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1.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(1): 37-45, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783699

RESUMO

This qualitative study describes the psychological experience of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients went through 3 psychological stages: extremely uncertainties during the initial diagnostic stage, complicated feelings of negativity during the treatment stage, and positive growth in the recovery stage. It is important for nurses to provide holistic care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emoções , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(11): 3980-3988, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557944

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MRSA) is a representative pathogen that produces numerous virulence factors involving manifold cytotoxins and exotoxins. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of Eleutheroside K (ETSK), a single compound isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax (A.) henryi (Oliv.) Harms, on the exotoxins secreted by MRSA. The transcription and translation of the exotoxins (α-hemolysin and staphylococcal enterotoxins) related to virulence in S. aureus were determined via quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of ETSK on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a result, ETSK at sub-MIC concentrations could reduce the protein expression of α-hemolysin and enterotoxin, and the expression of genes that regulate virulence factors was also inhibited. In addition, the TNF-inducing activity of S. aureus was attenuated by ETSK in a dose-dependent manner. These results revealed that ETSK not only reduced the protein and gene expression levels of related exotoxins but also suppressed the ability of S. aureus to induce macrophages to release cytokines. This study indicated that the inhibition of MRSA infection by ETSK may be achieved by reducing the virulence of S. aureus and highlighted the potential of ETSK as an innovative strategy for the prevention and treatment of MRSA infections.


Assuntos
Eleutherococcus , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulência
3.
Mol Plant ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530166

RESUMO

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, and plays vital roles in crop yield. Assimilation of nitrogen is thus fine-tuned in response to heterogeneous environments. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying this essential process remains largely unknown. Here, we report that a zinc-finger transcription factor, drought and salt tolerance (DST), controls nitrate assimilation in rice by regulating the expression of OsNR1.2. We found that loss of function of DST results in a significant decrease of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in the presence of nitrate. Further study revealed that DST is required for full nitrate reductase activity in rice and directly regulates the expression of OsNR1.2, a gene showing sequence similarity to nitrate reductase. Reverse genetics and biochemistry studies revealed that OsNR1.2 encodes an NADH-dependent nitrate reductase that is required for high NUE of rice. Interestingly, the DST-OsNR1.2 regulatory module is involved in the suppression of nitrate assimilation under drought stress, which contributes to drought tolerance. Considering the negative role of DST in stomata closure, as revealed previously, the positive role of DST in nitrogen assimilation suggests a mechanism coupling nitrogen metabolism and stomata movement. The discovery of this coupling mechanism will aid the engineering of drought-tolerant crops with high NUE in the future.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239595

RESUMO

Background: Sympathetic activation leads to elevated blood pressure. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibits sympathetic nervous system activity, thereby decreasing blood pressure (BP). nNOS is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), which play essential roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous systems. Objective: This study was designed to verify the hypothesis that acupuncture exerts an antihypertensive effect via increasing the expression of nNOS in ARC and vlPAG of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Methods: Rats without anesthesia were subject to daily acupuncture for 2 weeks. BP was monitored by the tail-cuff method. nNOS expressions in the ARC and vlPAG were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence. BP was measured after 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI), a specific nNOS inhibitor, was microinjected into ARC or vlPAG in SHR rats treated with acupuncture. Results: Acupuncture for 14 days significantly attenuated BP, and the Taichong (LR3) acupoint was superior to Zusanli (ST36) and Fengchi (GB20) in lowering BP. In addition, acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) induced an increase of nNOS expression in ARC and vlPAG, whereas microinjection of 7-NI into ARC or vlPAG reversed the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture. Conclusions: This study indicates that acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) induces a better antihypertensive effect than at Zusanli (ST36) or at Fengchi (GB20) in SHR rats, and enhancement of nNOS in ARC and vlPAG probably contributes to the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(7): 1585-1591, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982455

