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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470577

RESUMO

The accurate measurement of pipeline centerline coordinates is of great significance to the management of oil and gas pipelines and energy transportation security. The main method for pipeline centerline measurement is in-line inspection technology based on multi-sensor data fusion, which combines the inertial measurement unit (IMU), above-ground marker, and odometer. However, the observation of velocity is not accurate because the odometer often slips in the actual inspection, which greatly affects the accuracy of centerline measurement. In this paper, we propose a new compensation method for oil and gas pipeline centerline measurement based on a long short-term memory (LSTM) network during the occurrence of odometer slip. The field test results indicated that the mean of absolute position errors reduced from 8.75 to 2.02 m. The proposed method could effectively reduce the errors and improve the accuracy of pipeline centerline measurement during odometer slips.

2.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493474

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To theoretically compare the MR angiography (MRA) contrast mechanism of Time of Flight (TOF) and Simultaneous Non-contrast Angiography and intraPlaque hemorrhage (SNAP) for intracranial artery imaging with in-vivo validation. METHODS: The contrast ratio (CR) of SNAP and TOF was simulated under different blood velocities and travel distance that the blood had flown through. The CR and the slope of CR with respect to blood velocity of SNAP and TOF were compared in theoretical simulation. Two healthy subjects (a 60 years old female and a 29 years old male) were imaged on a 3 T MR scanner with SNAP, TOF and phase contrast (PC) images as the validation set. The measured CR from the images in validation set was compared with the theoretically simulated CR by Person's correlation coefficient. The ratio of CR difference to velocity difference in the validation set was compared between TOF and SNAP with Student's t-test. Thirty patients (21 males, age: 48 ±â€¯13.8 years) with carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque were imaged with both TOF and SNAP as the comparison test. Between TOF and SNAP, the CR and total artery length were compared with Student's t-test, and the prevalence of stenosis was compared with Cohen's kappa in comparison test. RESULTS: The theoretically simulated CR was significantly correlated with in-vivo measured CR from the validation set for TOF (p < 0.001) and SNAP (p < 0.001). The simulation revealed that the CR of SNAP was higher than that of TOF when the blood velocity and travel distance were within the range to have effective MRA contrast. Similarly, the in-vivo comparison test showed that SNAP had higher CR (p < 0.001 for all tested intracranial arteries) and longer total artery length (1.4 ±â€¯0.4 m vs 1.2 ±â€¯0.2 m, p < 0.001) than TOF. The stenosis detection performance was similar between TOF and SNAP (Cohen's kappa 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.93). Moreover, compared with TOF, SNAP showed higher slope of CR with respect to velocity in simulation (0.06 ±â€¯0.02 s/cm vs 0.02 ±â€¯0.05 s/cm, p < 0.001), and higher ratio of CR difference to velocity difference in validation test (0.47 ±â€¯0.38 s/cm vs 0.19 ±â€¯0.38 s/cm, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with TOF, the SNAP shows better performance to visualize distal intracranial artery and worse performance to visualize ICA, and is more sensitive to blood velocity.

3.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482820

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This secondary analysis characterized sleep patterns for toddlers born preterm and tested effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)+ arachidonic acid (AA) supplementation on children's caregiver-reported sleep. Exploratory analyses tested whether child sex, birth weight, and caregiver depressive symptomatology were moderators of the treatment effect. METHODS: Omega Tots was a single-site 180-day randomized (1:1), double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Children (n = 377) were age 10 to 16 months at enrollment, born at less than 35 weeks' gestation, assigned to 180 days of daily 200 mg DHA + 200 mg AA supplementation or placebo (400 mg corn oil), and followed after the trial ended to age 26 to 32 months. Caregivers completed a sociodemographic profile and questionnaires about their depressive symptomatology (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and the child's sleep (Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire). Analyses compared changes in sleep between the DHA+AA and placebo groups, controlling for baseline scores. Exploratory post hoc subgroup analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Eighty-one percent (ntx = 156; nplacebo = 150) of children had 180-day trial outcome data; 68% (ntx = 134; nplacebo = 122) had postintervention outcome data. Differences in change between the DHA+AA and placebo groups after 180 days of supplementation were not statistically significant for the entire cohort. Male children (difference in nocturnal sleep change = 0.44, effect size = 0.26, P = .04; sleep problems odds ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.15, 0.82) and children of depressed caregivers (difference in nocturnal sleep change = 1.07, effect size = 0.65, P = .006; difference in total sleep change = 1.10, effect size = 0.50, P = .04) assigned to the treatment group showed improvements in sleep, compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no evidence of an overall effect of DHA+AA supplementation on child sleep, exploratory post hoc analyses identified important subgroups of children born preterm who may benefit. Future research including larger samples is warranted. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01576783.

