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1.
Food Funct ; 13(2): 825-833, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985089

RESUMO

Polygonum multiflorum (PM), a popular functional food, and a herbal and dietary supplement, is widely used as a tonic in China and East Asia. In recent years, it has attracted great concern for its ability to cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). However, identifying individuals susceptible to IDILI remains challenging. This is a prospective study. For 6 patients whose serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels after consuming PM were abnormally elevated (susceptible group), 15 patients with normal levels of liver injury markers were matched (tolerant group) based on similar baseline characteristics. ProcartaPlex immunoassays were adopted to quantitatively detect 33 serum cytokines in the two groups of patients before consuming PM, to characterize the cytokine profile and screen differential cytokines. Subsequently, the susceptibility of a potential biomarker to regulate PM-induced liver injury was validated in animal models. There were significant differences in the cytokine profiles between the susceptible and tolerant groups, wherein the susceptible patients showed immune perturbation characterized by high expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines, especially the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α (P = 0.006). Among them, the cytokine TNF-α had the strongest correlation with ALT, where the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.6, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was more than 0.8. Animal experiments revealed that both PM water extract and its susceptibility component of liver injury, cis-stilbene glucoside, could cause liver injury in the mice pre-stimulated using TNF-α. Conversely, administration of the same dose of drugs on control mice did not show any hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, immune perturbation mainly mediated by TNF-α may regulate the susceptibility to PM-induced liver injury. This provides a new perspective for the study of susceptibility to IDILI.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fallopia multiflora/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Adulto , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 646121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177570

RESUMO

Aconitine is attracting increasing attention for its unique positive inotropic effect on the cardiovascular system, but underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. The cardiotonic effect always requires abundant energy supplement, which is mainly related to mitochondrial function. And OPA1 has been documented to play a critical role in mitochondrial morphology and energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of OPA1-mediated regulation of energy metabolism in the positive inotropic effect caused by repeated aconitine treatment and the possible mechanism involved. Our results showed that repeated treatment with low-doses (0-10 µM) of aconitine for 7 days did not induce detectable cytotoxicity and enhanced myocardial contraction in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes (NRVMs). Also, we first identified that no more than 5 µM of aconitine triggered an obvious perturbation of mitochondrial homeostasis in cardiomyocytes by accelerating mitochondrial fusion, biogenesis, and Parkin-mediated mitophagy, followed by the increase in mitochondrial function and the cellular ATP content, both of which were identified to be related to the upregulation of ATP synthase α-subunit (ATP5A1). Besides, with compound C (CC), an inhibitor of AMPK, could reverse aconitine-increased the content of phosphor-AMPK, OPA1, and ATP5A1, and the following mitochondrial function. In conclusion, this study first demonstrated that repeated aconitine treatment could cause the remodeling of mitochondrial function via the AMPK-OPA1-ATP5A1 pathway and provide a possible explanation for the energy metabolism associated with cardiotonic effect induced by medicinal plants containing aconitine.

3.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(9): e5140, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830528

RESUMO

Owing to the complexity of the composition of herbal and dietary supplements, it is a challenging problem to efficiently screen and identify active or toxic compounds. Psoralea corylifolia L. (PCL) was selected as the subbject to establish a methodology for rapid screening and identification of hepatotoxic compounds. High-content imaging, ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used in this study to detect the hepatotoxicity and identify unknown compounds in PCL samples. Then, putative toxic compounds which are highly related to hepatotoxicity were screened by spectrum-toxicity correlation analysis, and the toxicity intensity verified by high-content imaging. The maximum nontoxic dose of processed samples with good detoxification effect reduced more than 9 times compared with unprocessed raw medicinal materials. Spectrum-toxicity correlation analysis showed that bavachinin A, bavachin, isobavachalcone and neobavaisoflavone had high correlation with the hepatotoxicity of PCL, and psoralen and isopsoralen had low correlation with hepatotoxicity. This study verified the hepatotoxicity of these six putative compound monomers, proving the results of spectrum-toxicity correlation analysis. Based on the correlation analysis of high-resolution mass spectrometry of detection compounds and high-content imaging of hepatocyte toxicity data, the potential toxic compound of herbal and dietary supplement products can be quickly and accurately screened.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoralea/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ficusina/toxicidade , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Humanos , Isoflavonas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos
5.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(9): 648-655, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed. RESULTS: An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , COVID-19 , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Medicina Integrativa , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 609378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584288

