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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 227: 113917, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688011

RESUMO

Vaccine refers to biological products that are produced using various pathogenic microorganisms for inoculation. The goal of vaccination is to induce a robust immune response against a specific antigen, thus preventing the organism from getting infected. In vaccines, adjuvants have been widely employed to enhance immunity against specific antigens. An ideal adjuvant should be stable, biodegradable, and low cost, not induce system rejection and promote an immune response. Various adjuvant components have been investigated across diverse applications. Typically, adjuvants are employed to meet the following objectives: (1) to improve the effectiveness of immunization with vaccines for specific populations, such as newborns and the elderly; (2) enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified or recombinant antigens; (3) allow immunization with a smaller dose of the vaccine, reducing drug dosage. In the present review, we primarily focus on chemically synthesized compounds that can be used as built-in adjuvants. We elaborate the classification of these compounds based on the induced immune activation mechanism and summarize their application in various vaccine types.

2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 126: 104226, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348114

RESUMO

Although interleukin and interleukin analogues which play important immunomodulatory roles in mammals have not yet been reported in invertebrates, interleukin enhancer binding factor (IEBF) which acts as a transcription factor has been recently studied in several crustaceans and it may be involved in innate immune defence against pathogens. In this study, an IEBF 2 homologue was identified in the fresh water crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The significantly changed expression levels of Pc-iebf 2 after bacterial challenge revealed the possibility of its participation in defence against bacterial infection. The results of an RNAi assay showed that the crayfish survival rate was obviously decreased after dsIEBF 2 injection, compared with the control groups. And S. aureus proliferation was obviously enhanced at 24 and 48 h post bacterial injection, when Pc-iebf 2 was knocked down. The possible molecular mechanisms for the innate immune regulation functions of Pc-IEBF 2 were also investigated. We speculated that Pc-IEBF 2 plays an important role in defending against bacterial infection in crayfish. It could regulate some innate immune responses by affecting the Toll signalling pathway, melanisation, and cell apoptosis.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 126984, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523478

RESUMO

Membrane fouling is an inevitable problem in forward osmosis (FO) treatment of algal-rich water (ARW). Natural ARW has a complex composition. Therefore, the coexisting components (Ca2+, natural organic humic acid [HA], and inorganic particulate kaolinite) in the influence of ARW on FO membrane fouling were studied. The analysis of extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and the confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the addition of coexisting components increased the attraction between pollutants and membranes, as well as among pollutants to varying degrees, and promoted the development of membrane fouling. Furthermore, Ca2+ and HA aggravated irreversible membrane fouling. All coexisting components changed the distribution and thickness of the fouling layer, and the addition of Ca2+ increased the content of extracellular organic matter (proteins and polysaccharides). The present results enhance the understanding of the mechanism through which natural ingredients affect microalgal membrane fouling and provide a basis for membrane fouling control to treat ARW.

4.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(1): 37-45, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783699

RESUMO

This qualitative study describes the psychological experience of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients went through 3 psychological stages: extremely uncertainties during the initial diagnostic stage, complicated feelings of negativity during the treatment stage, and positive growth in the recovery stage. It is important for nurses to provide holistic care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emoções , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-35, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856891

RESUMO

The ubiquitously-expressed proteolytic enzyme furin is closely related to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, and therefore represents a key target for antiviral therapy. Based on bioinformatic analysis and pseudovirus tests, we discovered a second functional furin site located in the spike protein. Furin still increased the infectivity of mutated SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in 293T-ACE2 cells when the canonical polybasic cleavage site (682-686) was deleted. However, K814A mutation eliminated the enhancing effect of furin on virus infection. Furin inhibitor prevented infection by 682-686-deleted SARS-CoV-2 in 293T-ACE2-furin cells, but not the K814A mutant. K814A mutation did not affect the activity of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L but did impact the cleavage of S2 into S2' and cell-cell fusion. Additionally, we showed that this functional furin site exists in RaTG13 from bat and PCoV-GD/GX from pangolin. Therefore, we discovered a new functional furin site which is pivotal in promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Front Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811642