4.
J Soc Psychol ; : 1-17, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476131

RESUMO

This study examined whether the status (central or peripheral position) of individuals in a friendship network and the quality of a friendship network represent key mechanisms in determining how emotional intelligence is associated with subjective well-being. Using data collected from 217 Chinese senior undergraduates, we found that the interaction of the quality of a friendship network and a peripheral position in a friendship network mediated relations of emotional intelligence with subjective well-being. Although a central position in a friendship network did not interact with the quality of a friendship network, it did mediate the relations of emotional intelligence with subjective well-being on its own. The findings expand the growing body of research findings on the association between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being by investigating the role of friendship networks and highlight the importance of a network perspective in understanding the association.

5.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514313

RESUMO

This review aimed to provide a general view of catalpol in protection against diabetes and diabetic complications, as well as its pharmacokinetics and safety concerns. The following databases were consulted with the retrieval of more than 100 publications through June 2019: PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, and web of science. Catalpol exerts an anti-diabetic effect in different animal models with an oral dosage ranging from 2.5 to 200 mg/kg in rats and 10 to 200 mg/kg in mice. Besides, catalpol may prevent the development of diabetic complications in kidney, heart, central nervous system, and bone. The underlying mechanism may be associated with an inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis through modulation of various cellular signaling, such as AMPK/PI3K/Akt, PPAR/ACC, JNK/NF-κB, and AGE/RAGE/NOX4 signaling pathways, as well as PKCγ and Cav-1 expression. The pharmacokinetic profile reveals that catalpol could pass the blood-brain barrier and has a potential to be orally administrated. Taken together, catalpol is a well-tolerated natural compound with promising pharmacological actions in protection against diabetes and diabetic complications via multi-targets, offering a novel scaffold for the development of anti-diabetic drug candidate. Further prospective and well-designed clinical trials will shed light on the potential of clinical usage of catalpol.

6.
Breastfeed Med ; 14(7): 499-507, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509466

RESUMO

Background: Increasing the proportion of infants who are breastfed and extending breastfeeding duration are high-priority U.S. goals. Evaluation of progress is based on federal survey data, but federal survey questions do not reflect contemporary feeding practices. Materials and Methods: Our objective was to evaluate the Brief Breastfeeding and Milk Expression Recall Survey (BaByMERS) in estimating breast milk feeding and milk expression practices and compare to estimates from simultaneously administered federal survey questions. We surveyed women with child(ren) younger than the age of 6 years attending a large children's hospital for urgent or primary care. We estimated the proportions who participated in various breast milk feeding and milk expression practices and the durations of each and examined agreement between the surveys. We compared respondents with high versus low disagreement using log-binomial regression. Results: Of 225 respondents, 51% had less than a Bachelor's degree, and 44% identified as a race other than white. Similar proportions on each survey reported ever having breastfed or fed breast milk (84%). Proportions still breastfeeding or feeding breast milk at 6 and 12 months differed slightly by survey. Dyads (9%) who fed at the breast and fed expressed milk for nonidentical periods had estimates for the duration of breastfeeding or feeding breast milk that were lower per the federal survey. Respondents who answered the federal survey before the BaByMERS were more likely to provide discrepant responses (risk ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.80). Conclusions: This study offers further validation of brief interviewer-administered questions to collect quality data recalled about infant feeding and lactation for research purposes.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502947

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, short-rod-shaped and aerobic bacterial strain (designated lm1T) was isolated from propylene oxide saponification wastewater activated sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment facility in Binzhou (Shandong province, PR China). Strain lm1T grew between 15 and 45 °C (optimum, 40 °C). The pH range for growth was at pH 4.0-10.0 (optimum growth at pH 8.0). The range of NaCl concentration for the growth of strain lm1T was 0-4.0 % (w/v), with optimum growth at 1.0-2.0 % (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain lm1T belonged to the genus Rhodoligotrophos and was closely related to Rhodoligotrophos appendicifer JCM 16873T (96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Rhodoligotrophosjinshengii CCTCC AB2013083T (96.2 %). The average nucleotide identity value and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain lm1T and R. appendicifer JCM 16873T were 73.4 and 14.3 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of strain lm1T were C19 : 0cyclo ω8c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. Strain lm1T contained Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipid profile was composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified glycolipid and five unknown lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.4 mol%. Based on polyphasic taxonomic data, strain lm1T could be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Rhodoligotrophos, for which the name Rhodoligotrophosdefluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is lm1T (=CCTCC AB2019071T=KCTC 72156T).