RESUMO

The spatial distribution uniformity of valuable medicines is the critical quality attribute in the process control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. With the real world sample of the mixed end-point powder of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills as the research object, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to collect a total of 32 400 data points with a size of 180 pix×180 pix. Spectral angle matching(SAM), classical least squares and mixed tuned matched filtering(MTMF) were used to identify the spatial distribution of rare medicines. MTMF model showed higher identification accuracy, therefore the spatial distribution of the blended intermediates was identified based on the MTMF model. The histogram method was also used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of rare medicines. The results showed that the standard deviation was 4.78, 6.5, 3.48, 1.96, and 3.00 respectively for artificial bezoar, artificial musk, Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn; the variance was 22.8, 42.3, 12.1, 3.82, and 9.00, and the skewness was 1.26, 1.71, 0.06,-0.86, and 1.04, respectively. The final results showed that the most even blending was achieved in concentrated powder of Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn, followed by artificial bezoar, and last artificial musk. A visualization method was established for quality attributes of distribution uniformity in blending process of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. It could provide evidences of quality control methods in the mixing process of big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pós , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(7): 1592-1597, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982456

RESUMO

For the field detection problems of critical quality attribute(CQA) of moisture content in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) manufacturing process, big brand TCM Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills were used as the carrier, to establish a moisture content NIR field detection model with or without cellophane in real world production with use of near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy combined with stoichiometry. With the moisture content determined by drying method as reference value, the partial least square method(PLS) was used to analyze the correlation between the spectrum and the moisture reference value. Then the spectral pretreatment methods were screened and optimized to further improve the accuracy and stability of the model. The results showed that the best quantitative model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of standard normal variate(SNV) with the latent variable factor number of 2 and 7 of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with or without cellophane samples. The prediction coefficient of determination(R_(pre)~2) and standard deviation of prediction(RMSEP) of the model with cellophane samples were 0.765 7 and 0.157 2%; R_(pre)~2 and RMSEP of the model without cellophane samples were 0.772 2 and 0.207 8%. The NIR quantitative models of moisture content of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with and without cellophane both showed good predictive performance to realize the rapid, accurate and non-destructive quantitative analysis of moisture content in such pills, and provide a method for the field quality control of the critical chemical attributes of moisture in the manufacturing of big brand TCM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(7): 1598-1605, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982457

RESUMO

Texture sensory attributes are the key items in quality control of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills. The purpose of this study is to develop a quality control method for assessing the texture sensory attributes of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills based on real-world Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin pilular masses and finished products. First, parameters of texture profile analysis(TPA) were optimized through single factor and central composite design(CCD) experiments to establish a detection method for texture sensory attri-butes of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. The results showed that the established detection method was stable and reliable, with the optimal parameters set up as follows: deformation percentage of 70%, detection speed at 30 mm·min~(-1), and interval time of 15 s. Furthermore, 540 data points yielded form six texture sensory attributes of pills from 30 batches were subjected to multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) with Hotelling T~2 and squared prediction error(SPE) control charts to establish the quality control method of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. This study is expected to provide a reference for improving the quality control system of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Controle de Qualidade
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(7): 1606-1615, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982458

RESUMO

Identification of critical quality attribute(CQA) is crucial in quality control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills(TRNHQXP). In this study, 661 active components in TRNHQXP were selected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and network pharmacology based on reported data and TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM, and TCMID databases, as well as mass spectrometry data, and 1 413 targets of the active components were obtained through SwissTargetPrediction. The 152 potential targets obtained from the intersection of predicted targets with 456 stroke targets underwent functional enrichment analysis by Metascape. The 27 Chinese medicinals in TRNHQXP were divided into four sets according to efficacies. Thirty-seven key targets in the blood-activating and stasis-resolving set and 41 in the tonifying set were screened out. On the basis of these potential key targets, 137 potential key CQA of TRNHQXP for stroke were reversely predicted. This study revealed the possible mechanism of TRNHQXP in treating stroke and established a modular identification method for the potential CQA of big brand traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) based on efficacies and chemical properties. Consequently, the CQA of TRNHQXP were identified by this method, which has provided a reference for the following experimental studies of CQA.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Cromatografia Líquida , Controle de Qualidade
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(7): 1629-1635, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982461

