D PtSe2 thin-film catalysts integrated with the Si light absorber provides an effective way in the renewable energy application for direct solar-to-hydrogen production.

5.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702211002136, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757338

RESUMO

Chronic long-term glucocorticoid use causes osteoporosis partly by interrupting osteoblast homeostasis and exacerbating bone loss. Arbutin, a natural hydroquinone glycoside, has been reported to have biological activities related to the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, the role and underlying mechanism of arbutin in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that arbutin administration ameliorated osteoporotic disorders in glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex)-induced mouse model, including attenuating the loss of bone mass and trabecular microstructure, promoting bone formation, suppressing bone resorption, and activating autophagy in bone tissues. Furthermore, Dex-stimulated mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with arbutin. Arbutin treatment rescued Dex-induced repression of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, the downregulation of osteogenic gene expression, reduced autophagic marker expression, and decreased autophagic puncta formation. The application of autophagy inhibitor 3-MA decreased autophagy, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells triggered by arbutin. Taken together, our findings suggest that arbutin treatment fends off glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, partly through promoting differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by autophagy activation.

6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 81, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common skeletal system disease that has been partially attributed to genetic factors. The hand is frequently affected, which seriously affects the patient's quality of life. However, the pathogenetic mechanism of hand osteoarthritis (hand OA) is still elusive. METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary of hand OA was obtained from the UK Biobank dataset, which contains data from a total of 452,264 White British individuals, including 37,782 OA patients. The transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of hand OA was performed using FUnctional Summary-based ImputatiON (FUSION) with the skeletal muscle and blood as gene expression references. The significant genes identified by TWAS were further subjected to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool. Furthermore, we compared the genes and gene sets identified by our TWAS with that of a knee OA mRNA expression profile to detect the genes and gene sets shared by TWAS and mRNA expression profiles in OA. The mRNA expression profiles of 18 normal knee cartilages and 20 OA knee cartilages were acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (accession number: GSE114007). RESULTS: TWAS identified 177 genes with P < 0.05 for the skeletal muscle, including ANKRD44 (P = 0.0001), RIC3 (P = 0.0003), and AC005154.6 (P = 0.0004). TWAS identified 423 genes with P < 0.05 for the blood, including CRIM1 (P = 0.0002), ZNF880 (P = 0.0002), and NCKIPSD (P = 0.0003). After comparing the results of the TWAS to those of the mRNA expression profiling of OA, we identified 5 common genes, including DHRS3 (log2fold = - 1.85, P = 3.31 × 10- 9) and SKP2 (log2fold = 1.36, P = 1.62 × 10- 8). GSEA of TWAS identified 51 gene ontology (GO) terms for hand OA, for example, protein binding (P = 0.0003) and cytosol (P = 0.0020). We also detected 6 common GO terms shared by TWAS and mRNA expression profiling, including protein binding (PTWAS = 2.54 × 10- 4, PmRNA = 3.42 × 10- 8), extracellular exosome (PTWAS = 0.02, PmRNA = 1.18 × 10- 4), and cytoplasm (PTWAS = 0.0183, PmRNA = 0.0048). CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified 5 candidate genes and 6 GO terms related to hand OA, which may help to uncover the pathogenesis of hand OA. It should be noted that the possible difference in the gene expression profiles between hand OA and knee OA may affect our study results, which should be interpreted with caution.

7.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 176, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the cement should be used in the total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was still in controversy. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of two kinds of fixation. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective/retrospective observational studies from PubMed (on 2019 September), EMBASE (on 2019 September), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Web of Science (on 2019 September) were searched. Only studies followed more than 2 years was included for the review. The PRISMA guidelines and Cochrane Handbook were adopted to assess the quality of the results reported in included studies to ensure that the results of our meta-analysis were reliable and veritable. The continuous and dichotomous outcomes were collected in a standard form, and the data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. Finally, the results were presented in the Forest plots. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies involving 2369 patients in cementless TKA and 2654 patients in cemented TKA were included. The rate of revision was not significantly different in two groups (p = 0.55). More than eight reasons caused revision were found in our study, the aseptic loosing was the most common, followed by the periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), neither was significantly different (p = 0.88 and 0.45, respectively). While significantly better long-term functional recovery was found in cementless TKA in terms of Knee Society Function Score (p = 0.004) and manipulation under anesthesia (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Cementless fixation did not decrease the rate of revision after the total knee arthroplasty compared with the cemented fixation, while the long-term functional recovery was significantly better in the cementless group.

