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Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148927, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271385


This study aimed to investigate the biotransformation of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in maize grown in hydroponics for ecotoxicity assessment. Maize seedlings grown for 14 days were exposed to a solution of 9 nm ZnO NPs, 40 nm ZnO NPs, and ZnSO4 at a Zn concentration of 300 mg L-1 for 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. The results of in-situ Zn distribution in maize (Zea mays) showed that 9 nm ZnO NPs could quickly enter the roots of maize and reach the center column transport system of the stem. The results of transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that ZnO NPs were accumulated in the vacuoles of the roots, and then transformed and transported through vesicles. Simulated studies showed that low pH (5.6) played a critical role in the transformation of ZnO NPs, and organic acids (Kf = 1011.4) could promote particle dissolution. Visual MINTEQ software simulated the species of Zn after the entry of ZnO NPs or Zn2+ into plants and found that the species of Zn was mainly Zn2+ when the Zn content of plants reached 200-300 ppm. Considering that the lowest Zn content of the roots in treatments was 1920 mg kg-1, combination of the result analysis of root effects showed that the toxicity of roots in most treatments had a direct relationship with Zn2+. However, treatment with 9 nm ZnO NPs exhibited significantly higher toxicity than ZnSO4 treatment on day 1 when the Zn2+ concentration difference was not significant, which was mainly due to the large amount of ZnO NPs deposited in the roots. To the authors' knowledge, this study was the first to confirm the process of biotransformation and explore the factors affecting the toxicity of ZnO NPs in depth.

Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Biotransformação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Zea mays , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4108-4121, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832299


BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to compare four hepatic fibrosis markers [i.e., hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and collagen type IV (CIV)] and 16 hepatic function indices in patients with liver cirrhosis of varying etiology. METHODS: The hepatic function indices and hepatic fibrosis markers were measured in 108 patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatoma using an automatic biochemical analyzer and luminescent immune analyzer. Twenty healthy controls were enrolled to compare the differences between liver cirrhosis and hepatoma of varying etiology and to analyze the correlations between the hepatic function indices and fibrosis markers. RESULTS: There was no correlation between alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), or the four markers of hepatic fibrosis in liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (P>0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was positively correlated with HA (r=0.428, P=0.007), LN (r=0.458, P=0.004), and CIV (r=0.374, P=0.021). Total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were positively correlated with LN (TBIL: r=0.480, P=0.002; DBIL: r=0.457, P=0.004), PIIINP (TBIL: r=0.380, P=0.017; DBIL: r=0.406, P=0.011), and CIV (TBIL: r=0.415, P=0.010; DBIL: r=0.400, P=0.013). Total bile acid (TBA) and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were positively correlated with PIIINP (TBA: r=0.363, P=0.025; GGT: r=0.353, P=0.029) and CIV (TBA: r=0.419, P=0.009; GGT: r=0.335, P=0.040). Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) was positively correlated with LN (r=0.482, P=0.002). Cholinesterase (CHE) (HA: r=-0.452, P=0.004, LN: r=-0.336, P=0.039; PIIINP: r=-0.468, P=0.003; CIV: r=-0.485, P=0.002), prealbumin (PA) (HA: r=-0.575, P=0.000, LN: r=-0.413, P=0.010; PIIINP: r=-0.344, P=0.035; CIV: r=-0.371, P=0.022), albumin (ALB) (HA: r=-0.541, P=0.000, LN: r=-0.373, P=0.021; PIIINP: r=-0.353, P=0.030; CIV: r=-0.415, P=0.010), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (HA: r=-0.334, P=0.040, LN: r=-0.347, P=0.033; PIIINP: r=-0.487, P=0.002; CIV: r=-0.536, P=0.001) were negatively correlated with the four markers of hepatic fibrosis. There was no correlation between ALT, AST, TBIL, TP, ALP, GGT, or the four hepatic fibrosis markers in hepatoma caused by hepatitis B (P>0.05). Meanwhile, DBIL and TBA were positively correlated with CIV (DBIL: r=0.519, P=0.023; TBA: r=0.563, P=0.012), while CHE (r=-0.604, P=0.006), ALB (r=-0.564, P=0.012), and SOD (r=-0.489, P=0.034) were negatively correlated with CIV. Moreover, PA was negatively correlated with LN (r=-0.510, P=0.026) and CIV (r=-0.696, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of the serological indices differed significantly based on the specific liver cirrhosis etiology. There was a strong correlation between the hepatic function indices and four hepatic fibrosis markers. Thus, the detection of these markers might improve the diagnosis and treatment of hepatoma.

Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Biomarcadores , Colágeno Tipo IV , Humanos , Laminina , Cirrose Hepática
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799795


Previous studies investigating the effect of excessive weight on the foot have commonly been cross-sectional; therefore, it is still unclear how the foot function gradually changes with the increased body mass that is physiologically gained over time. This study aimed to use a load transfer method to identify the mechanism of how the foot function changed with the increased excessive body mass over two years. Taking normal weight as the baseline, fifteen children became overweight or obese (group 1), and fifteen counterparts maintained normal weight (group 0) over the two years. Barefoot walking was assessed using a Footscan® plate system. A load transfer method was used based upon the relative force-time integral (FTI) to provide an insight into plantar load transference as children increased in weight. Significantly increased FTIs were found at the big toe (BT), medial metatarsal (MM), lateral metatarsal (LM), and lateral heel (HL) in group 1, while at BT, MM, medial heel (HM), and HL in group 0. Foot load showed a posterior to anterior transferal from midfoot (2.5%) and heel (7.0%) to metatarsal and big toe in group 1. The control group, however, shifted the loading within the metatarsal level from LM to HM (4.1%), and equally relieved weight from around the midfoot (MF) (3.0%) to BT, MM, HM and HL. Earlier weight loss intervention is required to prevent further adverse effects on foot functions caused by excessive weight-bearing.

, Caminhada , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pressão
Gait Posture ; 80: 7-13, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464538


BACKGROUND: Flatfoot has a very high incidence of obese children. Functional parameters such as plantar pressures and center of pressure (COP) are sensitive to foot type. However, previous foot biomechanical studies of obese children rarely excluded the flatfoot as a prerequisite of the participants involved. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to determine whether it is essential to define flatfoot as a subject screening criterion in the foot biomechanical study for obese children. METHODS: Foot types were classified by arch index (AI). Totally 21 obese children with flatfoot (OF group) along with matched control groups of obese children with normal foot (ON group) and normal-weighted children with flatfoot (NF group) were selected from our database. Barefoot walking trails were conducted using Footscan® plate system. Peak force (PF), peak pressure (PP), pressure-time integral (PTI), contact area (CA) and COP data were recorded. Independent t-test and effect size were used to compare the data between the study group and the control groups. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the between-trail reliability for the dependent variables. RESULTS: In comparison with the OF group, an upward trend for PF, PP and PTI was found for the ON group, while an opposite tendency for the NF group. The OF group displayed a significant larger CA under the midfoot region than the NF group even if there is no significant difference for AI. The OF group displayed a more medial shift of COP progression compared to the ON group. But no significant differences were found for COP parameters between the OF group and the NF group. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provided substantial evidence to support that prospective foot biomechanical research on the obese group needs to identify the flatfoot as one of the subject screening criteria to carry out more reliable results without producing confounding effects.

Pé Chato/fisiopatologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Pressão , Caminhada , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes