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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 131, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013308

RESUMO

Folliculogenesis is a complex biological process involving a central oocyte and its surrounding somatic cells. Three-dimensional chromatin architecture is an important transcription regulator; however, little is known about its dynamics and role in transcriptional regulation of granulosa cells during chicken folliculogenesis. We investigate the transcriptomic dynamics of chicken granulosa cells over ten follicular stages and assess the chromatin architecture dynamics and how it influences gene expression in granulosa cells at three key stages: the prehierarchical small white follicles, the first largest preovulatory follicles, and the postovulatory follicles. Our results demonstrate the consistency between the global reprogramming of chromatin architecture and the transcriptomic divergence during folliculogenesis, providing ample evidence for compartmentalization rearrangement, variable organization of topologically associating domains, and rewiring of the long-range interaction between promoter and enhancers. These results provide key insights into avian reproductive biology and provide a foundational dataset for the future in-depth functional characterization of granulosa cells.

2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130781, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391997

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs. The data showed GSPE increased pH24 h, redness, crude protein content and decreased shear force, drip loss48 h, lactate content and glycolytic potential in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, accompanied by increased contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid. GSPE promoted MyHC I mRNA and slow MyHC protein expression, and increased slow-twitch fiber percentage. The activities of total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in LD muscle were increased by GSPE while malondialdehyde content was decreased. Together, this study demonstrated that dietary GSPE supplementation can effectively improve the color, water-holding capacity, tenderness and nutritional value of pork, and increase slow-twitch fiber percentage and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Proantocianidinas , Suínos
3.
Cell Res ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848870

RESUMO

Pig epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells are considered to have great potential and broad prospects for human therapeutic model development and livestock breeding. Despite ongoing attempts since the 1990s, no stably defined pig epiblast-derived stem cell line has been established. Here, guided by insights from a large-scale single-cell transcriptome analysis of pig embryos from embryonic day (E) 0 to E14, specifically, the tracing of pluripotency changes during epiblast development, we developed an in vitro culture medium for establishing and maintaining stable pluripotent stem cell lines from pig E10 pregastrulation epiblasts (pgEpiSCs). Enabled by chemical inhibition of WNT-related signaling in combination with growth factors in the FGF/ERK, JAK/STAT3, and Activin/Nodal pathways, pgEpiSCs maintain their pluripotency transcriptome features, similar to those of E10 epiblast cells, and normal karyotypes after more than 240 passages and have the potential to differentiate into three germ layers. Strikingly, ultradeep in situ Hi-C analysis revealed functional impacts of chromatin 3D-spatial associations on the transcriptional regulation of pluripotency marker genes in pgEpiSCs. In practice, we confirmed that pgEpiSCs readily tolerate at least three rounds of successive gene editing and generated cloned gene-edited live piglets. Our findings deliver on the long-anticipated promise of pig pluripotent stem cells and open new avenues for biological research, animal husbandry, and regenerative biomedicine.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 17(11): e1009891, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762653

RESUMO

Genetic variants in the asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1) are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Given the cardiovascular similarities between pigs and humans, we generated ASGR1-deficient pigs using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These pigs show age-dependent low levels of non-HDL-C under standard diet. When received an atherogenic diet for 6 months, ASGR1-deficient pigs show lower levels of non-HDL-C and less atherosclerotic lesions than that of controls. Furthermore, by analysis of hepatic transcriptome and in vivo cholesterol metabolism, we show that ASGR1 deficiency reduces hepatic de novo cholesterol synthesis by downregulating 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and increases cholesterol clearance by upregulating the hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), which together contribute to the low levels of non-HDL-C. Despite the cardioprotective effect, we unexpectedly observed mild to moderate hepatic injury in ASGR1-deficient pigs, which has not been documented in humans with ASGR1 variants. Thus, targeting ASGR1 might be an effective strategy to reduce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, whereas further clinical evidence is required to assess its hepatic impact.