8.
Vet Microbiol ; 255: 108984, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684827

RESUMO

Overlapping genes are common in some RNA viruses. It has been proposed that a potential overlapping gene is the ORFX, here termed ORF2b, which overlaps the ORF2 coding sequence in astroviruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether ORF2b is an overlapping gene that encodes a functional protein which is needed for viral replication. Sequence alignment showed that there was an ORF2b in a PAstV type 1 strain of astrovirus, PAstV1-GX1, which was embedded within the larger ORF2. The AUG codon for ORF2b is located 19 nucleotides downstream of the initiation site of ORF2 and contains 369 nucleotides and it codes for a predicted 122-amino-acid protein. A specific polyclonal antibody against the ORF2b protein was raised and used to demonstrate the expression of the new identified gene in virus-infected and pCAGGS-ORF2b-transfected cells. Analysis of purified virions revealed that the ORF2b protein was not incorporated into virus particles. Reverse genetics based on a PAstV type 1 infectious cDNA clone showed that the ORF2b protein was not essential but important for optimal virus infectivity. Knockout of the downstream potential stop codon candidate of ORF2b demonstrated that the C-terminus of the ORF2b protein can be extended by 170 amino acids, suggesting that the C-terminus of the newly identified ORF2b protein may be variable.

9.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the proportion of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients among diabetic patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and whether insulin dependence is associated with postoperative complications. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, PubMed, Ovid, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the China Science and Technology Journal Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from the inception dates to 10 September 2019. Observational studies reporting adverse events with IDDM following TJA were included. Primary outcomes were cardiovascular complications, pulmonary complications, kidney complications, wound complications, infection, and other complications within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of IDDM patients among diabetic patients undergoing TJA and its time trend. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies involving 85,689 participants were included. Among patients undergoing TJA, 26% of diabetic patients had IDDM. Compared with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), the incidences of cardiac arrest (risk ratio [RR], 2.346; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.553 to 3.546), renal failure (relative risk [RR], 2.758; 95% CI, 1.830 to 4.156), deep incisional surgical site infection (RR, 1.968; 95% CI, 1.107 to 3.533), wound dehiscence (RR, 2.209; 95% CI, 1.830 to 4.156), and death (RR, 2.292; 95% CI, 1.568 to 3.349) were all significantly increased in IDDM. A significant time trend was witnessed for the prevalence of IDDM (P = 0.014). There was no statistical significance for organ/space surgical site infection, thrombotic events (deep venous thrombosis/ pulmonary embolism), and revision rates. CONCLUSION: Insulin-dependent diabetes is an independent high-risk factor for increased adverse outcomes relative to NIDDM, suggesting that hierarchical and optimal blood glucose management may contribute to reducing the adverse complications after surgery for these patients. In addition, because the risk of sepsis, deep wound infection, organ/space surgical site infection, urinary tract infection, renal insufficiency, and renal failure significantly increase after TJA in IDDM patients, more active postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis may be needed on the premise of protecting renal function.

10.
Pathol Res Pract ; 219: 153374, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621918

RESUMO

RSK4 refers to one Ser/Thr protein kinase functioning downstream pertaining to the signaling channel of protein kinase (MAPK) stimulated by Ras/mitogen. RSK4 can regulate numerous substrates impacting cells' surviving state, growing processes and proliferating process. Thus, dysregulated RSK4 active state display a relationship to several carcinoma categories, covering breast carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, glioma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, leukemia, endometrial carcinoma, and kidney carcinoma. Whether RSK4 is a tumor suppressor gene or one oncogene remains controversial. No specific inhibiting elements for RSK4 have been found. This review briefs the existing information regarding RSK4 activating process, the function and mechanism of RSK4 in different tumors, and the research progress and limitations of existing RSK inhibitors. RSK4 may be a potential target of molecular therapy medicine in the future.

