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1.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621959

RESUMO

The mechanical performance of electroplated Cu plays a crucial role in next-generation Cu-to-Cu direct bonding for the three-dimension integrated circuit (3D IC). This work reports direct-current electroplated (111)-preferred and nanotwin-doped nanocrystalline Cu, of which strength is at the forefront performance compared with all reported electroplated Cu materials. Tension and compression tests are performed to present the ultrahigh ultimate strength of 977 MPa and 1158 MPa, respectively. The microstructure of nanoscale Cu grains with an average grain size around 61 nm greatly contributes to the ultrahigh strength as described by the grain refinement effect. A gap between the obtained yield strength and the Hall-Petch relationship indicates the presence of extra strengthening mechanisms. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis identify the highly (111) oriented texture and sporadic twins with optimum thicknesses, which can effectively impede intragranular dislocation movements, thus further advance the strength. Via filling capability and high throughput are also demonstrated in the patterned wafer plating. The combination of ultrahigh tensile/compressive strength, (111) preferred texture, superfilling capability and high throughput satisfies the critical requirement of Cu interconnects plating technology towards the industrial manufacturing in advanced 3D IC packaging application.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1139, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommended cumulative doxorubicin dose in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treatment was based on cardiotoxicity data from retrospective studies of breast cancer patients. However, the treatment and prognosis of STS and breast cancer are quite different, and reference to breast cancer data alone may not reflect the efficacy of doxorubicin treatment in STS. This study, thus, aimed to review and analyze clinical data of STS patients treated with a high cumulative doxorubicin dose, to provide a reference for treatment selection and clinical trial design. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data of patients with advanced STS who received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy from January 2016 to January 2020. The patients were divided into a standard-dose group (who received ≤6 cycles of doxorubicin after the initial diagnosis) and an over-dose group (who were re-administered doxorubicin [doxorubicin-rechallenge] after receiving 6 cycles of doxorubicin therapy discontinuously). Patient characteristics, cumulative doxorubicin dose, objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), cardiotoxicity incidence, and treatment effectiveness were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: A total of 170 patients with advanced STS were recruited (146 in the standard-dose group and 24 in the over-dose group). The average cumulative doxorubicin dose was 364.04 ± 63.81 mg/m2 in the standard-dose group and 714.38 ± 210.09 mg/m2 in the over-dose group. The ORR, DCR, and median PFS were 15.07, 58.9%, and 6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-6.5) months in the standard-dose group and 16.67, 66.67%, and 4 (95%CI: 2.0-5.8) months in the over-dose group, respectively. Symptomatic heart failure occurred in five patients (3.42%) of the standard-dose group and in one patient (4.17%) of the over-dose group. In these patients with cardiotoxicity, doxorubicin was discontinued, and all of them died of uncontrolled tumor growth. No drug-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The continuation of or rechallenge with doxorubicin beyond the recommended cumulative dose could be a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of chemotherapy-sensitive advanced sarcomas. Further evaluation is necessary in prospective trials.

3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(10): 1679-1683, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the curative effect of gamma globulin combined with methylprednisolone sodium succinate on paediatric patients with severe hand-foot-mouth disease and analyse its influence on cardio-pulmonary functions. Methodology: Eighty paediatric patients with severe hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD) treated in Baoding Children's Hospital, Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Respiratory Digestive Disease from January 2015 to January 2017 were selected. This study was designed as a case control study with equally dividing patients into test and control groups through random digital method. Patients in the control group accepted methylprednisolone sodium succinate treatment based on conventional therapy. Those in the test group accepted gamma globulin combined with methylprednisolone sodium succinate. The efficacy of the two groups were observed and compared and the improvement of cardiac function index was detected after 3 days of treatment. RESULTS: The time for symptom remission and hospitalisation of children in the test group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05). The differences between the two groups had no statistical significance in terms of PaO2, PaCO2, OI, HR, EF% and CO before treatment. After the treatment, patients in the test group had significant improvement compared with the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Curative effect of gamma globulin combined with methylprednisolone sodium succinate on paediatric patients showed significance and this treatment could be effectively improve clinical symptoms and cardio-pulmonary functions of paediatric patients.

