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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 200-206, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799543

RESUMO

We previously combined reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) to create an rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduit and found that the conductivity and biocompatibility were improved. However, the rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits differed greatly from autologous nerve transplants in their ability to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and axonal sprouting. Extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be loaded into rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits for repair of rat sciatic nerve injury because they can promote angiogenesis at the injured site. In this study, 12 weeks after surgery, sciatic nerve function was measured by electrophysiology and sciatic nerve function index, and myelin sheath and axon regeneration were observed by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The regeneration of microvessel was observed by immunofluorescence. Our results showed that rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits loaded with BMSC-derived extracellular vesicles were superior to rGO-GelMA-PCL conduits alone in their ability to increase the number of newly formed vessels and axonal sprouts at the injury site as well as the recovery of neurological function. These findings indicate that rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits loaded with BMSC-derived extracellular vesicles can promote peripheral nerve regeneration and neurological function recovery, and provide a new direction for the curation of peripheral nerve defect in the clinic.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(3): 683-688, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018194

RESUMO

Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of an injured nerve can promote and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration and improve function. When performing acupuncture and moxibustion, locating the injured nerve using ultrasound before percutaneous nerve stimulation can help prevent further injury to an already injured nerve. However, stimulation parameters have not been standardized. In this study, we constructed a multi-layer human forearm model using finite element modeling. Taking current density and activated function as optimization indicators, the optimal percutaneous nerve stimulation parameters were established. The optimal parameters were parallel placement located 3 cm apart with the injury site at the midpoint between the needles. To validate the efficacy of this regimen, we performed a randomized controlled trial in 23 patients with median nerve transection who underwent neurorrhaphy. Patients who received conventional rehabilitation combined with percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation experienced greater improvement in sensory function, motor function, and grip strength than those who received conventional rehabilitation combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. These findings suggest that the percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation regimen established in this study can improve global median nerve function in patients with median nerve transection.

3.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 972964, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090790

RESUMO

Background: Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome, a condition that predominantly affects males, is caused by mutations in translocase of mitochondrial inner membrane 8A (TIMM8A)/deafness dystonia protein 1 (DDP1) gene and characterized by progressive deafness coupled with other neurological abnormalities. In a previous study, we demonstrated the phenotype of male mice carrying the hemizygous mutation of Timm8a1-I23fs49X. In a follow-up to that study, this study aimed to observe the behavioral changes in the female mutant (MUT) mice with homologous mutation of Timm8a1 and to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the behavioral changes. Materials and methods: Histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy (EM), Western blotting, hearing measurement by auditory brainstem response (ABR), and behavioral observation were compared between the MUT mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Results: The weight of the female MUT mice was less than that of the WT mice. Among MUT mice, both male and female mice showed hearing impairment, anxiety-like behavior by the elevated plus maze test, and cognitive deficit by the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, the female MUT mice exhibited coordination problems in the balance beam test. Although the general neuronal loss was not found in the hippocampus of the MUT genotype, EM assessment indicated that the mitochondrial size showing as aspect ratio and form factor in the hippocampus of the MUT strain was significantly reduced compared to that in the WT genotype. More importantly, this phenomenon was correlated with the upregulation of translation of mitochondrial fission process protein 1(Mtfp1)/mitochondrial 18 kDa protein (Mtp18), a key fission factor that is a positive regulator of mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial size. Interestingly, significant reductions in the size of the uterus and ovaries were noted in the female MUT mice, which contributed to significantly lower fertility in the MUT mice. Conclusion: Together, a homologous mutation in the Timm8a1 gene caused the hearing impairment and psychiatric behavioral changes in the MUT mice; the latter phenotype might be related to a reduction in mitochondrial size regulated by MTP18.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091591