11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(4): 1477-1487, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521848

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide and the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. At present, there is no available vaccine, and recurrences after antibiotics treatment are substantial problems. Major outer membrane protein (MOMP) accounts for 60% of the outer mass of C. trachomatis, functioning as trimeric porin, and it is highly antigenic. Therefore, MOMP is the most promising candidate for vaccine developing and target therapy of Chlamydia. Affibody, a new class of affinity ligands derived from the Z-domain in the binding region of Staphylococcus aureus protein A, has been the focus of researchers as a viable alternative to antibodies. In this study, the MOMP-targeted affibody molecule (ZMOMP:461) was screened by phage-displayed peptide library. Further, the affinity and specificity were characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Western blot. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) indicated that the MOMP-binding affibody could recognize native MOMP in HeLa229 cells infected C. trachomatis. Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed further that ZMOMP:461 molecule specifically recognizes the epitope on relaxed trimer MOMP. Our findings provide strong evidence that affibody molecule (ZMOMP:461) serves as substitute for MOMP antibody for biological applications and has a great potential for delivering drugs for target therapy. KEY POINTS : • We screened a novel affibody molecule ZMOMP:461 targeting Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP. • ZMOMP:461 recognizes the recombinant and native MOMP with high affinity and specificity. • ZMOMP:461 could be internalized into live target cells.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593062

RESUMO

Coral-like lanthanum manganese oxides (LayMnOx) with a hierarchical structure nanosphere were successfully prepared using a simple method, which presented a high-efficiency catalytic performance for toluene combustion. Among them, La0.08MnOx with the Mn3O4 phase exhibits superior catalytic activity, such as a lower T95 value (218 °C), excellent H2O resistance, and catalytic stability. The effects of La addition on the bulk and surface physicochemical properties of LayMnOx were investigated by sorts of characterization including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, temperature-programmed reduction with H2, temperature-programmed desorption of O2, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and so forth. The results demonstrate that the doping of La can induce the variation of physicochemical properties and the formation of more surface oxygen species and high valence state amorphous manganese oxides, improving low-temperature reducibility, which facilitates good catalytic activity for La0.08MnOx. A series of in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy experiments for toluene adsorption were performed on the La0.08MnOx catalyst pretreated under different atmosphere conditions to investigate the role of oxygen species and the reaction processes. The results indicate that the abundant surface oxygen species over La0.08MnOx can make the rapid formation of benzoic acid species, further transfer into CO2 and H2O, which is considered as the key factor in the activation and oxidation of toluene.

13.
Mol Pharm ; 18(3): 1196-1207, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448219

RESUMO

For active targeting nanodrug delivery systems conjugated with antibodies, both lack of control of the antibody at the molecular level and protein corona formation remarkably decreases targeting efficacy. Herein, we designed a series of silica nanoparticles toward HER2-positive breast cancer cells, with an anti-HER2 Fab-6His density ranging from 50 to 180 molecules per nanoparticle. Through the site-directed immobilization method we developed, the antigen-binding domain of anti-HER2 Fab was mostly accessible to the HER2 receptor. Both polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and a high density of Fab were shown to suppress protein corona formation and macrophage uptake. The dependency of targeting efficacy and cytotoxicity on Fab density was shown using a series of breast cancer cell lines with different levels of the HER2 expression. The high density of Fab stimulates quick responses from HER2-positive cells. Combined with PEG chains, conjugated antibodies with a well-controlled orientation and density significantly improves delivery performance and sheds light on the design and preparation of an improved active targeting nanodrug delivery system.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 650, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510172

RESUMO

Hepatic inflammation is the driving force for the development and progression of NASH. Treatment targeting inflammation is believed to be beneficial. In this study, adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells converted double negative T cells (cDNT) protects mice from diet-induced liver fat accumulation, lobular inflammation and focal necrosis. cDNT selectively suppress liver-infiltrating Th17 cells and proinflammatory M1 macrophages. IL-10 secreted by M2 macrophages decreases the survival and function of cDNT to protect M2 macrophages from cDNT-mediated lysis. NKG2A, a cell inhibitory molecule, contributes to IL-10 induced apoptosis and dampened suppressive function of cDNT. In conclusion, ex vivo-generated cDNT exert potent protection in diet induced obesity, type 2 diabetes and NASH. The improvement of outcome is due to the inhibition on liver inflammatory cells. This study supports the concept and the feasibility of potentially utilizing this autologous immune cell-based therapy for the treatment of NASH.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/classificação , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia
15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(3): e23676, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sigma metrics provide an objective and quantitative methodology for analytical quality evaluation of clinical laboratory. This study investigated the testing performance of validated systems and non-validated systems based on sigma metrics, and explored the major parameters affecting the system performance. METHODS: Sigma metrics were evaluated by six biochemistry assays based on Beckman and Mindray validated and non-validated systems through crossing the reagents and analyzers. Imprecision and bias were assessed for all assays based on trueness programs organized by National Centre for Clinical Laboratory. Total error allowance obtained from the Chinese Ministry of Health Clinical Laboratory Centre Industry Standard (WS/T403-2012). RESULTS: The imprecision for all systems meets the quality specifications except TP assay (2.19%) detected by Mindray non-validated system, and the bias for four assays measured by non-validated systems cannot fulfill the criterion, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein (TP), triglycerides (TG), and glucose (GLU). Higher biases were detected in six assays at different levels among non-validated and validated systems. Systems performed poorly or unacceptably for TP assay with sigma metrics lower than 3 except Mindray non-validated system. The sigma metrics for other assays with four systems were greater than 3 except the LDH evaluated on Mindray non-validated systems. CONCLUSION: Non-validated systems may introduce performance uncertainty compared with validated systems based on sigma metrics evaluation, and lower bias was provided by validated systems. The performance of non-validated systems should be evaluated thoroughly in the clinical laboratory before they were adopted for routine use.