RESUMO

Astrocytes are an abundant subgroup of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that play a critical role in controlling neuronal circuits involved in emotion, learning, and memory. In clinical cases, multiple chronic brain diseases may cause psychosocial and cognitive impairment, such as depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For years, complex pathological conditions driven by depression and AD have been widely perceived to contribute to a high risk of disability, resulting in gradual loss of self-care ability, lower life qualities, and vast burden on human society. Interestingly, correlational research on depression and AD has shown that depression might be a prodrome of progressive degenerative neurological disease. As a kind of multifunctional glial cell in the CNS, astrocytes maintain physiological function via supporting neuronal cells, modulating pathologic niche, and regulating energy metabolism. Mounting evidence has shown that astrocytic dysfunction is involved in the progression of depression and AD. We herein review the current findings on the roles and mechanisms of astrocytes in the development of depression and AD, with an implication of potential therapeutic avenue for these diseases by targeting astrocytes.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-30, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818119

RESUMO

AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants have continued to emerge in diverse geographic locations with a temporal distribution. The Lambda variant containing multiple mutations in the spike protein, has thus far appeared mainly in South America. The variant harbours two mutations in the receptor binding domain, L452Q and F490S, which may change its infectivity and antigenicity to neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we constructed 10 pseudoviruses to study the Lambda variant and each individual amino acid mutation's effect on viral function, and used eight cell lines to study variant infectivity. In total, 12 monoclonal antibodies, 14 convalescent sera, and 23 immunized sera induced by mRNA vaccines, inactivated vaccine, and adenovirus type 5 vector vaccine were used to study the antigenicity of the Lambda variant. We found that compared with the D614G reference strain, Lambda demonstrated enhanced infectivity of Calu-3 and LLC-MK2 cells by 3.3-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively. Notably, the sensitivity of the Lambda variant to 5 of 12 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, 9G11, AM180, R126, X593, and AbG3, was substantially diminished. Furthermore, convalescent- and vaccine-immunized sera showed on average 1.3-2.5-fold lower neutralizing titres against the Lambda variant. Single mutation analysis revealed that this reduction in neutralization was caused by L452Q and F490S mutations. Collectively, the reduced neutralization ability of the Lambda variant suggests that the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and vaccines may be compromised during the current pandemic.

9.
Small ; : e2104521, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821029

RESUMO

High-performance photothermal theranostics is urgently desired for cancer therapy because of their good controllability and noninvasive features. The relatively low photothermal conversion efficiency is still at the drawbacks because of the absence of efficient extraneous carriers. Herein, a carrier-free nanomedicine is developed to in vivo self-deliver organic photothermal agents for efficient cancer phototheranostics. By a facile self-assembly strategy, the near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing conjugated oligomer IDIC-4F is fabricated into a carrier-free nanoparticle (DCF-P), showing ultrasmall size of nearly 4.0 nm with a nearly 100% of drug loading capacity. Notably, DCF-P achieves a superhigh photothermal conversion efficiency of 80.5% that is far greater than that of IDIC-4F-loaded nanomicelle DCF-M (57.3%). With the guidance of NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-imaging, it is verified that DCF-P could well achieve tumor-preferential accumulation and retention at 4 h postinjection, and meanwhile shows highly efficient in vivo tumor elimination with good biosafety. This study thus contributes a novel concept for designing ultrasmall nanoparticle characteristics of preferential accumulation in tumors, and also provides a strategy for creating high-performance carrier-free nanomedicine via highly ordered molecular stacking.

10.
Med Oncol ; 39(1): 10, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761330

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoform 3 (PFKFB3), a pivotal enzyme in modulating glycolysis, plays vital roles in various physiological processes. PFKFB3 activity could be regulated by several factors, such as hypoxia and AMPK signaling; however, it could also function as upstream of AMPK signaling. Here, we showed that PFKFB3 inhibitor PFK-15 induced cell viability loss and apoptosis. Deprivation of PFKFB3 inhibited autophagy, while enhanced the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. Furthermore, PFK-15 reduced both the AMPK and AKT-mTORC1 signaling pathways, as the attenuated phosphorylation level of kinases themselves and their substrates. The addition of AICAR rescued the AMPK activity and autophagy, but enhanced PFK-15-induced cell viability loss. In fact, AICAR promoted the cytotoxicity of PFK-15 even in the AMPKα1/2-silenced cells, indicating AICAR might function in an AMPK-independent manner. Nevertheless, AICAR further reduced the AKT-mTORC1 activity down-regulated by PFK-15. Moreover, it failed to enhance PFK-15's cytotoxicity in the AKT1/2-silenced cells, indicating AKT-mTORC1 participated during these processes. Collectively, the presented data demonstrated that PFK-15 inhibited cell viability, AMPK, and AKT-mTORC1 signaling, and AICAR probably enhanced the cell viability loss aroused by PFK-15 in an AKT-dependent and AMPK-independent manner, thereby revealing a more intimate relationship among PFKFB3, AMPK, and AKT-mTORC1 signaling pathways.