9.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478134

RESUMO

The disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the consequent brain edema are major contributors to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. RhoA is generally thought to play a crucial role in the process of BBB disruption and participate in the signaling pathways emanating from TLR4. However, it remains unverified the regulatory role of TLR4 in the RhoA/ROCK pathway in cerebral I/R injury and its effects on the BBB as well. The present study probes into the protective effect of ANF on the BBB after cerebral I/R injury and the possible mechanisms. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 120 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). ANF (1, 2, 4 µg/kg) was achieved by intravenous injection after 120 min of MCAO followed by 1, 24, 48, and 72 h reperfusion. Evans blue extravasation, brain water content, RhoA activity, and the expressions of TLR4, ROCK1/2, p-MLC2, MMP-2/9, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 protein in rat brain were evaluated 72 h after reperfusion. ANF could significantly reduce the Evans blue extravasation and water content in the ipsilateral hemisphere and obviously increase the occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 expression after cerebral I/R injury. Furthermore, cerebral I/R injury induced apparently increased expression of TLR4, RhoA-GTP, ROCK1/2, p-MLC2, and MMMP-2/9, which, however, could be remarkably alleviated by ANF intervention. Taken together, the TLR4/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway is implicated in BBB breakdown after cerebral I/R injury, and ANF preserves BBB integrity, probably via inhibiting the TLR4/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

10.
Food Funct ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517363

RESUMO

Protein fermentation has an adverse effect on colonic health; high-quality proteins and reducing the protein level (protein restriction) can effectively decrease the amount of proteins flowing into the colon for microbial protein fermentation. The study is aimed at determining the effects of different protein sources on colonic microbial composition and barrier function in nursery pigs with a low protein diet. A total of 264 weaned pigs were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and each group had 6 pens with 11 pigs. Four low protein, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets containing either 4% Palbio 50 RD (P50), Soyppt-50% (S50), concentrated degossypolized cottonseed protein (CDCP), or fish meal (FM) were prepared, and all the diets had similar digestible energy (DE), crude protein content (CP, about 18%), and equal amount of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine. After 28 days of feeding trial, CDCP decreased the Desulfovibrio abundance but increased the Parabacteroides abundance. S50 elevated the Bacteroides and CF231 abundance. P50 and FM reduced the Clostridium and Ruminococcus abundance. CDCP upregulated the Occludin mRNA expression and tended to increase the amount of mixed neutral-acidic mucins in the colon. FM and CDCP declined the serum DAO and endotoxin contents. S50 and CDCP decreased the levels of serum IL-1α, and P50 lowered the serum IL-8 content. We concluded that plant protein (CDCP and S50) had advantages over animal protein (P50 and FM) in maintaining the colonic health via the regulation of colonic microbiota and barrier function.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e944, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sources and variants types of the copy number variations (CNVs) in prenatal fetal, and the critical role of parental origin on the interpretation of fetal CNVs are unclear. METHODS: One hundred and forty-one prenatal core families with abnormal CNVs were selected and performed by low-coverage massively parallel CNV sequencing (CNV-seq). RESULTS: The data showed that 72.3% of fetal CNVs were derived from parents, and 27.7% were new variations. Sixty-three cases were heterozygous deletion, 70 cases were threefold duplication, six cases were complex deletion and duplication, and two cases were fourfold repeats. That means the rate of heterozygous deletion and duplication was approximate one. In addition, in parental-derived fetal abnormal CNVs reports, before validating parental origin, 62 CNVs were variants of uncertain significance (VUS), 15 CNVs were likely benign, 20 CNVs were likely pathogenic, and 5 CNVs were pathogenic. However, after validating parental origin, the total clinical significance changed into 12 VUS, 89 likely benign, 1 likely pathogenic, and 0 pathogenic. The clinical interpretation of 78.4% fetal CNVs was changed and tended to be benign after parental CNVs were detected. Besides, we followed up all families. 93.3% parental-derived fetal and 30.3% fetus in new mutation group were born healthy. CONCLUSION: Parental origin verification has an important significance for interpretation on the clinical significance of fetal CNVs.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494278