RESUMO

The chemical properties of characteristic components are significant to the manufacturing quality control of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the Huangjing Zanyu Capsules were used as the research carrier to determine the content of five characteristic components including icraiin, emodin, schisandrin A, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-ß-D-glucoside, and osthole simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The results showed that the chemical properties of five cha-racteristic components had a good linear relationship(r>0.999 9) within the quantitative range; the relative standard deviations(RSD) was 0.11%-2.0% and 0.25%-2.8% respectively for intra-day and inter-day precision; the RSD of repeatability was 1.8%-2.6%; the RSD of stability within 48 hours was 0.19%-2.8%, and the average recovery rate was 95.52%-100.1%, all meeting the requirements of pharmaceutical quantitative analysis. Additionally, the interval estimation method was used to directly reflect the distribution of samples with abnormal chemical properties of characteristic components, and the results showed ten samples were detected beyound the 95% control line of confidence level. Multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) method was used to monitor the abnormal samples of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules collectively, and the results showed that two samples were beyond the 95% control line of Hotelling's T~2 and three samples beyond the 95% control line of squared prediction error(SPE), indicating consistent quality control of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules. In conclusion, the proposed method is not only accurate and efficient but also a compensation for the traditional single-component quality control method, providing a scientific basis for the quality control in manufacturing process of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules. Furthermore, it could also serve as a reference method for the quality control in manufacturing big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Cápsulas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(31): 3805-3808, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876127

RESUMO

We developed a new method for protein droplet visualization by means of a droplet probe (DroProbe) based on an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorogen. A simple method for viscosity comparison of the protein condensed phase based on the lifetime of the DroProbe was also developed.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917423

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has always been a threatening pathogen. Research on phytochemical components that can replace antibiotics with limited efficacy may be an innovative method to solve intractable MRSA infections. The present study was devoted to investigate the antibacterial activity of the natural compound demethoxycurcumin (DMC) against MRSA and explore its possible mechanism for eliminating MRSA. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of DMC against MRSA strains was determined by the broth microdilution method, and the results showed that the MIC of DMC was 62.5 µg/mL. The synergistic effects of DMC and antibiotics were investigated by the checkerboard method and the time-kill assay. The ATP synthase inhibitors were employed to block the metabolic ability of bacteria to explore their synergistic effect on the antibacterial ability of DMC. In addition, western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were performed to detect the proteins and genes related to drug resistance and S. aureus exotoxins. As results, DMC hindered the translation of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) and staphylococcal enterotoxin and reduced the transcription of related genes. This study provides experimental evidences that DMC has the potential to be a candidate substance for the treatment of MRSA infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1023-1038, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742899

RESUMO

With the rapid development of China's economy, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the precursor of smog and ozone are of increasing concern, especially in rapidly developing areas. This paper is a systematic analysis of VOCs emissions and distribution trends in 12 typical industrial sectors, garbage and wastewater treatment plants, comprehensive industrial parks, and residential districts in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta Regions. The results show that pharmacy, rubber producing, as well as paint spraying are the top three industries among the 12 typical industries with the highest average VOCs emission concentrations at 541, 499, and 450 mg·m-3, respectively. By comparison, the average emission concentration of VOCs from the pharmaceutical industry in Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region was, respectively, about 112 and 1.00×103 mg·m-3. The paint spraying industry in the Pearl River Delta region has the highest emission rate with an average concentration of 1.04×103 mg·m-3. The investigation pertaining to the distribution of different VOCs categories indicates that highly toxic aromatics and halogenated hydrocarbons account for the highest emissions in paint spraying and pharmaceutical industries, reaching ratios of 55.99% and 26.57%, respectively. Additionally, among the three major economic zones, the VOCs concentration is the lowest in residential areas and comprehensive industrial parks in the Yangtze River Delta but the highest in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, which is consistent with the distribution of industrial emissions in each region. Moreover, the research reveals that VOCs concentration in residential districts experienced a fluctuating reduction from 2002 to 2018. The significant reduction since 2016 suggests that formulated policies, laws and standards, along with the performed techniques have made significant contributions to the control of VOCs.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1039-1052, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742900