11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2246-2255, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel adjuvant tumor therapeutic method by enhancing exogenous gene transfection to target tissues. This study aims to investigate the role of microRNA-492 (miR-492) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and further analyze the effects of UTMD-mediated miR-492 inhibitor on tumorigenesis. METHODS: The expression of miR-492 was detected by qRT-PCR. Co-transfection of microbubbles and miR-492 inhibitor with Lipofectamine 3000 was performed to achieve UTMD-mediated miR-492 inhibition in NSCLC cells. CCK-8 and Transwell assay were used to determine NSCLC cell proliferation, and the migration and invasion. RESULT: High expression of miR-492 was associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. miR-492 inhibitor suppressed tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and UTMD not only increased the transfection efficiency of miR-492 inhibitor, but also enhance the inhibitory effects on cell biological behaviors. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the expression level of miR-492 was up-regulated in NSCLC tissue samples and cells. Silencing of miR-492 inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and UTMD-mediated miR-492 inhibitor could promote more significant inhibition, which indicated that UTMD-mediated miR-492 inhibitor might provide a novel strategy for the treatment of NSCLC.KEY MESSAGESmiR-492 inhibitor inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion.UTMD-mediated miR-492 inhibitor can promote more significant inhibition.UTMD-mediated miR-492 inhibitor provide a new strategy for NSCLC.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832369

RESUMO

Modelling of elastomeric elements of railway components, able to represent stiffness and damping characteristics in a wide frequency range, is fundamental for simulating the train-track dynamic interaction, covering issues such as rail deflection as well as transmitted forces and higher frequency phenomena such as short pitch corrugation. In this paper, a modified non-linear Zener model is adopted to represent the dependences of stiffness and damping of the rail fastening, made of elastomeric material, of a reference Embedded Rail System (ERS) on the static preload and frequency of its deformation. In order to obtain a reliable model, a proper laboratory test set-up is built, considering sensitivity and frequency response issues. The equivalent stiffness and damping of the elastomeric element are experimentally characterised with force-controlled mono-harmonic tests at different frequencies and under various static preloads. The parameters of the non-linear Zener model are identified by the experimental equivalent stiffness and damping. The identified model correctly reproduces the frequency- and preload-dependent dynamic properties of the elastomeric material. The model is verified to be able to predict the dynamic behaviour of the elastomeric element through the comparison between the numerically simulated and the experimentally measured reaction force to a given deformation time history. Time domain simulations with the model of the reference ERS demonstrate that the modelled frequency- and preload-dependent stiffness and damping of the elastomeric material make a clear difference in the transient and steady-state response of the system when distant frequency contributions are involved.

13.
Trials ; 22(1): 834, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of mother's own milk (MOM) for preterm infants have been widely recognized. Many studies have shown that the rate of breastfeeding of premature infants remains very low. Although many studies use measures to promote breastfeeding, few high-quality cluster randomized controlled studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these measures. WeChat is an instant messaging software for smart terminals, and WeChat mini-programs have been widely used to promote health and self-management in China. Based on this background, we designed a randomized controlled study based on WeChat mini-programs to promote MOM feeding of premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS/DESIGN: This study will evaluate the effectiveness of WeChat mini-programs to increase the consumption of MOM feeding in twelve NICUs in Jiangsu Province, namely, six "intervention" NICUs and six "control" NICUs. The study process is as follows: (1) design and preparation, (2) NICU recruitment and training, (3) interpretation and analysis of baseline data, (4) quality control implementation process, and (5) data analysis feedback and publication of study reports. The primary outcome is the proportion of MOM feeding of premature infants during NICU hospitalization. The secondary outcomes are as follows: (1) time to initiation of MOM feeding (hours) and proportion of first-time MOM feeding (%), (2) duration of parenteral nutrition (days), (3) time to total gastrointestinal feeding (days), (4) hospitalization time and hospitalization cost, and (5) incidence of complications (necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, feeding intolerance, late-onset sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity). DISCUSSION: This study is the first cluster randomized controlled trial on the intervention of using a WeChat mini-program-based lactation consultant for premature infants in the NICU in China. We hope this study can improve the consumption of MOM by NICU premature infants during hospitalization through the intervention of WeChat mini-programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04383379. Registered on May 5, 2020.