5.
Prostate ; 81(16): 1435-1449, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common illnesses in aging men. Recent studies found that bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is upregulated in BPH tissues, however, the role of BMP5 in the development of BPH has not been examined. The current study aims to elucidate the potential roles of BMP5 and related signaling pathways in BPH. METHODS: Human prostate cell lines (BPH-1, WPMY-1) and human/rat hyperplastic prostate tissues were utilized. Western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. BMP5-silenced and -overexpressed cell models were generated and then cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and proliferation were determined. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was also quantitated. And rescue experiments by BMP/Smad signaling pathway agonist or antagonist were accomplished. Moreover, BPH-related tissue microarray analysis was performed and associations between clinical parameters and expression of BMP5 were analyzed. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that BMP5 was upregulated in human and rat hyperplastic tissues and localized both in the epithelial and stromal compartments of the prostate tissues. E-cadherin was downregulated in hyperplastic tissues, while N-cadherin and vimentin were upregulated. Overexpression of BMP5 enhanced cell proliferation and the EMT process via phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, while knockdown of BMP5 induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and blocked the EMT process. Moreover, a BMP/Smad signaling pathway agonist and antagonist reversed the effects of BMP5 silencing and overexpression, respectively. In addition, BMP5 expression positively correlated with prostate volume and total prostate-specific antigen. CONCLUSION: Our novel data suggest that BMP5 modulated cell proliferation and the EMT process through the BMP/Smad signaling pathway which could contribute to the development of BPH. However, further studies are required to determine the exact mechanism. Our study also indicated that BMP/Smad signaling may be rediscovered as a promising new therapeutic target for the treatment of BPH.

6.
Gigascience ; 10(9)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microbiota of the female reproductive tract is increasingly recognized as playing fundamental roles in animal reproduction. To explore the relative contribution of reproductive tract microbiomes to egg production in chickens, we investigated the microbiota in multiple reproductive and digestive tract sites from 128 female layer (egg-producing) chickens in comparable environments. RESULTS: We identified substantial differences between the diversity, composition, and predicted function of site-associated microbiota. Differences in reproductive tract microbiota were more strongly associated with egg production than those in the digestive tract. We identified 4 reproductive tract microbial species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides salanitronis, Bacteroides barnesiae, and Clostridium leptum, that were related to immune function and potentially contribute to enhanced egg production. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insights into the diverse microbiota characteristics of reproductive and digestive tracts and may help in designing strategies for controlling and manipulating chicken reproductive tract microbiota to improve egg production.

7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 304, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key regulators of the complex interplay between cancer and the immune microenvironment. Tumor cell-derived spondin 2 (SPON2) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that has complicated roles in recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils during inflammation. Overexpression of SPON2 has been shown to promote tumor cell migration in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism by which SPON2 regulates the accumulation of TAMs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of CRC is unknown. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine SPON2 expression in clinical CRC tissues. In vitro migration assays, transendothelial migration assays (iTEM), and cell adhesion assays were used to investigate the effects of SPON2 on monocyte/macrophage migration. Subcutaneous tumor formation and orthotopic implantation assays were performed in C57 BL/6 mice to confirm the effects of SPON2 on TAM infiltration in tumors. RESULTS: SPON2 expression is positively correlated with M2-TAM infiltration in clinical CRC tumors and poor prognosis of CRC patients. In addition, SPON2 promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and transendothelial migration of monocytes by activating integrin ß1/PYK2 axis. SPON2 may indirectly induce M2-polarization through upregulating cytokines including IL10, CCL2 and CSF1 expression in tumor cells. Blocking M2 polarization and Macrophage depletion inhibited the SPON2-induced tumors growth and invasion. Furthermore, blocking the SPON2/integrin ß1/PYK2 axis impairs the transendothelial migration of monocytes and cancer-promoting functions of TAMs in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that SPON2-driven M2-TAM infiltration plays an important role during CRC tumor growth and metastasis. SPON2 may be a valuable biomarker guiding the use of macrophage-targeting strategies and a potential therapeutic target in advanced CRC.