RESUMO

MDA5 is a cytoplasmic viral double-stranded RNA recognition receptor that plays a pivotal role in the aquatic animal innate immune system. To decipher the role of MDA5 of Squaliobarbus curriculus (ScMDA5) in the immune response, full-length cDNA of ScMDA5 was cloned using the RACE technology, mRNA and protein expression levels of ScMDA5 signalling pathway members in response to stimulation were detected and effects of overexpression of ScMDA5 on the immune response were investigated. ScMDA5 comprises 3597 bp and is composed of an open reading frame (2958 nucleotides long) that translates into a putative peptide of 985 amino acid residues. ScMDA5 possesses two N-terminal caspase-recruiting domains, DEAD-like helicases superfamily, helicase superfamily C-terminal and RIG-I_C-RD domains, and differences in these domains among species were mainly observed with respect to their length and location. ScMDA5 was closely clustered with those of Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Mylopharyngodon piceus. ScMDA5 transcripts were most abundant in the spleen and the lowest in the liver. Expression levels of ScMDA5 in healthy tissues were significantly correlated with those of ScIRF3, ScIRF7 and ScIFN. Besides, mRNA expression levels of ScIRF3 were significantly correlated with those of ScIRF7 (0.956, P < 0.01). Expression level changes, including downregulation, upregulation and initial upregulation followed by downregulation, were found in ScMDA5 signalling pathway molecules in tissues after grass carp reovirus infection. Protein levels of ScMDA5 were the highest in the liver and the lowest in the spleen in detected healthy tissues. Overexpression of ScMDA5 led to significantly enhanced CiIRF7 and CiMx transcription in grass carp ovary cells (P < 0.05). The results of this study helped to clarify the role of ScMDA5 in the immune reaction against grass carp reovirus and provided fundamental information for fish breeding to achieve strong resistance to infection.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495631

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a common mycotoxin produced by fungi within the genus Fusarium. However, few studies have examined the direct effects of the toxin on the mammary glands. In the present study, the effects of ZEA treatment on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T) from dairy cows were investigated. The cells were treated with different concentrations of ZEA to evaluate the effect of the toxin on cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes. The results indicated that different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, 60, or 100 µM) of ZEA were able to inhibit growth of MAC-T cells. After exposing the MAC-T cells to 30 µM ZEA, compared with the control group, ROS levels increased, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, and mRNA expression of the ER-specific stress-related genes GRP78, HSP70, ATF6, EIF2A, ASK1, and CHOP was upregulated in the ZEA-treated group. Further, we analyzed the increase in apoptotic rate by flow cytometry. At the mRNA level, compared with the control group, the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene BAX was increased in the ZEA-treated group, the expression of the inhibitory gene BCL2 decreased, and the expression of the gene CASP3 increased. We observed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in ZEA-treated MAC-T cells. Furthermore, the apoptotic rate of the cells in the ZEA group treated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (ER stress inhibitor) decreased and the mRNA expression levels of ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP decreased. Compared with the ZEA treatment group, the mRNA expression level of the apoptosis-related gene BAX was decreased and the expression level of BCL2 was increased in the ZEA + 4-phenylbutyric acid cotreatment group. These findings indicate that ZEA-induced ER stress increases apoptosis in MAC-T cells. The treatment of MAC-T cells with ZEA reduced cell viability, increased ROS content, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ER stress marker expression, and induced apoptosis.