Assuntos
Consultores , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactação , Leite Humano , Mães , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 108083, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes (FDRs) share a common genetic background with patients with diabetes. Insulin resistance is recognized as a common contributor to diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to investigate the association between a first-degree family history of diabetes (FHD) and NAFLD and the influence of glucose metabolic status. METHODS: The present work analyzed a part of the baseline data of the REACTION study conducted in a community population. A total of 11,162 participants with an average age of 55.57 ± 9.66 years were enrolled, including 9870 non-FDRs and 1292 FDRs. First-degree FHD was defined as at least one patient with diabetes among parents, siblings or children. The fatty liver index (FLI) was calculated to identify NAFLD. RESULTS: The proportions of subjects without NAFLD, with intermediate FLI, and with NAFLD differed significantly between non-FDRs and FDRs (P < 0.001). FLI was one of the metabolic factors independently associated with first-degree FHD (P = 0.006). Multivariate variance analysis revealed positive associations of first-degree FHD and glucose metabolic status (both P < 0.001) with FLI, which were independent of each other (P for interaction = 0.182). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis identified that first-degree FHD was independently and positively associated with FLI in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A first-degree FHD was an independent risk factor for NAFLD. Regardless of the status of glucose metabolism, FDRs were more susceptible to NAFLD.

15.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main responsibility of caring for patients with glioma is assumed by family caregivers who experience a considerable burden during the care process. This study aimed to investigate the level of caregiver burden and explore its associated factors among family caregivers of patients with glioma. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 131 family caregivers of glioma patients from October 2017 to November 2019. We used the following measurement tools: a demographic questionnaire, the Zarit Burden interview (ZBI), the Hamilton anxiety and depression scale, and the family APGAR index. We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine the factors related to caregiver burden. RESULTS: The ZBI score for the family caregivers of glioma patients was 31.29 (SD = 13.54), and most caregivers (71.7%) reported moderate and severe caregiver burdens. Caregivers' daily sleep time and anxiety symptoms and patients' depressive symptoms independently predicted caregiver burden. CONCLUSIONS: Family caregivers of glioma patients experienced a moderate burden. Personalised psychological intervention and sleep health guidance for patients and caregivers should be considered to reduce family caregiver burden and enhance the quality of life and mental health of both patients and their caregivers.

16.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832539

RESUMO

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a food-borne pathogen that causes acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. However, no approved vaccines and antiviral drugs are available at present. Therefore, the development of accurate and rapid detection technologies is important in controlling the outbreak of HuNoVs. This paper reviewed the research progress on HuNoV detection, including immunological methods, molecular detection and biosensor technology. Immunological methods and molecular detection technologies are still widely used for HuNoV detection. Furthermore, biosensors will become an emerging developmental direction for the rapid detection of HuNoVs because of their high sensitivity, low cost, easy operation and suitability for onsite detection.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750937

RESUMO

AIM: Sedentary behaviors are activities that expend less energy than 1.5 metabolic equivalents, such as watching TV, sitting. We aim to systematically review the evidence to determine the association of sedentary behavior (SB) with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, and the associations of SB with health outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Two researchers independently performed a literature search using PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, the Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source, and the Sedentary Behavior Research Database for studies published up to January 27, 2021. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and observational studies were screened and selected if SB was assessed in the context of gestational diabetes mellitus. Two reviewers extracted the relevant information and independently assessed the included studies for quality and bias. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included, involving 60 804 patients, and the timeline of the original study included was from 2006 to 2021. Our review showed that SB before pregnancy was not associated with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, while SB during pregnancy was uncertain about the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. In addition, there were significant associations between SB time and metabolic outcomes. In addition, SB may cause some adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. CONCLUSION: SB is likely to be the intermediary variable between occurrence of GDM and adverse maternal and infant outcome, rather than a direct influencing factor. Limited by the quantity and quality of included studies, the above conclusions need to be verified by more high-quality studies.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 746568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733261