8.
PeerJ ; 9: e11438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221709

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of crucial regulators in the process of animal growth and development. However, little is known about the expression and function of miRNAs in pigeon muscles. To identify the miRNAs participating in the rapid development of pigeon pectoral muscles and quantitate their expression levels of pectoral muscles in different age stages, we performed miRNA transcriptome analysis in pigeon pectoral muscles by sequencing small RNAs over three different age stages (1-day old, 28 days old, and 2 years old). Dual-luciferase reporter assay was applied to validate the interaction between miRNA and its target gene. We identified 304 known miRNAs, 201 conserved miRNAs, and 86 novel miRNAs in pigeon pectoral muscles. 189 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were screened out during pigeon development. A short time-series expression miner (STEM) analysis indicated 89 DE miRNAs were significantly clustered in a progressively decreasing expression profile, and mainly enriched in biosynthesis-related GO categories and signaling pathways for MAPK and TGF-ß. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that a progressively down-regulated miRNA (miR-20b-5p) could directly target Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) gene. To sum-up, our data expand the repertoire of pigeon miRNAs and enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying rapid development in squabs.

9.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 3589-3598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257838

RESUMO

The three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus of diploid eukaryotic organisms has fascinated biologists for many years. Despite major progress in chromatin conformation studies, current knowledge regarding the spatial organization of diploid (maternal and paternal) genomes is still limited. Recent advances in Hi-C technology and data processing approaches have enabled construction of diploid Hi-C contact maps. These maps greatly accelerated the pace of novel discoveries in haplotype-resolved 3D genome studies, revealing the role of allele biased chromatin conformation in transcriptional regulation. Here, we review emerging concepts and haplotype phasing strategies of Hi-C data in 3D diploid genome studies. We discuss new insights on homologous chromosomal organization and the interplay between allelic biased chromatin architecture and several nuclear functions, explaining how haplotype-resolved Hi-C technologies have been used to resolve important biological questions.

10.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(13): 1591-1608, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195782

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a quite common illness but its etiology and mechanism remain unclear. Neural epidermal growth factor-like like 2 (NELL2) plays multifunctional roles in neural cell growth and is strongly linked to the urinary tract disease. Current study aims to determine the expression, functional activities and underlying mechanism of NELL2 in BPH. Human prostate cell lines and tissues from normal human and BPH patients were utilized. Immunohistochemical staining, immunofluorescent staining, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting were performed. We further generated cell models with NELL2 silenced or overexpressed. Subsequently, proliferation, cycle, and apoptosis of prostate cells were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis process were also analyzed. Our study revealed that NELL2 was up-regulated in BPH samples and localized in the stroma and the epithelium compartments of human prostate tissues. NELL2 deficiency induced a mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation via phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. Additionally, suppression of ERK1/2 with U0126 incubation could significantly reverse NELL2 deficiency triggered cell apoptosis. Consistently, overexpression of NELL2 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis. However, NELL2 interference was observed no effect on EMT and fibrosis process. Our novel data demonstrated that up-regulation of NELL2 in the enlarged prostate could contribute to the development of BPH through enhancing cell proliferation and inhibited a mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis via the ERK pathway. The NELL2-ERK system might represent an important target to facilitate the development of future therapeutic approaches in BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Próstata/enzimologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fosforilação , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3715, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140474

RESUMO

A comprehensive transcriptomic survey of pigs can provide a mechanistic understanding of tissue specialization processes underlying economically valuable traits and accelerate their use as a biomedical model. Here we characterize four transcript types (lncRNAs, TUCPs, miRNAs, and circRNAs) and protein-coding genes in 31 adult pig tissues and two cell lines. We uncover the transcriptomic variability among 47 skeletal muscles, and six adipose depots linked to their different origins, metabolism, cell composition, physical activity, and mitochondrial pathways. We perform comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of seven tissues from pigs and nine other vertebrates to reveal that evolutionary divergence in transcription potentially contributes to lineage-specific biology. Long-range promoter-enhancer interaction analysis in subcutaneous adipose tissues across species suggests evolutionarily stable transcription patterns likely attributable to redundant enhancers buffering gene expression patterns against perturbations, thereby conferring robustness during speciation. This study can facilitate adoption of the pig as a biomedical model for human biology and disease and uncovers the molecular bases of valuable traits.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Miofibrilas/genética , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise Espacial , Suínos
12.
Genome ; 64(12): 1029-1040, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139142