RESUMO

Green tea extract (GTE) is popular in weight loss, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is considered as the main active component. However, GTE is the primary cause of herbal and dietary supplement-induced liver injury in the United States. Whether there is a greater risk of liver injury when EGCG is consumed during dieting for weight loss has not been previously reported. This study found for the first time that EGCG could induce enhanced lipid metabolism pathways, suggesting that EGCG had the so-called "fat burning" effect, although EGCG did not cause liver injury at doses of 400 or 800 mg/kg in normal mice. Intriguingly, we found that EGCG caused dose-dependent hepatotoxicity on mice under dietary restriction, suggesting the potential combination effects of dietary restriction and EGCG. The combination effect between EGCG and dietary restriction led to overactivation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid oxidation pathways, significantly increasing the accumulation of pro-inflammatory lipid metabolites and thus mediating liver injury. We also found that the disruption of Lands' cycle and sphingomyelin-ceramides cycle and the high expression of taurine-conjugated bile acids were important metabolomic characteristics in EGCG-induced liver injury under dietary restriction. This original discovery suggests that people should not go on a diet while consuming EGCG for weight loss; otherwise the risk of liver injury will be significantly increased. This discovery provides new evidence for understanding the "drug-host" interaction hypothesis of drug hepatotoxicity and provides experimental reference for clinical safe use of green tea-related dietary supplements.

7.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 70(12): 1675-1687, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cholestasis is a critical risk factor for severe hepatic disease or cirrhosis. The anti-inflammatory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (PLP), named Chishao in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis model was tried to be elucidated in this research. METHODS: Therapeutic effect indices on hepatic function, including ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, TBA and γ-GT, were measured. To further investigate the protective mechanism of PLP, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway were detected. RESULTS: Our results showed that compared with the model group, PLP could significantly reduce the increased serum indices such as ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, TBA and γ-GT induced by ANIT in a dose-dependent way. Moreover, we found that PLP downregulated the mRNA expression levels including IKK, p65, NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1ß, especially at the large dose. Furthermore, PLP also significantly inhibited NF-κB-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by decreasing the protein levels of p65, p-p65, p-IKK, NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1ß. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that PLP could ameliorate ANIT-induced cholestasis in rats and the anti-inflammatory effect of PLP might be related to regulating NF-κB-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. This study will provide scientific evidence for PLP as a potential drug candidate for cholestasis.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/biossíntese , Paeonia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , 1-Naftilisotiocianato/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5645, 2018 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618826

RESUMO

Multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae determine their treatment targets for multiple diseases as opposed to a particular disease. However, discovering the unexplored therapeutic potential of a TCM formula remains challenging and costly. Inspired by the drug repositioning methodology, we propose an integrated strategy to feasibly identify new therapeutic uses for a formula composed of six herbs, Liuweiwuling. First, we developed a comprehensive systems approach to enrich drug compound-liver disease networks to analyse the major predicted diseases of Liuweiwuling and discover its potential effect on liver failure. The underlying mechanisms were subsequently predicted to mainly attribute to a blockade of hepatocyte apoptosis via a synergistic combination of multiple effects. Next, a classical pharmacology experiment was designed to validate the effects of Liuweiwuling on different models of fulminant liver failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) or thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that pretreatment with Liuweiwuling restored liver function and reduced lethality induced by GalN/LPS or TAA in a dose-dependent manner, which was partially attributable to the abrogation of hepatocyte apoptosis by multiple synergistic effects. In summary, the integrated strategy discussed in this paper may provide a new approach for the more efficient discovery of new therapeutic uses for TCM formulae.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Falência Hepática/classificação , Falência Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas , Galactosamina/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456506

RESUMO

As a common disorder that accounts for over 70% of all breast disease cases, mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) causes a severe problem for the quality of patients' life, and confers an increased risk of breast carcinoma. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of MGH remain unclear, and the safety and efficacy of current western drug therapy for MGH still need to be improved. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted by our team to determine whether a TCM formula named Ru-Pi-Xiao in combination with tamoxifen or Ru-Pi-Xiao treated alone can show more prominent therapeutic effects against MGH with fewer adverse reactions than that of tamoxifen. Studies published before June 2017 were searched based on standardized searching rules in several mainstream medical databases. A total of 27 articles with 4,368 patients were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the combination of Ru-Pi-Xiao and tamoxifen could exhibit better therapeutic effects against MGH than that of tamoxifen (OR: 3.79; 95% CI: 3.09-4.65; P < 0.00001) with a lower incidence of adverse reactions (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.28-0.43; P < 0.00001). The results also suggested that this combination could improve the level of progesterone (MD: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.72-2.71; P < 0.00001) and decrease the size of breast lump (MD: -0.67; 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.49; P < 0.00001) to a greater extent, which might provide a possible explanation for the pharmacodynamic mechanism of Ru-Pi-Xiao plus tamoxifen. In conclusion, Ru-Pi-Xiao and related preparations could be recommended as auxiliary therapy combined tamoxifen for the treatment of MGH.