4.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105152

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate pneumothorax characteristics and association with clinical outcomes in patients with osteosarcoma treated with apatinib. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of osteosarcoma patients treated with apatinib between January 2016 and April 2020 at three institutions. We evaluated the prevalence, healing time, recurrence, severity, clinical management, and prognosis of pneumothorax in these patients. A total of 54 osteosarcoma patients who received apatinib treatment were enrolled in this study. Among them, 14 patients had pneumothorax. There were significant differences between the patients with and without pneumothorax with regard to the cavitating rate of lung metastases (92.86 vs. 32.50%, respectively, P < 0.001), objective response rate (42.86 vs. 10.00%, P = 0.013), disease control rate (85.71 vs. 42.50%, P = 0.006), 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate (57.10 vs. 20.00%, P < 0.001), and median PFS (5.65 vs. 2.90 months, P = 0.011). Compared with pneumothorax patients treated with chest tube drainage only [non-staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) group], those treated with chest tube drainage and SEC thoracic perfusion in parallel (SEC group) had a shorter pneumothorax healing time (12.00 ± 4.50 days vs. 24.00 ± 14.63 days for SEC group and non-SEC group, respectively, P = 0.103), a lower recurrence rate of pneumothorax (25.00% vs. 66.67%, P = 0.277), and a longer median PFS (5.9 months vs. 4.75 months, P = 0.964). however, these numerical differences for the SEC/non-SEC data did not reach statistical significance. Pneumothorax and cavitation in lung metastases may be effective prognostic markers for patients with osteosarcoma treated with apatinib. SEC may be effective for treatment of such pneumothorax patients, warranting further study.

5.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(5): 1835-1836, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099445
6.
Br J Cancer ; 123(12): 1796-1807, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer amplified sequence 2 (BCAS2) plays crucial roles in pre-mRNA splicing and androgen receptor transcription. Previous studies suggested that BCAS2 is involved in double-strand breaks (DSB); therefore, we aimed to characterise its mechanism and role in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to assay the roles of BCAS2 in the DSBs of PCa cells and apoptosis in Drosophila, respectively. The effect of BCAS2 dosage on non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) were assayed by precise end-joining assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Glutathione-S-transferase pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to determine whether and how BCAS2 interacts with NBS1. The expression of BCAS2 and other proteins in human PCa was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: BCAS2 helped repair radiation-induced DSBs efficiently in both human PCa cells and Drosophila. BCAS2 enhanced both NHEJ and HR, possibly by interacting with NBS1, which involved the BCAS2 N-terminus as well as both the NBS1 N- and C-termini. The overexpression of BCAS2 was significantly associated with higher Gleason and pathology grades and shorter survival in patients with PCa. CONCLUSION: BCAS2 promotes two DSB repair pathways by interacting with NBS1, and it may affect PCa progression.

7.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(6): 1366-1370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968410

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between myocardial enzymes, liver function and metabolic acidosis in children with rotavirus infection diarrhea. Methods: The data of 70 children with infectious diarrhea treated in Baoding Children's Hospital, China, from October 2017 to April 2018 were retrospectively studied. The antigen of rotavirus in feces was positive by colloidal gold method. According to the clinical features of biochemical indicators and mental status, the patients were divided into four groups, an acidosis-free group, a mild acidosis group, a moderate acidosis group and a severe acidosis group, in line with acidosis severity. In addition to detecting the hepatic functions of the pediatric patients in the four groups, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransfer (ALT) levels, and myocardial enzyme levels (e.g., creatine kinase, or CK, and creatine kinase isoenzyme, or CK-MB), the relationships of hepatic function, myocardial enzyme levels and acidosis severity of the patients with infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection were also analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in sex and age among the four groups (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of diarrhea and vomiting (p<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in creatine kinase, CK-MB, AST and ALT levels in children with metabolic acidosis of different severities. Conclusion: With the aggravation of metabolic acidosis, infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus is characterized by the aggravation of hepatic function and myocardial cells.

8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Honokiol and magnolol are natural components isolated from Magnolia bark that is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese herbal medicine. These two isomers are used as a component of dietary supplements and cosmetic products. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial effect of honokiol and magnolol on pathogens causing oral diseases, their mechanism of action in biofilm formation and drug resistance of oral pathogens, and inflammatory regulation in mammalian cells. METHODS: We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of honokiol and magnolol, and their stability at different temperatures and pH. We also evaluated their effect on biofilm formation, antibiotic-resistance gene expression in MRSA, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in mammalian cells. RESULTS: Honokiol showed better antimicrobial activity than magnolol. Both honokiol and magnolol showed stable bacterial inhibitory activity over a wide range of temperature and pH, reduced biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance in oral pathogens. The biofilm formation- and antibiotic resistance-related gene expression was consistent with the respective phenotypes. Furthermore, these two isomers repressed the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of the potential application of honokiol and magnolol in dental medicine to cure or prevent oral diseases.

