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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 729883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690836

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine first-born children's sibling jealousy and explore the relationships among first-born children's sibling jealousy, temperament, and emotion regulation in China during COVID-19 pandemic. The research hypotheses of this study are empirically examined through online and offline surveys. A sample of 304 two-child families from China participated in the study; the first-born children were aged between 1.17 and 7 years. The results indicated the following: (1) the older the first-born children and the greater the age difference between siblings, the lower the sibling jealousy. (2) Difficult temperament of first-born children could predict sibling jealousy significantly and positively, and emotion regulation could predict sibling jealousy negatively. (3) There was a partially mediating effect of emotion regulation between temperament and sibling jealousy. Compared with intermediate temperament, first-born children with difficult temperament had weaker emotion regulation and higher sibling jealousy. Overall, findings have important implications for psychological interventions for families of first-born children with difficult temperament.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(46): 24478-24483, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528358

RESUMO

Two novel nitrogen-doped, hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-based nanographenes (NGs) 1 and 2 bearing an azepine and an azocine at the fjord region, respectively, were synthesized and characterized. Notably, structure 1 was synthesized by Diels-Alder reaction of cyclic alkene and tetrachlorothiophene-S,S-dioxide, followed by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and Scholl-type reactions, which represents a modified strategy to construct NGs. The azo-heptagon-embedded NG 1 leads to a saddle shape, and the azo-octagon-embedded NG 2 exhibits a distorted saddle-helix conformation with the largest torsion angle recorded so far in [5]helicenes. As a result, the different structural topographies for NGs 1 and 2 lead to significant changes in the optical properties including UV absorption and fluorescent emission. Additionally, the 8π-heterocycles azepine and azocine in the NGs 1 and 2 exhibited obvious antiaromatic properties.

3.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(6): 837-842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the texture features of lung computed tomography images were altered by primary breast cancer without pulmonary metastasis. METHODS: Texture analysis was performed on the regions of interest of lung computed tomography images from 36 patients with breast cancer and 36 healthy controls. Texture parameters between subjects with different clinical stages and hormone receptor (HR) statuses in patients with breast cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: Three texture parameters (mean, SD, and variance) were significantly different between patients with breast cancer and healthy controls and between preoperative and postoperative stages in patients with breast cancer. All 3 parameters showed an increasing trend under the tumor-bearing state. These parameters were significantly higher in the stage III + IV group than in the stage I + II group. The variance parameter was significantly higher in the HR-negative group than in the HR-positive group. CONCLUSIONS: Texture analysis may serve as a novel additional tool for discovering conventionally invisible changes in the lung tissue of patients with breast cancer.

4.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(12): 981, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277781

RESUMO

Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy-related disease that endangers the safety of maternal and fetal. The purpose of this study is to reveal the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and discover new predictors from the perspective of peptidomics. The umbilical cord blood of PE and control group was analyzed by peptidomics. A peptide named Regulation of Proliferation Process in Preeclampsia (ROPPIP) was screened out to explore its role in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of trophoblast cells in preeclampsia. Methods: We compared and analyzed the umbilical cord blood of patients with PE and normal pregnant women using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). hTR-8/Svneo cells cultured in vitro were divided into ROPPIP group and a disordered peptide group as control. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry, Transwell chamber assays and western blot analysis were performed to detect cell proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis, in addition to the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), nuclear associated antigen Ki67, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2), Caspase 3, and ß-actin protein. Results: We identified 133 differential peptides. Of these, 51 were up-regulated while 82 were down-regulated. the polypeptide SFGVRMATASPTDGNV with low differential expression in the serum of PE patients was selected for the study, we named the polypeptide as Regulation of Proliferation Process in PE (ROPPIP). The experiment shows that ROPPIP can up-regulate the expression levels of MMP2, Ki67, and Bcl2 in HTR-8/Svneo cells, down-regulate the expression of caspase-3, promote the proliferation and migration of HTR-8/Svneo cells and inhibit the apoptosis induced by cisplatin, the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway may be associated with the function of ROPPIP. Conclusions: ROPPIP promotes HTR-8/Svneo cells migration and proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis, by regulating the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 623610, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093519