RESUMO

In this study, a 2018 anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission inventory in Hubei Province was conducted using the emission factor method based on activity levels of five sources. The emission characteristics and variation trends of process sources from 2009 to 2018 were further analyzed. Total anthropogenic VOCs emissions were 6.52×105 tons in Hubei Province, accounting for about 6.41% of the country's total omissions. The contributions of fossil combustion sources, process sources, solvent sources, mobile sources, and waste disposal sources were 3.26%, 76.39%, 4.54%, 14.72%, and 1.09%, respectively. Process sources involving 45 sub-categories of nine industries accounted for a significant proportion of VOCs emissions, with Wuhan and Yichang recording the highest VOCs emission levels. The VOCs emissions intensity of each city and state were analyzed based the level of economic activity and territorial area. Tianmen and Shennongjia had higher VOCs emissions per unit of GDP, while Wuhan, Ezhou, and Tianmen had higher VOCs emissions per unit area. Regarding process source contributions, VOCs emissions increased progressively to 2.45×105 tons in 2009 and then stabilized between 2015 and 2017 with maximum emissions of 7.01×105 tons. In 2018, VOCs emissions decreased to 4.98×105 tons. This trend was similar to national anthropogenic emissions. Two industrial sectors, namely chemical raw materials and rubber and plastics, were the main driving force with contributions of 33.85%-51.55% and 7.07%-38.13%, respectively. Among them, the production of chemicals and active pesticide and pharmaceutical ingredients played an important role in contributing to VOCs emissions, while emissions during foam plastics production varied greatly, increasing sharply to more than 2.00×104 tons in 2015-2017. Under the guidance of the relevant national and local policies, emissions from key industries were significantly reduced in Hubei Province.

14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1053-1064, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742901

RESUMO

In order to understand the sources and distribution characteristics of hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), and Pearl River Delta (PRD), the emission sources, as well as their distribution in water and soil were analyzed based on the production levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and wastewater discharge in the three regions. The results showed that the by-products of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and wastewater treatment plants were the main sources of HCBD in the three regions. In 2018, the total emissions of HCBD from by-products of TCE and PCE in the three regions were 498.46 t, among which the proportion of by-products of TCE was 66.9%. The HCBD emissions of the three regional industrial and domestic wastewater treatment plants were 628.9 kg and 254.6 kg, respectively. The emissions of HCBD from hydrocarbon chlorination production and wastewater treatment plants in YRD were significantly higher at 497.8 t and 648 kg, respectively, while the emissions from the two sources in BTH were 0.37 t and 125 kg, respectively, and in PRD they were 0.29 t and 110.3 kg, respectively. The average concentrations of HCBD in the natural water of YRD, BTH and PRD were 0.35, 0.25, and 0.64 µg·L-1, respectively, and in the drinking water concentrations were 0.16, 0.09, and 0.04 µg·L-1, respectively. The overall level of HCBD in urban drinking water was relatively low. The concentrations of HCBD in industrial soil were significantly higher than in farmland soil, at 9.3-24.6 ng·g-1 and 0.13-2.67 ng·g-1, respectively. Similar to the situation in water bodies, HCBD pollution in the soil of YRD was the most serious, which was related to the fact that HCBD emissions in YRD were significantly higher than in BTH and PRD.

15.
Exp Neurol ; 339: 113645, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600815

RESUMO

Microglia are rapidly activated after acute ischemic stroke, and the polarization of microglial is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), an anti-inflammatory agent, has a protective effect against ischemic stroke. However, the role of LXA4 on the polarization of microglial after acute ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We hypothesized that LXA4 may exert the neuroprotective effect though regulating the polarization of microglial. In this study, clinical features of acute ischemic stroke were simulated using a rat model of model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and the BV2 microglia oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation model (OGD/R) in vitro. The protective effects of LXA4 on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury were determined using TTC staining, HE staining, and TUNEL staining. The expression of targeted genes was assayed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and western blot to investigated the regulation of LXA4 on microglia polarization after acute ischemic stroke. We found that LXA4 exerted protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α. Furthermore, LXA4 inhibited the expression of Notch-1, Hes1, iNOS and CD32 all of which are associated with the differentiation into M1 microglia. By contrast, LXA4 upregulated the expression of Hes5, Arg-1 and CD206 all of which are associated with M2 phenotype in microglia. In addition, blocking the Notch signaling pathway with the inhibitor DAPT significantly mitigated the effect of LXA4 on microglia differentiation. These data suggest that LXA4 may regulate the polarization of microglia after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through the Notch signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Notch1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Lipoxinas/administração & dosagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Masculino , Microglia/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Notch1/biossíntese , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(6): 660-668, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440080