9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850355

RESUMO

Surgeries of pelvic bone tumors are very challenging due to the complexity of anatomical structures and the irregular bone shape. CT and MRI are used in clinic for tumor evaluation, each with its own advantages and shortcomings. Combining the data of both CT and MRI images would take advantage of the merits of both images and provide better model for preoperative evaluation. We utilized an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted CT/MRI image fusion technique and built a personalized 3-D model for preoperative tumor margin assessment. A young female patient with pelvic osteosarcoma was evaluated with our novel image fusion 3-D model in comparison with the 3-D model based solely on CT images. The fusion image model showed more detailed anatomical information and discovered multiple emboli within veins which were previously neglected. The discovery of emboli implied abysmal prognosis and discouraged any attempts for complex reconstruction after tumor resection. Based on the experience with this pelvic osteosarcoma, we believe that our image fusion model can be very informative with bone tumors. Though further validation with a large number of clinical cases is required, we propose that our model has the potential to benefit the clinic in the preoperative evaluation of bone tumors.

10.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777813

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Polymerase chain reaction-based assays are the current gold standard for detecting and diagnosing SARS-CoV-2. However, as SARS-CoV-2 mutates, we need to constantly assess whether existing PCR-based assays will continue to detect all known viral strains. To enable the continuous monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 assays, we have developed a web-based assay validation algorithm that checks existing PCR-based assays against the ever-expanding genome databases for SARS-CoV-2 using both thermodynamic and edit-distance metrics. The assay screening results are displayed as a heatmap, showing the number of mismatches between each detection and each SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence. Using a mismatch threshold to define detection failure, assay performance is summarized with the true positive rate (recall) to simplify assay comparisons. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The assay evaluation website and supporting software are Open Source and freely available at https://covid19.edgebioinformatics.org/#/assayValidation, https://github.com/jgans/thermonucleotideBLAST, and https://github.com/LANL-Bioinformatics/assay_validation. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 698, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence that albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) is safe and efficacious for the treatment of many types of malignant tumors is continuously increasing. However, the evidence and clinical data of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treatment are rare. METHODS: The clinical data of metastatic STS patients who received nab-paclitaxel/ gemcitabine chemotherapy between January 2019 and February 2020 were retrospectively analysed. All these patients were treated with nab-paclitaxel/ gemcitabine only after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy had failed. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in these patients. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients treated with nab-paclitaxel/ gemcitabine were enrolled in this study. One patient with angiosarcoma achieved complete response, 6 patients had partial response, 5 patients achieved stable disease, and 5 patients had progressive disease. The average diameter change in target lesion from baseline was - 19.06 ± 45.74%. And median progression free survival was 6 months (95% CI, 2-9 months). Grade 3 / 4 adverse events were not common, included neutropenia (17.6%), fatigue (11.8%), anemia (11.8%), leukopenia (11.8%), nausea (5.9%), peripheral neuropathy (5.9%), diarrhea (5.9%), and thrombocytopenia (5.9%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: Nab-paclitaxel/ gemcitabine combination chemotherapy is comparatively effective in the treatment of STS, demonstrates low toxicity, and is worthy of further study.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(25): 28253-28263, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484644

RESUMO

The layered oxides LiNi0.6+xCo0.2-xMn0.2O2 are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their moderate energy densities and structure stabilities. In this study, we systematically investigate the effects of substitution of Co by Ni on the structures, morphologies, and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.6+xCo0.2-xMn0.2O2 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1). The physical characteristics of these materials are studied by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties are investigated by charge-discharge cycling, galvanostatic intermittent titration, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As the Co content decreases and the Ni content increases, the discharge capacity and voltage platform are slightly improved, while the initial efficiency, cycling performance, rate capability, and thermal stability gradually decrease. The decreased kinetic performance is attributed to the increased degree of cation mixing and resistance, which decreases the Li+ diffusivity. Moreover, the activation energy gradually increases with the decrease in the Co content, which decreases the low-temperature performance. Considering its cost, energy density, cycling lifetime, kinetic performance, and safety properties, LiNi0.65Co0.15Mn0.2O2 is a promising cathode candidate for use in LIBs.