RESUMO

Severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) strongly hampered the broad clinical applicability of chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy. Vascular endothelial activation has been suggested to contribute to the development of CRS and ICANS after CAR-T therapy. However, therapeutic strategies targeting endothelial dysfunction during CAR-T therapy have not been well studied yet. Here, we found that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by CAR-T cells upon tumor recognition and interleukin 1ß (IL1ß) secreted by activated myeloid cells were the main cytokines in inducing endothelial activation. Therefore, we investigated the potential effectiveness of TNFα and IL1ß signaling blockade on endothelial activation in CAR-T therapy. The blockade of TNFα and IL1ß with adalimumab and anti-IL1ß antibody respectively, as well as the application of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor, effectively ameliorated endothelial activation induced by CAR-T, tumor cells, and myeloid cells. Moreover, adalimumab and anti-IL1ß antibody exerted synergistic effect on the prevention of endothelial activation induced by CAR-T, tumor cells, and myeloid cells. Our results indicate that TNFα and IL1ß blockade might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CAR-T therapy-associated CRS and neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos CD19/genética , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Células HEK293 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/imunologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur Radiol ; 31(6): 4340-4349, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Microenvironment changes had occurred in the metastatic organs before the arriving of the metastatic tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) images in quantifying the microenvironment changes in the premetastatic lung under both laboratory and clinical conditions. METHOD: Free-breathing Balb/c mice underwent micro-CT repeatedly after the implantation of 4T1 breast tumor. CT-derived indicators (aerated lung volume, lung tissue volume, total lung volume, mean lung density, and the ratio of aerated lung volume to the total lung volume) were quantified. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to display the microenvironment changes in premetastatic lung. Moreover, we examined healthy adult women, adult women with histopathologically confirmed primary breast cancer, and adult women with histopathologically confirmed primary breast cancer and lung metastases in our institution to test whether the indicators derived from lung CT images changed with the growth of breast cancer. RESULTS: In 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, lung density is increased before lung masses can be recognized on CT images and is correlated with the severity of inflammation in the lung microenvironment. In primary breast tumor-bearing patients, lung density is also increased before the clinical diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis and is correlated with disease score, which represents tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: CT is a reliable and quantitative tool that yields dynamic information on metastatic processes. Microenvironmental changes had occurred in patients' lung tissue before the clinical diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis. Our research will provide new insight for clinical research on the premetastatic niche. KEY POINTS: • CT, which provides dynamic information on metastatic processes, is a reliable and quantitative tool to bridge laboratory and clinical studies of the premetastatic niche. • We confirmed that microenvironmental changes occurred in patients' lung tissue before clinicians could diagnose pulmonary metastasis. • Our results provide evidence for the study of the premetastatic niche by analyzing information obtained from CT images.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259320

RESUMO

In this article, we consider the regulator design problem for a class of uncertain multi-input-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree. The objective is to regulate the output of the nonlinear system to an optimal steady state that solves a constrained optimization problem, without computing the optimal solution in advance. By embedding saddle-point dynamics, both state and output-feedback-based regulators are proposed and the resulting closed-loop systems are modeled in standard singularly perturbed forms. By invoking the singular perturbation analysis, exponential stability is established under some regularity condition. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed regulators can deal with a class of nonlinear systems with uncertainties and arbitrary relative degree. Furthermore, the current results can include some recent works on the distributed optimization problem as special cases. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed methods is validated through numerical simulations.

10.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237873

RESUMO

This article pays close attention to a distributed optimization problem for multiagent systems subject to exogenous disturbances. A novel distributed model reference adaptive control (D-MRAC) scheme is proposed that no explicit disturbance observer or internal model unit is involved, which not only enhances robustness but also improves transient performance. In contrast to the continuous communication that is often assumed in the existing distributed optimization works, the new method allows for more realistic scenarios in which the agents communicate with each other at discrete-time instants. It is shown by Lyapunov analysis that the concerned distributed optimization problem can be solved by the proposed D-MRAC scheme as long as the communication interval is smaller than a given threshold, which can be calculated by following the steps given in this article. Numerical simulations have shown the effectiveness of the presented method.

11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(7): 073702, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752799

RESUMO

Band profiles of electronic devices are of fundamental importance in determining their properties. A technique that can map the band profile of both the interior and edges of a device at the nanometer scale is highly demanded. Conventional scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) can map band structure at the atomic scale but is limited to the interior of large and conductive samples. Here, we develop contact-mode STS based on a conductive atomic force microscope that can remove these constraints. With this technique, we map the band profile of MoS2 transistors with nanometer resolution at room temperature. A band bending of 0.6 eV within 18 nm of the edges of MoS2 on an insulating substrate is discovered. This technique will be of great use for both fundamental and applied studies of various electronic devices.

12.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 13: 130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848596

RESUMO

Imbalance in redox homeostasis is a major cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a key player in regulating synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory. Increasing evidence indicates an important interplay between the two systems. However, how excessive oxidative stress could alter ECS and that, in turn, impairs its modulatory role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function remains elusive. In the present study, we examined this causal link in D-galactose-induced oxidative rats. First, the reactive oxygen species generating enzymes, especially nitric oxide synthase (NOS), indeed show an elevated expression in D-galactose-treated rats, and this was correlated to an impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory loss in animal behavioral tests. Second, the cannabinoid receptor type I (CB1)-mediated signaling is known to regulate synaptic plasticity. We show that a decrease in CB1 and increase in degradation enzymes for CB1 ligand endocannabinoid anandamide all occurred to D-galactose-treated rats. Surprisingly, application of low-dose anandamide, known to reduce LTP under physiological condition, now acted to enhance LTP in D-galactose-treated rats, most likely resulted from the inhibition of GABAergic synapses. Furthermore, this reversal behavior of CB1-signaling could be fully simulated by a NOS inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium. These observations suggest that interaction between redox dysfunction and ECS should contribute significantly to the impaired synaptic plasticity and memory loss in D-galactose-treated rats. Therefore, therapies focusing on the balance of these two systems may shed lights on the treatment of age-related cognitive impairment in the future.

14.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 356, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and to determine the association of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The electronic database of Embase and PubMed were searched for relevant studies. A meta-analysis of eligible studies that reported the prevalence of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 was performed. The incidences of AKI were compared between severe versus non-severe patients and survivors versus non-survivors. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies involving 4963 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. The proportions of patients with elevation of sCr and BUN levels were 9.6% (95% CI 5.7-13.5%) and 13.7% (95% CI 5.5-21.9%), respectively. Of all patients, 57.2% (95% CI 40.6-73.8%) had proteinuria, 38.8% (95% CI 26.3-51.3%) had proteinuria +, and 10.6% (95% CI 7.9-13.3%) had proteinuria ++ or +++. The overall incidence of AKI in all COVID-19 patients was 4.5% (95% CI 3.0-6.0%), while the incidence of AKI was 1.3% (95% CI 0.2-2.4%), 2.8% (95% CI 1.4-4.2%), and 36.4% (95% CI 14.6-58.3%) in mild or moderate cases, severe cases, and critical cases, respectively. Meanwhile, the incidence of AKI was 52.9%(95% CI 34.5-71.4%), 0.7% (95% CI - 0.3-1.8%) in non-survivors and survivors, respectively. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was required in 5.6% (95% CI 2.6-8.6%) severe patients, 0.1% (95% CI - 0.1-0.2%) non-severe patients and 15.6% (95% CI 10.8-20.5%) non-survivors and 0.4% (95% CI - 0.2-1.0%) survivors, respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 was high and AKI is closely associated with the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/urina , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/urina , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/urina , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(10): e4918, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533577