10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 38(10): 1340-1352, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649126

RESUMO

The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (PM) has been used in China to treat a variety of diseases, such as constipation, early graying of the hair and hyperlipemia. Recent evidence shows that PM causes idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) in humans. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of PM-induced liver injury in a rat model of IDILI based on a non-hepatotoxic dose of LPS. SD rats were orally administered 3 potentially hepatotoxic compounds of PM: cis-stilbene glucoside (cis-SG, 50 mg/kg), trans-SG (50 mg/kg) or emodin (5 mg/kg), followed by injection of LPS (2.8 mg/kg, iv). Serum and liver histology were evaluated 7 h after LPS injection. Among the 3 compounds tested, cis-SG, but not emodin or trans-SG, induced severe liver injury in rats when combined with LPS. The levels of AST and ALT in plasma and inflammatory cytokines in both plasma and liver tissues were markedly elevated. The liver tissues showed increased injury, hepatocyte apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration, and decreased cell proliferation. Microarray analysis revealed a negative correlation between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and LPS/cis-SG-induced liver injury. Immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR results further confirmed that cis-SG significantly inhibited activation of the PPAR-γ pathway in the liver tissues of LPS/cis-SG-treated rats. Pre-treatment with a PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (500 g/kg, ig) reversed LPS/cis-SG-induced liver injury, which was associated with inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. These data demonstrate that cis-stilbene glucoside induces immunological idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity through suppressing PPAR-γ in a rat model of IDILI.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Fallopia multiflora/química , Glucosídeos/toxicidade , Estilbenos/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Emodina/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estereoisomerismo , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia
11.
Neurol Res ; 39(9): 795-802, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Angiogenesis promotes neurobehavioral recovery after cerebral ischemic stroke. 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) is one of the major metabolites of arachidonic acid by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus, inducing autocrine-mediated angiogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of 15-LO/15-HETE system on VEGF expression and angiogenesis in brain ischemia. METHODS: Rat cerebral arterial vascular endothelial cells were used to set up a cell injury model of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), mimicking a condition of brain ischemia. A mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. RESULTS: Oxygen-glucose deprivation increased cellular expression of 15-LO-1 and VEGF. Transfection of 15-LO-1 siRNA depleted cells of 15-LO-1, and sequentially induced downregulation of VEGF expression; while, incubation of 15-HETE increased the expression of VEGF. Incubation of 15-HETE attenuated the reduction in cell viability induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation, and promoted cell migration, while transfection of 15-LO-1 siRNA showed an opposite effect. In animal experiments, the density of microvessels in hypoxic regions of brains was significantly increased after MCAO, while intracerebroventricular delivery of 15-LO-1 siRNA significantly reduced the density of microvessels, and downregulates VEGF expression. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that the 15-LO-1/15-HETE system promotes angiogenesis in ischemic brains by upregulation of VEGF, representing a potential target for improving neurobehavioral recovery after cerebral ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Indutores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Artérias Cerebrais/citologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glucose/deficiência , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/genética , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 89: 696-704, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267673

RESUMO

Apoptosis induced by the bile acids in the liver is considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic disease. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that Paeoniflorin (PF) exerts therapeutic effect on severe cholestatic liver diseases. However, whether PF could protect against alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis by inhibiting apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated the effect and anti-apoptosis mechanism of PF on cholestasis. Experimental results indicated that PF pretreatment could attenuate liver damage and cholestasis by ANIT in rats, lift the biliary excretion in addition to decrease serum indices (ALT, AST, DBIL, TBIL, TBA, ALP and ϒ-GT) and conspicuous neutrophil infiltration and cell apoptosis in liver evidenced by TUNEL staining. Furthermore, the pro-apoptosis genes expression of Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 increased by ANIT were prominently reduced after PF treatment. The increase of anti-apoptosis gene and main regulator Bcl-2 in mitochondria by ANIT was largely reversed by PF pre-treatment. In summary, our study demonstrated that PF pre-treatment not only significantly attenuated ANIT-induced cholestasis and liver injury, but also largely reduced cell apoptosis in liver, thus may act as a potential therapeutic agent for cholestasis disease.