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most prevalent form of primary malignant brain tumor, which currently have no effective treatments. Evidence from human studies has indicated that oral microbiota is closely related to cancers; however, whether oral microbiota plays a role in glioma malignancy remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the association between oral microbiota and grade of glioma and examine the relationship between malignancy-related oral microbial features and the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in glioma. High-grade glioma (HGG; n=23) patients, low-grade glioma (LGG; n=12) patients, and healthy control (HCs; n=24) participants were recruited for this case-control study. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed for 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. We found that the shift in oral microbiota ß-diversity was associated with high-grade glioma (p=0.01). The phylum Patescibacteria was inversely associated with glioma grade (LGG and HC: p=0.035; HGG and HC: p<0.01). The genera Capnocytophaga (LGG and HC: p=0.043; HGG and HC: p<0.01) and Leptotrichia (LGG and HC: p=0.044; HGG and HC: p<0.01) were inversely associated with glioma grades. The genera Bergeyella and Capnocytophaga were significantly more positively correlated with the IDH1 mutation in gliomas when compared with the IDH1-wild-type group. We further identified five oral microbial features (Capnocytophaga Porphyromonas, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, and TM7x) that accurately discriminated HGG from LGG (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.83) and HCs (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.92). The functional prediction analysis of oral bacterial communities showed that genes involved in cell adhesion molecules (p<0.001), extracellular matrix molecule-receptor interaction (p<0.001), focal adhesion (p<0.001), and regulation of actin cytoskeleton (p<0.001) were associated with glioma grades, and some microbial gene functions involving lipid metabolism and the adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway were significantly more enriched in IDH1 mutant gliomas than compared with the IDH1-wild-type gliomas. In conclusion, our work revealed oral microbiota features and gene functions that were associated with glioma malignancy and the IDH1 mutation in glioma.

19.
Small ; : e2104323, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738715

RESUMO

With the development of clean hydrogen energy, the cost effective and high-performance hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts are urgently required. Herein, a green, facile, and time-efficient Ru doping synergistic with air-plasma treatment strategy is reported to boost the HER performance of CoNi-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanotube arrays (NTAs) derived from zeolitic imidazolate framework nanorods. The Ru doping and air-plasma treatment not only regulate the oxygen vacancy to optimize the electron structure but also increase the surface roughness to improve the hydrophilicity and hydrogen spillover efficiency. Therefore, the air plasma treated Ru doped CoNi-LDH (P-Ru-CoNi-LDH) nanotube arrays display superior HER performance with an overpotential of 29 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 . Furthermore, by assembling P-Ru-CoNi-LDH as both cathode and anode for two-electrode urea-assisted water electrolysis, a small cell voltage of 1.36 V is needed at 10 mA cm-2 and can last for 100 h without any obvious activity attenuation that showing outstanding durability. In general, the P-Ru-CoNi-LDH can improve the HER performance from intrinsic electronic structure regulation cooperated with extrinsic surface wettability modification. These findings provide an effective intrinsic and extrinsic synergistic effect avenue to develop high performance HER electrocatalysts, which is potential to be applied to other research fields.

20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5005136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725564

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates a possible causal link between neuroinflammation and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and stroke. A putative mechanism underlying such a link can be explained by ferroptosis. Current studies have shown that disturbances of iron homeostasis, glutamate excitatory toxicity, lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other manifestations related to ferroptosis can be detected in several neurological disorders caused by neuroinflammation. To date, compelling evidence indicates that damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules (e.g., ROS) produced in the process of ferroptosis activate glial cells by activating neuroimmune pathways and then produce a series of inflammatory factors which contribute to neurological disorders. Our review article provides a current view of the involvement of ferroptosis or ROS in the pathological process of neuroinflammation, the effects of neuroinflammation mediated by ferroptosis in neurological disorders, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ferroptosis participates in neuroinflammation, and the potential treatments for neurological disorders. In addition, further research on the mechanisms of ferroptosis as well as the link between ferroptosis and neuroinflammation will help provide new targets for treatment.

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