14.
Cytotherapy ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416704

RESUMO

In the unique supply chain of cellular therapies, preservation is important to keep the cell product viable. Many factors in cryopreservation affect the outcome of a cell therapy: (i) formulation and introduction of a freezing medium, (ii) cooling rate, (iii) storage conditions, (iv) thawing conditions and (v) post-thaw processing. This article surveys clinical trials of cellular immunotherapy that used cryopreserved regulatory, chimeric antigen receptor or gamma delta T cells, dendritic cells or natural killer (NK) cells. Several observations are summarized from the given information. The aforementioned cell types have been similarly frozen in media containing 5-10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with plasma, serum or human serum albumin. Two common freezing methods are an insulated freezing container such as Nalgene Mr. Frosty and a controlled-rate freezer at a cooling rate of -1°C/min. Water baths at approximately 37°C have been commonly used for thawing. Post-thaw processing of cryopreserved cells varied greatly: some studies infused the cells immediately upon thawing; some diluted the cells in a carrier solution of varying formulation before infusion; some washed cells to remove cryoprotective agents; and others re-cultured cells to recover cell viability or functionality lost due to cryopreservation. Emerging approaches to preserving cellular immunotherapies are also described. DMSO-free formulations of the freezing media have demonstrated improved preservation of cell viability in T lymphocytes and of cytotoxic function in natural killer cells. Saccharides are a common type of molecule used as an alternative cryoprotective agent to DMSO. Improving methods of preservation will be critical to growth in the clinical use of cellular immunotherapies.

15.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444951

RESUMO

Developing efficient, nonprecious, and durable electrocatalysts with favorable nanostructures is a persistent challenge yet significant for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, for the first time, we report a rationally designed strategy for the synthesis of hierarchical hollow MoP nanospheres anchored on N, P, S co-doped porous carbon (hs-MoP/NPSC). Importantly, the porous shell of hollow nanosphere is actually well constructed by numbers of interwoven MoP subunits, which is beneficial for exposing of surface active sites as much as possible and promoting the mass transport during the HER process. In addition, the heteroatom-enriched porous carbon networks can further reduce the electron/ion transfer resistance. As expected, the hs-MoP/NPSC electrocatalyst exhibits an encouraging HER activity with a low overpotential of only 70 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2, a small Tafel slope and long-term durability in alkaline media, outperforming most of reported Pt-free MoP-based electrocatalysts to date. This present work not only develops a highly efficient electrocatalyst for HER, but also opens up opportunities to engineer novel architectures for various applications.

16.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Easily applicable, quantitative assessment of movement is widely needed in various clinical settings, especially in the evaluation of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We developed a highly repeatable tablet computer-based finger movement assessment system (FMAS) to record finger movement profile in a visual-motor task both in PD (n = 217) and healthy participants (n = 221). RESULTS: We found age-related declines in finger movement performance among the healthy participants but not in PD patients with the FMAS. Significant differences in movement time (MT) and latency/MT ratio but not in latency were observed in PD patients as compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.000). Meanwhile, we identified the latency/MT ratio as the optimal parameter to differentiate PD from age-matched healthy subjects in an age-independent manner (cut-off 1.08 with corresponding AUC = 0.861). In addition, a significant correlation was found between finger movement parameters and the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y scale), UPDRS III score and the duration of the disease in PD patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: It was suggested that the tablet computer-based evaluation of finger movement provided an easily applicable quantitative method to assess the conditions of PD patients.

17.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436349

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Statins are widely used worldwide in the prevention and treatment of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and ischaemic stroke. However, in clinical application, statins have shown great individual differences in terms of the efficacy and safety, some of which are related to genetic factors. The purpose of this article was to summarize the recent advances about the correlation between gene polymorphisms and the efficacy/safety of statins. METHODS: We searched the databases including PharmGKB and PubMed (published before June 2019) using the keywords such as 'statin', 'gene polymorphism' and 'SNP' and obtained more than 100 articles. In this review, we described the clinical studies of genetic variants associated with both the efficacy and adverse reactions of statins. We also clarified the importance of taking pharmacogenetic variation into account to improve the clinical application of statins. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The available data were collected and analysed to present the polymorphisms of candidate genes encoding the most promising proteins including SLCO1B1 (encoding uptake transporters); ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 (encoding effluent transporter); APOE, APOA5 (encoding apolipoprotein); genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzyme system; KIF6, HMGCR, LDLR, LPA, PCSK9, COQ2, CETP, etc These genes were proved to be related to the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of statins, thus affecting the efficacy and safety. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: In this paper, the correlation between gene polymorphisms and the efficacy/safety of statins was summarized. The authors reached a consensus that the variants of the genes encoding uptake and effluent transporters have the most effect on the efficacy/safety of statins. It pointed out that it is desirable to do genetic testing of these transporter genes to reduce the incidence of myopathy or to achieve better outcomes before patients use statins, especially in the regions with high frequency of risk allele.