RESUMO

China has the largest pork consumption worldwide. However, the high incidence of piglet fetal mummification (3%-5%) is an important factor that causes the slow improvement of pig reproductive capacity, and the genetic mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to identify candidate genes associated with piglet fetal mummification. RNA-seq technology was used to compare transcriptome profiling of blood from healthy and mummified piglets at different stages of pregnancy (35, 56, 77, and 98 days). A total of 137-420 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at each stage. Seven DEGs were significantly differentially expressed at various stages. IL-9R, TLR8, ABLIM3, FSH-α, ASCC1, PRKCZ, and GCK may play important roles in the course of piglet fetal mummification. The differential genes we identified between the groups were mainly enriched in immune and inflammation regulation, while others were mainly enriched in reproduction. Considering the function of candidate genes, IL-9R and TLR8 were suggested as the most promising candidate genes involved in mummified piglet traits. We speculate that during pregnancy, it may be the combined effects of the above-mentioned inflammation, immune response, and reproduction-related signaling pathways that affect the occurrence of mummified piglets and further affect pig reproduction.

13.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apatinib is an oral TKI targeting VEGFR-2. Single-agent apatinib treatment has been shown to produce an objective response in patients with pretreated mBC. Oral vinorelbine also holds promise as a treatment of choice in patients with mBC. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the oral vinorelbine-apatinib combination in patients with pretreated mBC. In addition, we detected gene variants in ctDNA to explore the therapeutic implications. METHODS: This study enrolled patients with HER2-negative mBC who were pretreated with anthracycline/taxanes. Patients were treated with apatinib at 500 mg/425 mg daily plus oral vinorelbine 60 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of every cycle (3 weeks). The primary endpoint was PFS. The secondary endpoints were ORR, CBR, OS, and safety. Patients eligible for ctDNA detection were evaluated before and during treatment. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled. The median PFS was 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.4-7.0 months), and the median OS was 17.4 months (95% CI, 8.0-27.0 months). The ORR was 17.1% (6/35), and the CBR was 45.7% (16/35). The most common AEs included gastrointestinal reaction, myelosuppression, and hypertension. In 20 patients, ctDNA was detected at baseline and during treatment. A significant difference was found in PFS for undetected vs. detected baseline ctDNA (13.9 months vs. 3.6 months, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: All-oral therapy with apatinib plus vinorelbine displayed objective efficacy in patients with heavily pretreated HER2-negative mBC, with acceptable and manageable toxicity profiles. Patients with no gene variant detected and lower variant allele frequencies in ctDNA at baseline showed longer PFS.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 630706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968730