16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104720, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357542

RESUMO

Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a widely destructive pest occurring in rice, particularly in the rice-growing regions of Asia. In recent years, C. suppressalis has developed resistance to several insecticides because of the extensive use of insecticides. The resistance levels to four insecticides were determined among populations from different regions of Sichuan Province, China, using a drop-method bioassay. Based on LC50 values of a laboratory susceptible strain, all field populations showed moderate level of resistance to triazophos (23.9- to 83.5-fold) and were either susceptible or had a low level of resistance to abamectin (2.1- to 5.8-fold). All field-collected populations had a low or moderate level of resistance to chlorpyrifos (1.7- to 47.1-fold) and monosultap (2.7- to 13.5-fold). The synergism experiment indicated that the resistance of the XW19 to triazophos may be associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), with the highest synergistic ratio (SR) of 3.05-fold and increased ratio (IR) of 2.28-fold for piperonylbutoxide (PBO). The P450 activity of the TJ19 population was the greatest among the six field populations. Moreover, the relative expression levels of four resistance-related P450 genes were detected with qRT-PCR, and the results indicated that CYP324A12, CYP321F3 and CYP9A68 were overexpressed in the resistant population, especially in the XW19 population (by 1.2-, 3.4 -, and 18.0-fold, respectively). In addition, the relative expression levels of CYP9A68 among the CZ19 and TJ19 populations were also enhanced 10.5- and 24.9-fold, respectively. These results suggested that CYP324A12, CYP321F3 and CYP9A68 may be related to the resistance development of C. suppressalis to triazophos.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Oryza , Animais , China , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/genética , Oryza/genética
17.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 590, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are at an increased risk of needing total joint arthroplasty (TJA); however, both dialysis and renal transplantation might be potential predictors of adverse TJA outcomes. For dialysis patients, the high risk of blood-borne infection and impaired muscular skeletal function are threats to implants' survival, while for renal transplant patients, immunosuppression therapy is also a concern. There is still no high-level evidence in the published literature that has determined the best timing of TJA for ESRD patients. METHODS: A literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to November 2019) was performed to collect studies comparing TJA outcomes between renal transplant and dialysis patients. Two reviewers independently conducted literature screening and quality assessments with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). After the data were extracted, statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with the dialysis group, a lower risk of mortality (RR = 0.56, Cl = [0.42, 0.73], P < 0.01, I2 = 49%) and revision (RR = 0.42, CI = [0.30, 0.59], P < 0.01, I2 = 43%) was detected in the renal transplant group. Different results of periprosthetic joint infection were shown in subgroups with different sample sizes. There was no significant difference in periprosthetic joint infection in the small-sample-size subgroup, while in the large-sample-size subgroup, renal transplant patients had significantly less risk (RR = 0.19, CI = [0.13, 0.23], P < 0.01, I2 = 0%). For dislocation, venous thromboembolic disease, and overall complications, there was no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Total joint arthroplasty has better safety and outcomes in renal transplant patients than in dialysis patients. Therefore, delaying total joint arthroplasty in dialysis patients until renal transplantation has been performed would be a desirable option. The controversy among different studies might be partially accounted for that quite a few studies have a relatively small sample size to detect the difference between renal transplant patients and dialysis patients.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272567