RESUMO

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to its repetitive remission and relapse. The Jian-Wei-Yu-Yang (JW) formula has a historical application in the clinic to combat gastrointestinal disorders. The investigation aimed to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms of JW. Methods: 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was diluted in drinking water and given to mice for 5 days to establish murine models of experimental colitis, and different doses of JW solution were administered for 14 days. Network pharmacology analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were utilized to predict the therapeutic role of JW against experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics were conducted using murine feces. Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and wound healing experiments were performed to confirm the molecular mechanisms. Results: (1) Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was utilized to confirm the validity of the JW formula. The high dose of JW treatment markedly attenuated DSS-induced experimental colitis progression, and the targets were enriched in inflammation, infection, and tumorigenesis. (2) The JW targets were related to the survival probability in patients with colorectal cancer, underlying a potential therapeutic value in CRC intervention. (3) Moreover, the JW therapy successfully rescued the decreased richness and diversity of microbiota, suppressed the potentially pathogenic phenotype of the gut microorganisms, and increased cytochrome P450 activity in murine colitis models. (4) Our in vitro experiments confirmed that the JW treatment suppressed caspase3-dependent pyroptosis, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and interleukin-1b (IL-1b) in the colon; facilitated the alternative activation of macrophages (Mφs); and inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in intestinal organoids (IOs). Conclusion: The JW capsule attenuated the progression of murine colitis by a prompt resolution of inflammation and bloody stool and by re-establishing a microbiome profile that favors re-epithelization and prevents carcinogenesis.

5.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(4): 1864-1874, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092348

RESUMO

Background: Vascular invasion is an independent risk factors for recurrence and poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms of HCC vascular invasion are largely unknown. Deciphering the molecular changes associated with the vascular invasion process will aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and treatment for patients with HCC. Methods: DNA was extracted from tumor specimens and blood samples collected from 50 patients with HCC. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed to detect HCC gene variants. Bioinformatics methods were used to comprehensively analyze the three sets of sequencing data grouped by vascular invasion, including differences in tumor mutation burden (TMB), mutation characteristics, and alterations in signaling pathways. Results: Bioinformatics analysis detected a total of 762 single nucleotide variants (SNVs). The TMB was not significantly different between patients with macrovascular invasion, microvascular invasion (MVI), or avascular invasion. Ten genes related to prognosis or recurrence, and one oncogene related to vascular invasion were screened. Compared with the avascular invasion cluster, the variant genes in the macrovascular and MVI clusters were mainly enriched in the thyroid hormone signaling pathway. In addition, macrovascular invasion variant genes were also enriched in the insulin signaling pathway and the Fanconi anemia pathway. Conclusions: Somatic mutations and pathway changes associated with vascular invasion in HCC were identified. The discovery of the molecular drivers of vascular invasion in HCC provides novel insights that can help guide further patient diagnosis and personalized therapy.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; : 166538, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and other oncolytic viruses (OVs) are thought to kill tumors by inducing apoptosis. However, cell apoptosis leads to immune quiescence, which is incompatible with the ability of OVs to activate the antitumor immune microenvironment. Thus, studying OVs-mediated oncolytic mechanisms is of great importance for the clinical application of OVs. METHODS: We examined the pyroptosis in tumor cells and tissues by morphological observation, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, frozen section observation, and western-blotting techniques. The critical role of GSDME in VSV-induced pyroptosis was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 technique. VSV virotherapy-recruited cytotoxic lymphocytes in the tumors were examined by flow cytometry assay. VSV-activated antitumor immunity was further enhanced by the co-administration with anti-PD-1 antibody. RESULTS: Here, we observed that VSV was able to trigger tumor pyroptosis through Gasdermin E (GSDME) in tumor cells, human tumor samples, and tumor-bearing mouse models. Importantly, the effectiveness of VSV-based virotherapy is highly dependent on GSDME, as depletion of GSDME not only reverses VSV-induced tumor-suppressive effects but also diminishes the ability of VSV to activate antitumor immunity. Notably, VSV treatment makes immunologically 'cold' tumors more sensitive to checkpoint blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Oncolytic VSV induces tumor cell pyroptosis by activating GSDME. GSDME is critical in recruiting cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the context of VSV therapy, which can switch immunologically 'cold' tumors into 'hot' and enhance immune checkpoint therapy efficacy.