RESUMO

This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of fotagliptin benzoate (fotagliptin), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 10 and 4 patients with T2DM were randomized and received, respectively, once-daily oral fotagliptin (24 mg) or placebo, for 14 days. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed throughout the study, including monitoring DPP-4, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glycosylated hemoglobin, and fasting blood glucose. Fotagliptin was rapidly absorbed, and the median time to maximum concentration value was ∼1.5 hours. Plasma fotagliptin levels were stable after 14 days of once-daily dosage. The accumulation ratios for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of fotagliptin, M1, and M2-1, were 1.19 ± 0.10, 1.59 ± 0.27, and 1.39 ± 0.26, respectively. The durations for DPP-4 inhibition >80% in the fotagliptin group on days 1 and 14 were 23.5 and 24.0 hours, respectively. The concentrations of GLP-1 were higher on days 1 and 14 than at the baseline. No serious complications occurred. Fotagliptin showed favorable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and was well tolerated. Treatment with fotagliptin can achieve high DPP-4 inhibition and increase plasma GLP-1. A once-per-day dosing regimen may be recommended as clinically efficacious.

17.
Plant J ; 105(6): 1689-1702, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354819

RESUMO

Adventitious roots (ARs) are an important root type for plants and display a high phenotypic plasticity in response to different environmental stimuli. Previous studies found that dark-light transition can trigger AR formation from the hypocotyl of etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana, which was used as a model for the identification of regulators of AR biogenesis. However, the central regulatory machinery for darkness-induced hypocotyl AR (HAR) remains elusive. Here, we report that photoreceptors suppress HAR biogenesis through regulating the molecular module essential for lateral roots. We found that hypocotyls embedded in soil or in continuous darkness are able to develop HARs, wherein photoreceptors act as negative regulators. Distinct from wound-induced ARs that require WOX11 and WOX12, darkness-induced HARs are fully dependent on ARF7, ARF19, WOX5/7, and LBD16. Further studies established that PHYB interacts with IAA14, ARF7, and ARF9. The interactions stabilize IAA14 and inhibit the transcriptional activities of ARF7 and ARF19 and thus suppress biogenesis of darkness-induced HARs. This finding not only revealed the central machinery controlling HAR biogenesis but also illustrated that AR formation could be initiated by multiple pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Fitocromo B/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Escuridão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 8(5): 355-361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163190

RESUMO

Background: Endoscopic treatment is recommended for the management of esophageal varices. However, variceal recurrence or rebleeding is common after endoscopic variceal eradication. Our study aimed to systematically evaluate the prevalence of esophageal collateral veins (ECVs) and the association of ECVs with recurrence of esophageal varices or rebleeding from esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment. Methods: We searched the relevant literature through the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Prevalence of paraesophageal veins (para-EVs), periesophageal veins (peri-EVs), and perforating veins (PVs) were pooled. Risk ratio (RR) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for cohort studies and case-control studies, respectively. A random-effects model was employed. Heterogeneity among studies was calculated. Results: Among the 532 retrieved papers, 28 were included. The pooled prevalence of para-EVs, peri-EVs, and PVs in patients with esophageal varices was 73%, 88%, and 54%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of para-EVs and PVs in patients with recurrence of esophageal varices was 87% and 62%, respectively. The risk for recurrence of esophageal varices was significantly increased in patients with PVs (OR = 9.79, 95% CI: 1.95-49.22, P = 0.006 for eight case-control studies), but not in those with para-EVs (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 0.38-38.35, P = 0.24 for four case-control studies; RR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.83-3.97, P = 0.14 for three cohort studies). Patients with para-EVs had a significantly higher incidence of rebleeding from esophageal varices (RR = 13.00, 95% CI: 2.43-69.56, P = 0.003 for two cohort studies). Statistically significant heterogeneity was notable across the meta-analyses. Conclusions: ECVs are common in patients with esophageal varices. Identification of ECVs could be helpful for predicting the recurrence of esophageal varices or rebleeding from esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment.