Assuntos
1-Naftilisotiocianato/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestase/prevenção & controle , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , 1-Naftilisotiocianato/toxicidade , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/metabolismo , Genes bcl-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 52(1): 80-5, 2017 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911779

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect and the molecular mechanism of deoxyschizandrin on the activity of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of deoxyschizandrin on inflammasome activation using inflammasome inducers (ATP and nigericin). Cytotoxic effect was evaluated with CCK-8. The expression of IL-1ß, caspase-1 in the supernatant and the expression of pro-caspase-1, pro-IL-1ß, ASC, NLRP3 in cell was detected by Western blot for the inhibitory effect of deoxyschizandrin (25, 50, 100 and 200 µmol·L(−1)) on the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome. Immunofluorescence was applied to investigate NF-κB (p65) transportation to the nucleus. The results of CCK-8 showed that the optimum concentration of deoxyschizandrin was 6.25­400 µmol·L(−1). Deoxyschizandrin (25, 50, 100, and 200 µmol·L(−1)) could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome caused by nigericin and ATP, and inhibit the secretion of IL-1ß, which was associated with inhibiting the cleavage of pro-caspase-1. The results of immunofluorescence and Western blot also suggest that the inhibitory activity of deoxyschizandrin on NLRP3 inflammasome was not dependent on NF-κB pathway and protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß mediated by NF-κB. Our results confirmed that deoxyschizandrin could suppress the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and inhibit the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome at 25­200 µmol·L−1 to reduce the inflammation response.This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect and the molecular mechanism of deoxyschizandrin on the activity of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family,pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome.Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of deoxyschizandrin on inflammasome activation using inflammasome inducers (ATP and nigericin). Cytotoxic effect was evaluated with CCK-8.The expression of IL-1ß,caspase-1 in the supernatant and the expression of pro-caspase-1,pro-IL-1ß,ASC,NLRP3 in cell was detected by Western blot for the inhibitory effect of deoxyschizandrin (25, 50, 100 and 200 µmol·L(-1)) on the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome. Immunofluorescence was applied to investigate NF-κB (p65) transportation to the nucleus. The results of CCK-8 showed that the optimum concentration of deoxyschizandrin was 6.25-400 µmol·L(-1). Deoxyschizandrin (25, 50, 100,and 200 µmol·L(-1)) could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome caused by nigericin and ATP, and inhibit the secretion of IL-1ß, which was associated with inhibiting the cleavage of pro-caspase-1.The results of immunofluorescence and Western blot also suggest that the inhibitory activity of deoxyschizandrin on NLRP3 inflammasome was not dependent on NF-κB pathway and protein expression of NLRP3,ASC,pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ßmediated by NF-κB. Our results confirmed that deoxyschizandrin could suppress the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and inhibit the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome at 25-200 µmol·L(-1) to reduce the inflammation response.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lignanas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 7: 256, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27570511

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has suggested that natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the pathogenesis of human immunological liver injury (ILI). Previous studies have demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts activity in immune modulation. It also has a therapeutic effect on liver protection in that it can alleviate liver fibrosis by suppressing both the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the proliferation of the activated hepatic stellate cells. However, whether Sophocarpine protects the liver by regulating NK cell activity remains unclear. In this study, the modulating effect of Sophocarpine on NK cells in the liver was investigated. The results showed that Sophocarpine dramatically decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and attenuated the liver injury induced by Poly I: C/D-GalN in C57BL/6- mice. More importantly, Sophocarpine pre-treatment significantly suppressed NK cell activation and downregulated the expression of NKG2D, a receptor responsible for NK cell activation. Moreover, the protein levels of DAP12, ZAP76 and Syk decreased, as did their corresponding mRNA levels. Overall, our study demonstrates that Sophocarpine inhibits NK cell activity, thus making it a promising therapy for ILI.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 7: 70, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese patent medicine approved by the China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. CKI, combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), is believed to increase the therapeutic efficacy of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report an updated and extended meta-analysis with detailed outcomes of both the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CKI combined with TACE therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Wanfang, the VIP medicine information system (VMIS) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were examined for relevant articles before November 13, 2015. An odds ratio (OR) was used to estimate tumor response (TR), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) improvement, Child-Pugh (CP) improvement, survival rate (SR) and AEs. A publication bias and a subgroup analysis were also assessed. RESULTS: Eighteen studies, with a total of 1,338 HCC patients who met the criteria for the meta-analysis, were included. TR, KPS improvement and CP improvement were significantly enhanced for the combination therapy compared to TACE alone (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: [1.46, 2.33], P < 0.00001; OR = 2.37, 95% CI: [1.76, 3.18], P < 0.00001; OR = 1.81, 95% CI: [1.08, 3.03], P = 0.02, respectively). The combination therapy was associated with an improvement in 1-year and 2-year SRs but not an improved 3-year SR (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: [1.59, 3.62], P < 0.0001; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [1.24, 5.00], P = 0.01; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [0.94, 6.61], P = 0.07, respectively). A safety analysis indicated that AEs (including nausea/vomiting, fever, hepatalgia, increased transaminase, increased bilirubin and leukopenia) were reduced for the combination treatment compared to TACE alone. CONCLUSION: The combination treatment of TACE and CKI was associated with improved TR, KPS and CP improvement and improved 1- and 2-year SRs in patients with unresectable HCC. The 3-year SR was not improved. The combination therapy resulted in a reduction in AEs. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size and study limitations.

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