7.
Food Chem ; 401: 134158, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099827

RESUMO

In this study, soy protein isolate (SPI) was treated by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) assisted dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cold plasma (CP) to improve its functional properties. For this reason, SPI powders were treated with DBD-CP at the oxygen ratio of 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 % and 60 %, respectively. The results showed that with the increase of oxygen content, the structure of SPI was destroyed, protein macromolecule depolymerized. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirmed that the primary structure of SPI was not disrupted. In addition, when the oxygen content was greater than 40 %, the solubility, water holding capacity, gelling, emulsifying and foaming properties of SPI were significantly improved (p < 0.05). The results showed that high-oxygen packaging can increase the active particles generated during processing, thereby optimizing the structural and functional properties of SPI. Therefore, MAP can serve as a more efficient method for DBD-CP to modify soybean protein.

8.
Int J Emerg Med ; 15(1): 51, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) develop intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), which is associated with higher mortality and worse clinical outcome. External ventricular drains (EVDs) are often placed, but there is little data on how much patients benefit from this intervention. We explored the use, timing, and location of EVD in ICH patients and any association with clinical outcome. RESULTS: During the study period, 2870 patients presented with primary ICH, and 2486 were included in analyses. Overall, patients were 73 (± 13) years old; 54% were male, and 46% had associated IVH. An EVD was placed in 29% of patients with IVH and 4% of those without. IVH patients with EVD were younger (67 ± 13 vs 74 ± 13, p < 0.001), had larger IVH volumes (17 mL vs 8 mL, p < 0.001), and lower GCS scores (7 vs 10, p < 0.001), compared to those without EVD. Ninety-day mortality was available in 2486 (100%) patients, while 90-day mRS was available in 1673 (67.3%). In univariate analysis, EVD placement was associated with lower likelihood of 90-day mortality (53% vs 59%, p = 0.048) but higher likelihood of poor outcome (88% vs 85%, p < 0.001) in those for whom this was available. Those with poor outcomes underwent faster EVD placement (0.46 days vs. 0.96 days, p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, EVD placement was associated with lower 90-day mortality (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.053-0.657, p = 0.009), but not with lower odds of poor outcome (OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.508-5.309, p = 0.4). In multivariate analysis, days to EVD placement was associated with lower 90-day mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: IVH is relatively common after ICH. After controlling for potential confounds, EVD placement is associated with lower mortality, but not clearly with better neurologic outcome. In addition, more rapid EVD placement is associated with higher mortality, potentially reflecting early development of herniation or obstructive hydrocephalus.

9.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 162: 111310, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of growth and development level on polysomnography results in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Preschool children (ages 3-6) with symptoms of snoring and were diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography in the sleep center were selected as the research object. They were split into three groups based on their growth rates: restricted, normal, and excessive. Sleep structure, respiratory events, and oxygenation index were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: A total of 183 (111 boys and 72 girls) preschool children were enrolled. There were 26 cases in the growth restricted group, 112 cases in the normal growth group, and 45 cases in the overgrowth group. The weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children in the growth restricted and overgrowth groups were significantly different from those in the normal group. In terms of sleep structure, the sleep efficiency of the growth restricted group was poorer than that of the normal group. For sleep breathing events, the growth restricted group showed a greater apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI), hypoventilation index, and more hypoventilation than the normal group. In terms of oxygenation, the difference in degree of hypoxia between the three groups was statistically significant, and the overgrowth group had lower minimum oxygen saturation during the rapid eye movement phase than the normal group, as well as a quicker mean heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is more likely in preschool-aged children with stunted or overgrown growth than in children with OSA alone, and the more severe the disorder, especially when accompanied with stunted growth.