14.
Foods ; 9(2)2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102391

RESUMO

Eggs are linked to some health-related problems, for example, allergy, and religious restrictions, thus the food manufacturer is challenged to find egg replacements and include the physicochemical properties of egg in food. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein was used to produce rice protein hydrolysates (RPHs) for use as an egg replacement in flaky egg rolls. Formulations were control (A), rice protein isolate (B), RPH15 (C), RPH30 (D), and RPH60 (E), respectively. The protein content of formula E increased from 19.69 to 22.18 g/100 g, while carbohydrate and sugar content decreased to 64.12 and 12.26 g/100 g, respectively. Overall amino acid contents significantly increased as compared with formula A. The overall acceptability for sensory evaluation was higher with formula C. The color of the sample was highly affected by the protein-rich ingredients accounting to a Maillard reaction progression and causing a decrease in brightness (L*) and increase in redness (a*). RPHs successfully maintained the functional and physiochemical properties, along with flavor and texture, of flaky egg rolls and could be an egg replacement. These high-value RPHs produced by enzymatic hydrolysis could be beneficial for various applications, particularly food and related industries.

15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): 37-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression levels and clinical significance of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive comparative study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatric Medicine, Baoding Children's Hospital, from July 2017 to July 2018. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-five KD children were chosen as the case group, and were classified into CAL group (23 patients) and NCAL group (72 patients, according to the presence of a coronary artery lesion (CAL). Forty-six non-KD children with an upper respiratory infection in the same time period were chosen as the control group. Electrochemiluminescence method was used to detect serum NT-proBNP levels. The spectrophotometer method was used to test H2S levels, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test serum IL-6 levels and to analyse the correlation. RESULTS: In the acute phase and recovery phase, serum NT-proBNP and IL-6 levels were higher in the case group than the control group, while H2S levels were lower than those in the control group (p<0.001). In both the acute and recovery phases, serum NT-proBNP and IL-6 levels were higher in the CAL group than in the NCAL group, while H2S levels were lower than those in the NCAL group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: NT-proBNP and IL-6 levels rise and the H2S level decreases in the blood of KD children, indicating that these indicators may participate in the pathogenesis of KD and that their levels are related to CAL occurrence and the vascular inflammatory response.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 388-394, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848245

RESUMO

Surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline protein coats surrounding microbial cells. S-layer proteins (SLPs) regulate their extracellular self-assembly by crystallizing when exposed to an environmental trigger. However, molecular mechanisms governing rapid protein crystallization in vivo or in vitro are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Caulobacter crescentus SLP readily crystallizes into sheets in vitro via a calcium-triggered multistep assembly pathway. This pathway involves 2 domains serving distinct functions in assembly. The C-terminal crystallization domain forms the physiological 2-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice, but full-length protein crystallizes multiple orders of magnitude faster due to the N-terminal nucleation domain. Observing crystallization using a time course of electron cryo-microscopy (Cryo-EM) imaging reveals a crystalline intermediate wherein N-terminal nucleation domains exhibit motional dynamics with respect to rigid lattice-forming crystallization domains. Dynamic flexibility between the 2 domains rationalizes efficient S-layer crystal nucleation on the curved cellular surface. Rate enhancement of protein crystallization by a discrete nucleation domain may enable engineering of kinetically controllable self-assembling 2D macromolecular nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caulobacter crescentus/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Cálcio/metabolismo , Caulobacter crescentus/genética , Caulobacter crescentus/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalização , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/ultraestrutura , Mutagênese
17.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(2): 597-602, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the natural history of atherosclerotic common carotid artery occlusion and optimal treatment of these patients is still unclear. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the immediate- and long-term outcomes of axillary to carotid bypass with polytetrafluoroethylene graft for symptomatic patients with chronic common carotid artery occlusion. METHODS: From March 2001 to December 2017, 58 symptomatic patients (41 men; mean age 64.7 years) with chronic common carotid artery occlusion underwent axillary to carotid bypass at one academic hospital. The clinical data of this patient cohort were retrospectively analyzed. The cumulative graft patency, overall survival, freedom from symptoms, and freedom from ipsilateral stroke were calculated with Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients presented with transient ischemic attack and 25 patients presented with minor stroke. At 30 days after bypass, the overall perioperative complication rate was 3.4% (2/58). Mild injuries of brachial plexus occurred in one (1.7%) patient and myocardial infarction occurred in one (1.7%) patient. No perioperative stroke or death occurred. The median follow-up was 51 months (range, 12-203) for this series. The cumulative graft patency rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 100%, 100%, 94%, and 83%, respectively. The cumulative freedom from symptoms rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 100%, 100%, 94%, and 75%, respectively. The cumulative freedom from ipsilateral stroke rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 100%, 100%, 94%, and 82%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 98%, 89%, 81%, and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary to carotid bypass with polytetrafluoroethylene graft is safe and durable for symptomatic patients with chronic common carotid artery occlusion. The results of this study should be confirmed with a larger, randomized controlled trial in future.