RESUMO

From the point of view of drug efficacy and safety, pharmacokinetic profiles of both In this work, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method was established for simultaneous determination of sutetinib and N-oxide metabolite (SNO) in human plasma and further applied to a pharmacokinetic study. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples (100 µl) via acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation and separated on a C18 column using ammonium acetate with ammonium hydroxide and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Positive electrospray ionization was carried out through multiple reaction monitoring with transitions of m/z 440.2 → 367.1 and 446.2 → 367.1 for sutetinib and SNO, respectively. The method was linear within the concentration range of 0.5-100 ng/ml for both analytes. The precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect of this method all met the requirements of bioanalytical guidance. In addition, a plasma stability assessment demonstrated unexpected results. Sutetinib was prone to form covalent conjugates with plasma albumin in vitro. The degree of covalent binding increased with increasing temperature, resulting in a significant decrease in its plasma concentrations. However, SNO could not easily bind with albumin owing to steric hindrance or electronegativity. Furthermore, sutetinib and SNO remained stable when blood and plasma samples were kept on wet ice. The validated method was successfully employed for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of sutetinib in patients with advanced malignant solid tumors.


Assuntos
Amidas/sangue , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Óxidos/sangue , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/sangue , Amidas/farmacocinética , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Óxidos/farmacocinética , Óxidos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 45, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307593

RESUMO

Since the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak originated from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, at the end of 2019, it has become a clinical threat to the general population worldwide. Among people infected with the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), the intensive management of the critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) needs substantial medical resource. In the present article, we have summarized the promising drugs, adjunctive agents, respiratory supportive strategies, as well as circulation management, multiple organ function monitoring and appropriate nutritional strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 in the ICU based on the previous experience of treating other viral infections and influenza. These treatments are referable before the vaccine and specific drugs are available for COVID-19.

17.
Exp Ther Med ; 19(4): 2604-2614, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256740

RESUMO

Different neoadjuvant therapy regimens are available for rectal cancer, but the relative effects are controversial. The aim of the present network meta-analysis (NMA) was to estimate the relative efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant therapies for resectable rectal cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials were searched for publications dated from 1946 up to June 2018. The present study included randomized clinical trials that compared treatments for resected rectal cancer: Surgery alone, surgery preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Direct pairwise comparisons and NMA were conducted. A total of 23 randomized controlled trials were included in the present study. RT had an overall survival (OS) benefit when compared with surgery alone [HR (hazard ratio), 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.97; quality of evidence, high]. All three neoadjuvant regimens were associated with lower local recurrence (LR) when compared with surgery alone [RT: odds ratio (OR), 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.65; quality of evidence, high; CRT: OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23-0.56; quality of evidence, low and CT: OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-1.00; quality of evidence, low]. There were no significant differences in OS and LR between CRT and RT (OS: OR, 1.10); 95% CI, 0.93-1.20; LR: OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.10). Ranking probabilities indicated that CRT was the best strategy for local control, with a surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) of 78.78%. Patients treated with RT had improved disease-free survival compared with those treated with surgery alone (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00; quality of evidence, low). Neoadjuvant RT or CRT did not significantly improve distant metastases compared with surgery alone (RT: OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.69-1.10 and CRT: OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.47-1.10). CRT had an improved pathological complete response rate compared with RT (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 21.80-17.00; quality of evidence, low). No significant difference for the risk of anastomotic leak between each treatment was observed in the NMA. In conclusion, RT decreased the LR and improved OS compared with surgery alone for resected rectal cancer. CRT was the best neoadjuvant therapy analyzed and CT was likely the second best for all outcomes based on SUCRA. However, these findings were limited by overall low quality of evidence.