10.
J Ovarian Res ; 15(1): 106, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a common gynecological cancer with poor prognosis and poses a serious threat to woman life and health. In this study, we aimed to establish a prognostic signature for the risk assessment of ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was used as the training set and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) dataset was set as an independent external validation. A multi-stage screening strategy was used to determine the prognostic features of ovarian cancer with R software. The relationship between the prognosis of ovarian cancer and the expression level of SLC25A10 was selected for further analysis. RESULTS: A total of 16 prognosis-associated genes were screened to construct the risk score signature. Survival analysis showed that patients in the high-risk score group had a poor prognosis compared to the low-risk group. Accuracy of this prognostic signature was confirmed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve analysis (DCA), and validated with ICGC cohort. This signature was identified as an independent factor for predicting overall survival (OS). Nomogram constructed by multiple clinical parameters showed excellent performance for OS prediction. Finally, it's found that patients with low expression of SLC25A10 generally had poor survival and higher resistance to most chemotherapeutic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, we developed a 16-gene prognostic signature, which could serve as a promising tool for the prognostic prediction of ovarian cancer, and the expression level of SLC25A10 was tightly associated with OS of the patients.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Nomogramas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 970087, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117985

RESUMO

Background: Bedside ultrasound is often used to determine the etiology of hypoxaemia, but not always with definitive results. This case reports the application of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and saline injection to determine the etiology of hypoxaemia in a complex case that could not be identified by bedside ultrasound. The determination of the etiology of hypoxaemia by EIT and saline injection, regional ventilation and perfusion information can be used as a new clinical diagnostic method. Case presentation: A post-cardiac surgery patient under prolonged mechanical ventilation for lung emphysema developed sudden hypoxemia in the intensive care unit (ICU). A line pattern and lung sliding sign abolishment were found in the left lung, but there was no evidence of a lung point sign on bedside ultrasound. Hence, the initial diagnosis was considered to be a massive pneumothorax. To further define the etiology, EIT and saline bolus were used to assess regional ventilation and perfusion. A massive ventilation defect was found in the left lung, in which regional perfusion was maintained, resulting in an intrapulmonary shunt in the left lung. Finally, the conjecture of a pneumothorax was ruled out considering the massive atelectasis. After the diagnosis was clarified, hypoxaemia was corrected by restorative ventilation of the left lung after changing the patient's posture and enhancing sputum drainage with chest physiotherapy. Conclusions: This was the clinical case involving EIT and saline bolus to establish the differential diagnosis and guide clinical decisions for patients with acute hypoxemia. This study highlighted that combination regional ventilation, EIT perfusion, and saline bolus provided helpful information for determining the etiology of hypoxemia. The results of this study contribute to the development of emergency patient management.

12.
Trends Cell Biol ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114091

RESUMO

Traditionally, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is best known for its role as a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter reducing neuronal excitability in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), thereby producing calming effects. However, an emerging body of data now supports a function for GABA beyond neurotransmission as a potent factor regulating cancer cell growth and metastasis, as well as the antitumor immune response, by shaping the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we review the current knowledge on GABA's effects on the function of tumor cells, tumor-immune interactions, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Since altered GABAergic signaling is now recognized as a feature of certain types of solid tumors, we also discuss the potential of repurposing existing GABAergic agents as a new class of anticancer therapy.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; : 158710, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099954