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney tumor worldwide. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases showed that the immune-related gene (IRG) hematopoietic cell signal transducer (HCST) could provide guidance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of ccRCC. The RNA-seq data of ccRCC tissues were extracted from two databases: TCGA (https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/ccg/research/structural-genomics/tcga) and GEO (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). Corresponding clinical information was downloaded from TCGA. Immune-related gene data were extracted from the IMMPORT website (https://www.immport.org/). Differential analysis with R software (https://www.r-project.org/) was used to obtain a prognosis model of ccRCC IRGs. The differences were combined with the clinical data to assess the usefulness of the HCST as a prognostic biomarker. Based on data obtained from the Oncomine (https://www.oncomine.org/), Human Protein Atlas (https://www.proteinatlas.org/), and PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) databases, the expression levels of the HCST in ccRCC, clinical-pathological indicators of relevance, and influence on prognosis were analyzed. Regulation of the HCST gene in ccRCC was assessed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). In TCGA/GEO databases, the high HCST expression in tumor tissues was significantly correlated to the TMN stage, tumor grade, invasion depth, and lymphatic metastasis (p < 0.05). The overall survival (OS) of patients with high HCST gene expression was significantly lower than that of patients with low HCST gene expression (p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that the HCST expression level [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.630, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.042-2.552], tumor cell grade (HR = 1.829, 95% CI = 1.115-3.001), and distant metastasis (HR = 2.634, 95%, CI = 1.562-4.442) were independent risk factors affecting the OS of ccRCC patients (all, p < 0.05). The GSEA study showed that there was significant enrichment in cell adhesion, tumorigenesis, and immune and inflammatory responses in HCST high expression samples. Hematopoietic cell signal transducer expression was closely associated with the levels of infiltrating immune cells around ccRCC tissues, especially dendritic cells (DCs). In conclusion, the present study suggested that the HCST was interrelated to the clinicopathology and poor prognosis of ccRCC. High HCST expression was also closely correlated with the levels of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, especially DCs.

15.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 115, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006832

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in aging males. It has been proven that the Hedgehog (HH) is implied as an effective and fundamental regulatory growth factor signal for organogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration. Smoothened (SMO), as the major control point of HH signals, activates aberrantly in most human solid tumors. However, the specific function of SMO and its downstream glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family in BPH has not been well understood. Here, we first revealed that the SMO cascade was upregulated in BPH tissues and was localized in both the stromal and the epithelium compartments of human prostate tissues. Cyclopamine, as a specific SMO inhibitor, was incubated with BPH-1 and WPMY-1, and intraperitoneally injected into a BPH rat model established by castration with testosterone supplementation. SMO inhibition could induce cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and a reduction of tissue fibrosis markers, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, a tissue microarray, containing 104 BPH specimens, was constructed to analyze the correlations between the expression of SMO cascade and clinical parameters. The GLI2 was correlated positively with nocturia and negatively with fPSA. The GLI3 was in a positive relationship with International Prostate Symptom Score and nocturia. In conclusion, our study suggested that SMO cascade could play important roles in the development of BPH and it might be rediscovered as a promising therapeutic target for BPH.

16.
DNA Res ; 28(2)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009337

RESUMO

Myofibres (primary and secondary myofibre) are the basic structure of muscle and the determinant of muscle mass. To explore the skeletal muscle developmental processes from primary myofibres to secondary myofibres in pigs, we conducted an integrative three-dimensional structure of genome and transcriptomic characterization of longissimus dorsi muscle of pig from primary myofibre formation stage [embryonic Day 35 (E35)] to secondary myofibre formation stage (E80). In the hierarchical genomic structure, we found that 11.43% of genome switched compartment A/B status, 14.53% of topologically associating domains are changed intradomain interactions (D-scores) and 2,730 genes with differential promoter-enhancer interactions and (or) enhancer activity from E35 to E80. The alterations of genome architecture were found to correlate with expression of genes that play significant roles in neuromuscular junction, embryonic morphogenesis, skeletal muscle development or metabolism, typically, NEFL, MuSK, SLN, Mef2D and GCK. Significantly, Sox6 and MATN2 play important roles in the process of primary to secondary myofibres formation and increase the regulatory potential score and genes expression in it. In brief, we reveal the genomic reorganization from E35 to E80 and construct genome-wide high-resolution interaction maps that provide a resource for studying long-range control of gene expression from E35 to E80.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/metabolismo
17.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(8): 908-918, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: At present, the treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD) primarily consists of combined direct and indirect bypass surgery. Nevertheless, more than half of indirect bypass surgeries fail to develop good collaterals from the dura and temporal muscle. This study aimed to investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could serve as biomarkers for the prediction of postoperative collateral formation. METHODS: Moyamoya disease patients with indirect bypass surgery were divided into angiogenesis and non-angiogenesis groups, CSF was obtained, and miRNA sequencing was performed using the CSF. Candidate miRNAs were filtered and subsequently verified through qRT-PCR. The diagnostic utility of these differential miRNAs was investigated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Finally, the potential biological processes and signaling pathways associated with candidate miRNAs were analyzed using R software. RESULTS: The expression levels of four miRNAs (miR-92a-3p, miR-486-3p, miR-25-3p, and miR-155-5p) were significantly increased in the angiogenesis group. By combining these four miRNAs (area under the curve [AUC] =0.970), we established an accurate predictive model of collateral circulation after indirect bypass surgery in MMD patients. GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated a high correlation with biological processes and signaling pathways related to angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: The 4-miRNA signature is a good model to predict angiogenesis after indirect bypass surgery and help the surgeon to select a appreciate bypass strategy.