18.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368666

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by islet ß-cell dysfunction, which might result from the activation of islet stellate cells (ISCs). Our recent study showed that a specific population of ISCs is prone to be activated in type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by reduced secretion of insulin. The wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 5a (Wnt5a)/frizzled-5 signaling pathway might play an important role in this process. The present study aimed to explore the effects of Wnt5a on the activation of ISCs isolated from db/db mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ISCs were isolated from db/db mice and matched db/m mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis were applied for the determination of Wnt5a expression. Exogenous Wnt5a and lentivirus containing the target gene Wnt5a short hairpin ribonucleic acid were used as a molecular intervention. The experiment of transwell and wound healing was used to evaluate the migration of the isolated ISCs. RESULTS: Our data showed that the expression of Wnt5a and frizzled-5 was decreased in the ISCs isolated from db/db mice compared with db/m mice. Both the exogenous Wnt5a and the overexpression of Wnt5a could inhibit the outgrowth rate of ISCs from islets, and its viability, migration and α smooth muscle actin expression. These changes were associated with the inactivation of the Smad2/3 signaling pathway in a frizzled-5-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations revealed a potential role of Wnt5a in preventing ISC activation. The maintenance of quiescent ISCs might be a desirable outcome of therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112941, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377330

RESUMO

China continues to suffer from severe acid deposition, despite the government implying a series of policies to control air pollution. In this study, rainwater samples were collected from 2011 to 2016 in Sichuan province to measure the pH values and the concentrations of nine inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and F-), and then to investigate their spatiotemporal variations. Besides, the dominant sources for the acidic ions in the precipitation were also revealed by statistical model. The results showed that the rainwater continued to be highly acidic, and the Volume-Weighted Mean (VWM) pH value was calculated to be 5.18 during 2011 and 2016. NH4+, Ca2+, NO3-, and SO42- were the dominant water-soluble inorganic ions, accounting for 79.2% of the total ions on average. The remarkable decrease in NO3- and SO42- concentrations (from 75.9 to 54.3 µeq L-1 and from 285 to 145 µeq L-1, respectively) resulted in an increase in the pH value of rainwater from 5.24 in 2011 to 5.70 in 2016. The concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, F-, Na+, and K+ showed remarkably seasonal variation, with the highest value observed in winter, followed by spring and autumn, and the lowest value observed in summer. High VWM concentration of these ions in winter were mainly due to adverse meteorological conditions (e.g., rare rainfall, lower planetary boundary height, and stagnant air) and intensive anthropogenic emissions. SO42-, NO3-, and F- ions peaked in the southeastern Sichuan province, which is a typical industrial region. NH4+ concentrations decreased from 268 µeq L-1 in the east to 10.4 µeq L-1 in the western Sichuan province, which could be related to the development of agriculture in the eastern Sichuan province. Ca2+ peaked in southeastern Sichuan province due to intensive construction activities and severe stone desertification. On the basis of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis, four sources of inorganic ions in rainwater were identified, including anthropogenic source, crust, biomass burning, and aging sea salt aerosol. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to find the spatial correlations between the socio-economic factors and ions in the rainwater. At the regional scale, the influence of fertilizer consumption and Gross Agricultural Production (GAP) on NH4+ increased from east to west; moreover the influence of Gross Industrial Production (GIP) on SO42- and NO3- also increased.

20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 354, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High temperature is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and agriculture productivity. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved serine and threonine protein kinases that participate in response to diverse environmental stresses in plants. A total of 16 putative SlMAPK genes are identified in tomato, and SlMAPK3 is one of the most extensively studied SlMAPKs. However, the role of SlMAPK3 in response to heat stress is not clearly understood in tomato plants. In this study, we performed functional analysis of SlMAPK3 for its possible role in response to heat stress. RESULTS: qRT-PCR analyses revealed that SlMAPK3 relative expression was depressed by heat stress. Here, wild-type (WT) tomato plants and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated slmapk3 mutant lines (L8 and L13) were used to investigate the function of SlMAPK3 in response to heat stress. Compared with WT plants, slmapk3 mutants exhibited less severe wilting and less membrane damage, showed lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and presented higher both activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes, as well as elevated expressions of genes encoding heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). CONCLUSIONS: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated slmapk3 mutants exhibited more tolerance to heat stress than WT plants, suggesting that SlMAPK3 was a negative regulator of thermotolerance. Moreover, antioxidant enzymes and HSPs/HSFs genes expression were involved in SlMAPK3-mediated heat stress response in tomato plants.

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