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) oxides are widely recognized to prevent the degradation of organic matter (OM) in environments, thereby promoting the persistence of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Thus, discerning the association mechanisms of Fe oxides and OC interactions is key to effectively influencing the dynamics and extent of organic C cycling in soils. Previous studies have focused on i) quantifying Fe oxide-bound organic carbon (Fe-OC) in individual environments, ii) investigating the distribution and adsorption capacity of Fe-OC, and iii) assessing the redox cycling and transformation of Fe-OC. Furthermore, the widespread application of high-tech instrumentation and methods has greatly contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism of organic mineral assemblages in the past few decades. However, few literature reviews have comprehensively summarized Fe-OC distributions, associations, and characteristics in soil-plant systems. Here, studies investigating the Fe-OC contents among different environments are reviewed. In addition, the mechanisms and processes related to OM transformation dynamics occurring at mineral-organic interfaces are also described. Recent studies have highlighted that diverse interactions occur between Fe oxides and OC, with organic compounds adhering to Fe oxides due to their huge specific surfaces area and active reaction sites. Moreover, we also review methods for understanding Fe-OC interactions at micro-interfaces. Lastly, developmental prospects for understanding coupled Fe-OC geochemical processes in soil environments at molecular- and nano-scales are outlined. The summary suggests that combined advanced techniques and methods should be used in future research to explore micro-interfaces and in situ descriptions of organic mineral assemblages. This review also suggests that future studies need to consider the functional and spatial complexity that is typical of soil/sediment environments where Fe-OC interactions occur.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(undefined)2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103219

RESUMO

Feeder cells provide an optimal microenvironment for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by supplying currently known or unknown factors. However, the hESCs grown on feeder cells are not suitable for the purpose of clinical application because of the risk of contamination. In recent years, the feeder-free culture method has been developed to eliminate contamination, but some studies show that hESCs exhibit poor growth patterns in a feeder-free culture system. Regarding this phenomenon, we speculate that some genes related to hESC propagation were differently expressed in hESCs grown on feeder cells. To test this hypothesis, 3 hESC lines (NF4, NF5 and P096) were efficiently expanded in a feeder-free culture system or on human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. The different gene expression patterns of hESCs in these 2 conditions were analyzed through microarrays. The results revealed that the hESCs cultured in both conditions maintained the expression of stemness markers and the ability to spontaneously differentiate into the 3 germ layers. The analysis of gene expression profiles revealed that 23 lncRNA and 15 genes were significantly differentially expressed in these two culture conditions. Furthermore, GO analyses showed that these genes were involved in such biological processes as growth factor stimuli, cell growth, and stem cell maintenance. To summarize, our study demonstrated that the hESCs grown on the HFF showed different gene expression patterns compared to those grown in a feeder-free culture system, suggesting that these differently expressed lncRNAs and genes played important roles in maintaining hESC propagation.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 965454, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059479

RESUMO

Ducks and wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. However, the host proteome response that causes disease in vivo by the H5N1 HPAI virus is still unclear. This study presented a comprehensive analysis of the proteome response in Muscovy duck lung tissue during 3 days of infection with either a highly virulent DK383 or an avirulent DK212. An unbiased strategy- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to investigate the infection mechanism. Pathways derived from analysis of 292 significantly altered proteins may contribute to the high pathogenic nature and disease progression of H5N1 viruses. Global proteome profiles indicated improved correlation with the virus titers and gene expression patterns between the two strains of the H5N1 virus. DK383 replicated more efficiently and induced a stronger response specific to severe disease. While proteins involved in the immune response of neutrophils were increased markedly by DK383, DK212 evoked a distinct response characterized by an increase in proteins involved in the maturation of dendritic cells, adhesion of phagocytes, and immune response of macrophages. The differentially activated Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway might involve in the host response to H5N1 viruses. Therefore, systematically integrated with datasets from primary genomic and virus titer results, proteomic analyses may help reveal the potential pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Patos , Proteoma , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111760

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is a bifunctional polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalyzing two oxidative reactions: monophenols to o-quinones (monophenolase activity) and o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity). As tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for the melanogenesis process, it is an attractive target for melanogenesis inhibition. Aiming at skin whitening, anticancer, Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment, antibacterial, fruit and vegetable preservation and other anti-pigmentation effect, medicinal chemists have exploited diverse tyrosinase inhibitors through various approaches. In addition to discovering inhibitors with novel scaffold, good activity and high safety, researchers also focused on developing strategies for synergistic effects of multiple inhibitors and simultaneously regulating multiple targets to treat cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. This review focused on multiple natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors which could contribute to preventing fruit and vegetable browning, skin whitening, antibacterial, anticancer, Parkinson's Disease etc.