19.
Cancer Lett ; 494: 47-57, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829008

RESUMO

Hsp60sp, a signal peptide derived from the leader sequence of heat shock protein 60 kDa (Hsp60), is a Qa-1/HLA-E-binding peptide. We previously showed that Hsp60sp-specific CD8+ T cells are involved in the immunoregulation of autoimmune diseases by controlling the response of self-reactive lymphocytes. Here, we report that Hsp60sp-specific CD8+ T cells killed malignant lymphocytes in vitro independently of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and classical MHC-I expression. Induction of this cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in vivo, either by adoptive transfer of in vitro-amplified CTLs or peptide-loaded dendritic cell immunization, resulted in effective control of lymphoid tumors, including TAP- or classical MHC-I-deficient cells. Hsp60sp-specific immune activation combined with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blocking synergistically restrained mouse lymphoma development. Importantly, Hsp60sp-specific CD8+ T cells did not negatively affect normal tissues and cells. Our data suggest that Hsp60sp-based immunotherapy is an inviting strategy to control lymphoid malignancies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Chaperonina 60/química , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Linfoma/terapia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linhagem Celular , Chaperonina 60/imunologia , Terapia Combinada , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunização , Linfoma/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Mitocondriais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/transplante
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(5): 2425-2433, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608862

RESUMO

Soil microbial metabolism is vital for nutrient cycling and stability of an ecosystem. To elucidate the long-term effects of biochar application on nutrient limitations and carbon use efficiency (CUE) of soil microbial metabolisms, biochars pyrolyzed at 450℃ from trunks and branches of fruit trees under an oxygen-limited condition were mixed with the top Lou soils (0-20 cm) with application amounts of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 t·hm-2 in 2012. Corn-wheat rotation was carried out afterwards for seven years. The nutrient limitations of soil microbial metabolisms were analyzed quantitatively through ecoenzymatic stoichiometry in 2019. The results indicated that:① With an increase in the biochar application amount, soil moisture, organic carbon, total nitrogen, C:N, C:P, and N:P significantly increased, whereas there were no clear patterns for the active components of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and total phosphorus. In contrast, the activities of five extracellular enzymes (ß-1,4-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase, ß-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and phosphatase) were significantly reduced. ② The soil microorganisms suffered from the phosphorus limitation under all treatments in this study. In the treatments of biochar application, the carbon and phosphorus limitations of microbial metabolisms increased significantly with increasing application amount, whereas the microbial CUE decreased significantly. When the application amount was 20 t·hm-2, the carbon limitation (0.625±0.022) and phosphorus limitation (62.153°±0.892°) were lowest, and the microorganism CUE (0.511±0.007) was highest. ③ Partial least-squares path modeling (PLS-PM) showed that soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and their stoichiometry had a very direct positive effect on phosphorus limitation (P<0.01), and there was a positive correlation between carbon limitation and phosphorus limitation (R2=0.242, P<0.001); in contrast, the carbon and phosphorus limitations had a very significant negative effect on CUE (P<0.001). It was revealed that the excessive application of biochar had caused a soil element stoichiometry imbalance, which deteriorated the phosphorus limitation of the soil microbial metabolism and further led to carbon limitation and reduction of CUE. When the biochar application amount was 20 t·hm-2, C and P limitations were lowest, and microbial CUE was highest. Therefore, 20 t·hm-2 was optimal for regulating soil microbial metabolism, maintaining ecological functions, and reducing carbon dioxide emission produced by microbial metabolism.

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