Assuntos
Artéria Axilar/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Idoso , Artéria Axilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Axilar/fisiopatologia , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Politetrafluoretileno , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
18.
Foods ; 8(12)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783694

RESUMO

The market contains only limited health care products that combine prebiotics and probiotics. In this study, we developed a seaweed-based Gracilaria coronopifolia synbiotic and verified the efficacy by small intestinal cells (Caco-2). We also developed a functional material that promotes intestinal health and prevents intestinal inflammation. G. coronopifolia was used as a red seaweed prebiotic, and Bifidobacterium bifidums, B. longum subsp. infantis, B. longum subsp. longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were mixed for the seaweed's synbiotics. G. coronopifolia synbiotics were nontoxic to Caco-2 cells, and the survival rate was 101% to 117% for a multiplicative effect on cell survival. After cells were induced by H2O2, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased to 151.5%, but after G. coronopifolia synbiotic treatment, decreased to a range between 101.8% and 109.6%. After cells were induced by tumor necrosis factor α, the ROS levels increased to 124.5%, but decreased to 57.7% with G. coronopifolia symbiotic treatment. G. coronopifolia synbiotics could effectively inhibit the production of ROS intestinal cells under oxidative stress (induced by H2O2 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)), which can reduce the damage of cells under oxidative stress. Functioning of intestinal cells could be improved by inhibiting the production of inflammatory factor substances (interleukin 8) with G. coronopifolia symbiotic treatment. Also, gastrointestinal diseases may be retarded by a synbiotic developed from G. coronopifolia to promote intestinal health and prevent intestinal inflammation.

19.
Foods ; 8(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694250

RESUMO

Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is an annual fast-growing underutilized pseudo cereal with a high percentage of starch content. In this study, djulis starch was extracted from the flour of dried grains by three different isolation procedures: (1) hydrochloric acid (HCl) isolation procedure (HP); (2) deionized water isolation procedure (WP); and (3) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) isolation procedure (NP), followed by investigation of the physicochemical properties of the isolated djulis starch. The amylose content of HP, WP, and NP was 22.14%, 24.15%, and 22.43%, respectively. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological observation, djulis starch presented a polygonal shape with granule sizes of 0.56-1.96, 0.74-3.02, and 0.62-2.48 µm, respectively. Djulis starch showed the classification of typical A-type x-ray patterns, and the relative degree of crystallinity for HP, WP, and NP was 33.15%, 36.17%, and 37.42%, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to determine the transition temperatures, transition range, and enthalpies of the gelatinization of starches. HP and WP isolated starch exhibited the highest ΔH 9.24 and 8.51 J/g, respectively, whereas NP starch showed the lowest ΔH of 6.95 J/g. The pasting temperatures of HP, WP, and NP isolated starch, which were analyzed by using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), were 71.70 °C, 72.80 °C, and 69.53 °C, respectively. The dependence of swelling power for the three isolated starches on temperature was tested at 10 °C with intervals between 60 °C and 90 °C. In short, the NP isolation procedure with a stable reaction is compelling from a technological point of view.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(49): 10331-10342, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721579

RESUMO

Permselective nanochannels are ubiquitous in biological systems, controlling ion transport and maintaining a potential difference across a cell surface. Surface layers (S-layers) are proteinaceous, generally charged lattices punctuated with nanoscale pores that form the outermost cell envelope component of virtually all archaea and many bacteria. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) obtain their energy exclusively from oxidizing ammonia directly below the S-layer lattice, but how the charged surfaces and nanochannels affect availability of NH4+ at the reaction site is unknown. Here, we examine the electrochemical properties of negatively charged S-layers for asymmetrically forced ion transport governed by Michaelis-Menten kinetics at ultralow concentrations. Our 3-dimensional electrodiffusion reaction simulations revealed that a negatively charged S-layer can invert the potential across the nanochannel to favor chemically forced NH4+ transport, analogous to polarity switching in nanofluidic field-effect transistors. Polarity switching was not observed when only the interior of the nanochannels was charged. We found that S-layer charge, nanochannel geometry, and enzymatic turnover rate are finely tuned to elevate NH4+ concentration at the active site, potentially enabling AOA to occupy nutrient-poor ecological niches. Strikingly, and in contrast to voltage-biased systems, magnitudes of the co- and counterion currents in the charged nanochannels were nearly equal and amplified disproportionally to the NH4+ current. Our simulations suggest that engineered arrays of crystalline proteinaceous membranes could find unique applications in industrial energy conversion or separation processes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Oxirredutases/química , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Cinética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
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