18.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928841

RESUMO

Thirty castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs were randomly divided into three groups and slaughtered at 180, 210, and 240 days of age, respectively. Here, we found that the live weight, carcass weight, carcass length, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat deposit, muscle yellowness b* value, drip loss, and cooking loss increased significantly, and the muscle pH 45 min value decreased dramatically as the slaughter age of DLY pigs extended. Moreover, increasing the slaughter age of DLY pigs could obtain higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentage, crude protein, essential amino acids (EAA) contents and EAA/NEAA level, and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA level and antioxidant capacity. Together, this study suggests that the older slaughter age improves the carcass traits and nutritional value of pork, but leads to a significant decrease in pork sensory quality in DLY finishing pigs.

19.
Prostate ; 81(9): 530-542, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in elderly men and is often accompanied by chronic inflammation. Macrophages (several subtypes) are the main inflammatory cells that infiltrate the hyperplastic prostate and are found to secrete cytokines and growth factors. The current study aims to explore the effect of M2a macrophages on the development of BPH via insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). METHODS: Human prostate tissues, prostate, and monocyte cell lines (WPMY-1, BPH-1, and THP-1) were used. THP-1 was polarized into several subtypes with cytokines. The expression and localization of IGF-1 and M2 macrophages were determined via immunofluorescent staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to investigate the effects of different subtypes of macrophages on prostate cells. IGF-1 in WPMY-1 and BPH-1 cells was silenced and cocultured with or without M2a macrophages. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and fibrosis processes were examined. RESULTS: The polarized subtypes of macrophages were verified by amplifying their specific markers. M2a macrophages enhanced prostate cell proliferation more significantly and CD206 was more expressed in hyperplastic prostate. IGF-1 was localized in both epithelial and stromal components of prostate and upregulated in BPH tissues. M2a macrophages expressed more IGF-1 than other subtypes. Knockdown of IGF-1 in WPMY-1 and BPH-1 cells attenuated cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, retarded cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and suppressed the EMT process in BPH-1 cells as well as the fibrotic process in WPMY-1 cells, which was reversible when cocultured with M2a macrophages. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrated that knockdown of IGF-1 expression in cultured BPH epithelial and stromal cells reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis. These effects are reversed by coculture with M2a macrophages.

20.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550882

RESUMO

Betaine is a natural compound present in commonly consumed foods and may have a potential role in the regulation of glucose and lipids metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its action remains largely unknown. Here, we show that supplementation with betaine contributes to improved high-fat diet (HFD)-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and increases anti-obesity strains such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. In mice lacking gut microbiota, the functional role of betaine in preventing HFD-induced obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inactivation of brown adipose tissues are significantly reduced. Akkermansia muciniphila is an important regulator of betaine in improving microbiome ecology and increasing strains that produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Increasing two main members of SCFAs including acetate and butyrate can significantly regulate the levels of DNA methylation at host miR-378a promoter, thus preventing the development of obesity and glucose intolerance. However, these beneficial effects are partially abolished by Yin yang (YY1), a common target gene of the miR-378a family. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that betaine can improve obesity and associated MS via the gut microbiota-derived miR-378a/YY1 regulatory axis, and reveal a novel mechanism by which gut microbiota improve host health.

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