RESUMO

The Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) family of acyl acid amido synthetases regulate the levels and activities of plant hormones containing carboxyl groups, thereby modulating diverse physiological responses. While structure-function relationships have been elucidated for dicotyledonous GH3s, the catalytic mechanism of monocotyledonous GH3 remains elusive. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a representative monocot, and its yield is controlled by the natural growth hormone IAA (indole-3-acetic acid). OsGH3-8 is a model GH3 enzyme that conjugates excess IAA to amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner, ensuring auxin homeostasis and regulating disease resistance, growth and development. Here, we report the crystal structure of OsGH3-8 protein in complex with AMP to uncover the molecular and structural basis for the activity of monocotyledonous GH3-8. Structural and sequence comparisons with other GH3 proteins reveal that the AMP/ATP binding sites are highly conserved. Molecular docking studies with IAA, the GH3-inhibitor Adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate (AIEP), and Aspartate provide important information for substrate binding and selectivity of OsGH3-8. Moreover, the observation that AIEP nearly occupies the entire binding site for AMP, IAA and amino acid, offers a ready explanation for the inhibitory effect of AIEP. Taken together, the present study provides vital insights into the molecular mechanisms of monocot GH3 function, and will help to shape the future designs of effective inhibitors.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332116

RESUMO

Three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (3D-COFs) are emerging as designable porous materials because of their unique structural characteristics and porous features. However, because of the lack of 3D organic building units and the less reversible covalent bonds, the topologies of 3D-COFs to date have been limited to dia, ctn, ffc, bor, rra, srs, pts, lon, stp, acs, tbo, bcu, and fjh. Here we report a 3D-COF with the ceq topology utilizing a D3h-symmetric triangular prism vertex with a planar triangular linker. The as-synthesized COF displays a twofold-interpenetrated structure with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1148.6 m2 g-1. Gas sorption measurements revealed that 3D-ceq-COF could efficiently absorb CO2, CH4, and H2 under a moderate surface area. This work provides new building units and approaches for structural and application exploration of 3D-COFs.

20.
Pathol Res Pract ; 217: 153291, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is characterized by nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis and is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. Currently, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only FDA approved first-line therapy for PBC, but up to nearly one-third of patients do not achieve a complete response to this treatment. Adaptive immune cells, including T cells and B cells, have been found in the portal tracts and the bile duct epithelium and play a role in the pathogenesis of PBC, but the importance of these cells for evaluating the therapeutic response to UDCA in PBC has not yet been studied. METHODS: In this study, we collected liver puncture biopsy specimens from 34 matched patients with PBC before and after UDCA treatment and investigated the relationship between the infiltration of adaptive immune cells and the treatment response to UDCA. The extent of immune cell infiltration was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Responses were defined based on Paris-I criteria. RESULTS: After 1 year of treatment, 25/34 patients responded to UDCA treatment according to Paris-I criteria (responders), and 9/34 patients were nonresponders. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that UDCA responders exhibited significantly less CD4+ T cell infiltration after UDCA treatment than before (50.4 ± 7.5/HPF vs 30.0 ± 7.9/HPF, P = 0.002). In contrast, UDCA nonresponders exhibited significantly more CD4+ T cell infiltration after UDCA treatment than before (32.2 ± 8.0/HPF vs 75.0 ± 13.9/HPF, P = 0.045). Moreover, patients who exhibited a reduction in CD4+ T cell infiltration after UDCA treatment had a higher response rate than those that exhibited an increase in CD4+ T cell infiltration (85.7 % vs 53.8 %, P = 0.041). However, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD20+ B cell infiltration was not significantly different before and after treatment in either UDCA responders or nonresponders. Furthermore, we found that the number of infiltrating T-bet+ Th1 cells was much lower after UDCA treatment than before in responders (10.5 ± 5.7/HPF vs. 5.16 ± 4.0/HPF, P = 0.0214) but much higher in nonresponders after treatment than before (1.89±1.2/HPF vs. 12.3±5.4/HPF, P = 0.043). However, there was no difference in the extent of GATA3+ Th2 or FOXP3+ Treg infiltration before and after treatment in either UDCA responders or nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggest that a decrease in the number of liver-infiltrating CD4+ Th1 cells is associated with a good response of PBC patients to UDCA treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD4 and T-bet in PBC liver specimens may be a potential approach for evaluating the therapeutic response to UDCA.

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