18.
Oncol Lett ; 19(4): 3089-3100, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256809

RESUMO

Primary tumors can secrete many cytokines, inducing tissue damage or microstructural changes in distant organs. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in texture features in the cerebral tissue of patients with lung cancer without brain metastasis. In this study, 50 patients with lung cancers underwent 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 weeks of being diagnosed with lung cancer. Texture analysis (TA) was carried out in 8 gray matter areas, including bilateral frontal cortices, parietal cortices, occipital cortices and temporal cortices, as well as 2 areas of bilateral frontoparietal white matter. The same procedure was performed for 57 healthy controls. A total of 32 texture parameters were separately compared between the patients and controls in the different cerebral tissue sites. Texture features among patients based on histological type and clinical stage were also compared. Of the 32 texture parameters, 27 showed significant differences between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. There were significant differences in cerebral tissue, both gray matter and white matter between patients and controls, especially in several wavelet-based parameters. However, there were no significant differences between tissue at homologous sites in bilateral hemispheres, either in patients or controls. TA detected overt changes in the texture features of cerebral tissue in patients with lung cancer without brain metastasis compared with those of healthy controls. TA may be considered as a novel and adjunctive approach to conventional brain MRI to reveal cerebral tissue changes invisible on MRI alone in patients with lung cancer.

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272794

RESUMO

Frequently occurring fatty liver disease in dairy cows during the perinatal period, a typical type of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), results in worldwide high culling rates of dairy cows (averagely about 25%) after calving. This has been developing into a critical industrial problem throughout the world, because the metabolic disease severely affects the welfare and economic value of dairy cows. Findings about the molecular mechanisms how the fatty liver disease develops would help scientists to discover novel therapeutic targets for NAFLD. Studies have shown that PPARγ participates or regulates the fat deposition in liver by affecting the biological processes of hepatic lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, gluconeogenesis, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, which all contribute to fatty liver. This review mainly focuses on crucial regulatory mechanisms of PPARγ regulating lipid deposition in the liver via direct and/or indirect pathways, suggesting that PPARγ might be a potential critical therapeutic target for fatty liver disease, however, it would be of our significant interest to reveal the pathology and pathogenesis of NAFLD by using dairy cows with fatty liver as an animal model. This review will provide a molecular mechanism basis for understanding the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

20.
Eur Radiol ; 30(8): 4545-4556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether subtle changes in radiomics features are present in lung CT images prior to the development of CT-detectable lung metastases in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Thirty-three radiomics features were measured in the metastasis region (MR) and in matched contralateral tissues (non-metastasis region, NMR) of 29 breast cancer patients at the last CT scan, as well as in the corresponding regions of the patients' pre-metastasis scan (pre-MR and pre-NMR). We also compared them with normal lung tissues (control group, CG) from 29 healthy volunteers. Then, 8 patients from the 29 patients with lung metastases and 8 patients who did not develop lung metastases were chosen for further study of the correlation between radiomics parameters and tumor growth. RESULTS: In the MR vs. NMR and MR vs. CG groups, almost all radiomics features were significantly different. Twenty-six parameters showed significant differences between the pre-MRs and pre-NMRs. Linear fitting demonstrated a significant correlation between 5 features and tumor growth in the metastasis group, but not in the non-metastasis group. Among them, run percentage was the most representative feature. The calculated area under curves (AUCs), based on run percentage for the classification of metastasis and pre-metastasis, were 0.954 and 0.852, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics features may allow early detection of lung metastases before they become visually detectable, and the feature run percentage may be a promising image surrogate marker for the microinvasion of tumor cells into the lung tissue. KEY POINTS: • The significant differences in radiomics features between pre-MR and pre-NMR are critical for the early detection of lung metastases. • Five radiomics features show a correlation with tumor growth. • The radiomics feature run percentage may be a potential imaging biomarker for the early detection of lung metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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