17.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107156

RESUMO

Polymer nanocomposite dielectrics possess exceptional electric properties that are absent in the pristine dielectric polymers. The matrix/particle interface in polymer nanocomposite dielectrics is suggested to play decisive roles on the bulk material performance. Herein, we present a critical overview of recent research advances and important insights in understanding the matrix/particle interfacial characteristics in polymer nanocomposite dielectrics. The primary experimental strategies and state-of-the-art characterization techniques for resolving the local property-structure correlation of the matrix/particle interface are dissected in depth, with a focus on the characterization capabilities of each strategy or technique that other approaches cannot compete with. Limitations to each of the experimental strategy are evaluated as well. In the last section of this Review, we summarize and compare the three experimental strategies from multiple aspects and point out their advantages and disadvantages, critical issues, and possible experimental schemes to be established. Finally, the authors' personal viewpoints regarding the challenges of the existing experimental strategies are presented, and potential directions for the interface study are proposed for future research.

18.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 18: 1875-1884, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052272

RESUMO

Background: Studies suggested that myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorders (MOGAD) are an isolated group of diseases that are different from multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). The proportion of individuals with MOGAD is higher among children. However, limited data are available on autoimmune antibodies and neuroimaging features in children with MOGAD. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed 42 children with MOGAD. The clinical, neuroradiological, and cerebrospinal fluid data were compared according to courses and radiological results. Results: Of the 42 patients, 28 suffered a monophasic course and 14 had a relapsing course. During the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 21 patients had a well-resolved brain condition and another 21 patients showed slight improvement with marked residuals. Most patients with relapse had cortical lesions and a leukodystrophy-like MRI pattern (all p < 0.05). Children with poor radiological outcomes have confluent and hazy lesions that involve both cortexes, white matter lesion of >2 cm, and a leukodystrophy-like pattern, as well as cerebral lesions with T1 hypointensity or enhancement and spinal lesions (all p < 0.05). The multivariable logistic regression analysis used the aforementioned differential features and showed cerebral enhancement and a leukodystrophy-like pattern as the most effective variations associated with poor radiological outcomes of MOGAD with an area under the curve of 0.875. Conclusion: MOGAD in children have some radiological features suggestive of clinical courses and radiological outcomes. A good understanding of these differential features can help to give early warnings of disease recurrence or poor radiological improvement and develop subsequent therapeutic strategies.

19.
Front Neurol ; 13: 931523, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046631

RESUMO

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in delivering nutrients and eliminating the metabolic wastes of the central nervous system. An interrupted CSF flow could cause disorders of the brain and eyes such as Alzheimer's disease and glaucoma. This review provides an overview of the anatomy and flow pathways of the CSF system with an emphasis on the optic nerve. Imaging technologies used for visualizing the CSF dynamics and the anatomic structures associated with CSF circulation have been highlighted. Recent advances in the use of computational models to predict CSF flow patterns have been introduced. Open questions and potential mechanisms underlying CSF circulation at the optic nerves have also been discussed.

20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5190, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057724

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence from China and other countries has suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation measures have caused a decline in preterm births, but evidence is conflicting. Utilising a national representative data of 11,714,947 pregnant women in China, we explored the immediate changes in preterm birth rates during the COVID-19 mitigation period using an interrupted-time-series analysis. We defined the period prior to February 1, 2020 as the baseline, followed by the COVID-19 mitigation stage. In the first month of the COVID-19 mitigation, a significant absolute decrease in preterm birth rates of 0.68% (95%CI:-1.10% to -0.26%) in singleton, and of 2.80% (95%CI:-4.51% to -1.09%) in multiple births was noted. This immediate decline in Wuhan was greater than that at the national level among singleton births [-2.21% (95%CI:-4.09% to -0.34% vs. -0.68%)]. Here we report an immediate impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on preterm birth in China.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nascimento Prematuro , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
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