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1.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 4032285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746040

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Simethicone (SIM), as an antifoaming agent, has been shown to improve bowel preparation during colonoscopy. However, the optimal timing of SIM addition remained undetermined. We aimed to investigate the optimal timing of SIM addition to polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve bowel preparation. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the SIM evening group (SIM addition to PEG in the evening of the day prior to colonoscopy) and the SIM morning group (SIM addition to PEG in the morning of colonoscopy). The primary outcome was Bubble Scale (BS). The secondary outcomes were Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). Results: A total of 419 patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed in terms of BS (8.76 ± 0.90 vs. 8.65 ± 1.16, P = 0.81), ADR (34.1% vs. 30.8%, P = 0.47), Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) (8.59 ± 0.94 vs. 8.45 ± 1.00, P = 0.15), and withdrawal time (8.22 ± 2.04 vs. 8.01 ± 2.51, P = 0.094) between the two groups. Moreover, safety and compliance were similar in both groups. However, the SIM evening group was associated with shorter cecal intubation time (3.80 ± 1.81 vs. 4.42 ± 2.03, P < 0.001), higher BS (2.95 ± 0.26 vs. 2.88 ± 0.38, P = 0.04) in the right colon, and diminutive ADR (62.5% vs. 38.6%, P = 0.022) in the right colon, when compared to the SIM evening group. Conclusions: The SIM addition to PEG in the evening of the day prior to colonoscopy can shorten cecal intubation time and improve BS scores and diminutive ADR of the right colon compared with the SIM addition to PEG in the morning of colonoscopy in bowel preparation.

2.
Plant Commun ; 2(5): 100233, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746763

RESUMO

Terpenoids are the largest class of natural products with complex structures and extensive bioactivities; their scaffolds are generated by diverse terpenoid synthases (TPSs) from a limited number of isoprenoid diphosphate precursors. Promiscuous TPSs play important roles in the evolution of terpenoid chemodiversity, but they remain largely unappreciated. Here, an extremely promiscuous terpenoid synthase (CcTPS1) of the TPS-b subfamily was cloned and functionally characterized from a leaf-specific transcriptome of the Lamiaceae plant Colquhounia coccinea var. mollis. CcTPS1 is the first sester-/di-/sesqui-/mono-TPS identified from the plant kingdom, accepting C25/C20/C15/C10 diphosphate substrates to generate a panel of sester-/di-/sesqui-/mono-terpenoids. Engineered Escherichia coli expressing CcTPS1 produced three previously unreported terpenoids (two sesterterpenoids and a diterpenoid) with rare cyclohexane-containing skeletons, along with four sesquiterpenoids and one monoterpenoid. Their structures were elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Nicotiana benthamiana transiently expressing CcTPS1 also produced the diterpenoid and sesquiterpenoids, demonstrating the enzyme's promiscuity in planta. Its highly leaf-specific expression pattern combined with detectable terpenoid products in leaves of C. coccinea var. mollis and N. benthamiana expressing CcTPS1 suggested that CcTPS1 was mainly responsible for diterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis in plants. CcTPS1 expression and the terpenoid products could be induced by methyl jasmonate, suggesting their possible role in plant-environment interaction. CcTPS1 was localized to the cytosol and may differ from mono-TPSs in subcellular compartmentalization and substrate tolerance. These findings will greatly aid our understanding of plant TPS evolution and terpenoid chemodiversity; they also highlight the enormous potential of transcriptome mining and heterologous expression for the exploration of unique enzymes and natural products hidden in plants.

3.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753287

RESUMO

We herein report an I2/CuCl2-copromoted diamination of C(sp3)-H bonds for the preparation of 2-acyl-4-aminoquinazolines from methyl ketones, 2-aminobenzonitriles, and ammonium acetate. This reaction features operational simplicity, commercially available substrates, mild reaction conditions, and good functional group compatibility. Mechanistic studies indicate that CuCl2 plays a pivotal role in this transformation. This study uses a methyl group as a novel input to construct 2-acyl-4-aminoquinazoline derivatives for the first time.

4.
Int J Oncol ; 59(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726248

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation is associated with drug resistance induced by anti­epidermal growth factor receptor (anti­EGFR) therapy in the treatment of colon cancer. Thus, the combined inhibition of EGFR and STAT3 may prove beneficial for this type of cancer. STAT3 has been proven to play a critical role in colon cancer initiation and progression, and is considered the primary downstream effector driven by interleukin­6 (IL­6). A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), documented as an oncogene, catalyzes the cleavage of both EGF and IL­6R, inducing EGFR signaling and enabling IL­6 trans­signaling to activate STAT3 in a wide range of cell types to promote inflammation and cancer development. As a natural product, shikonin (SKN) has been found to function as an antitumor agent; however, its role in the regulation of ADAM17 and IL­6/STAT3 signaling in colon cancer cells remains unknown. In the present study, it was found that SKN inhibited colon cancer cell growth, suppressed both constitutive and IL­6­induced STAT3 phosphorylation, and downregulated the expression of ADAM17. ADAM17 expression was not altered in response to STAT3 knockdown, while IL­6­induced STAT3 activation did not induce ADAM17 transcripts. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that SKN did not affect the expression of key proteins involved in the maturation and degradation of ADAM17. SKN decreased ADAM17 expression possibly through reactive oxygen species (ROS)­mediated translational inhibition, as evidenced by the increased ADAM17 mRNA and phosphorylation levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). The expression of ADAM17 and p­eIF2α was reversed by N­acetylcysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger). Taken together, these results indicate that the concurrent inhibition of ADAM17 and IL­6/STAT3 signaling by SKN may synergistically contribute to the suppression of colon cancer cell growth.

5.
iScience ; 24(11): 103296, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755101

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved biological process that maintains cell homeostasis by targeting macromolecules for lysosome-mediated degradation. The levels of autophagy are relatively lower under normal conditions than under stress conditions (e.g., starvation), as autophagy is usually stimulated after multiple stresses. However, many autophagy-related regulators are still expressed under normal conditions. Although these regulators have been studied deeply in autophagy regulation, the nonautophagic roles of these regulators under normal conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we found that autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), which is a key regulator of autophagy, regulates c-Myc protein degradation under normal conditions through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We also found that ATG5 binds c-Myc and recruits the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase FBW7 to promote c-Myc degradation. Moreover, ATG5-mediated degradation of c-Myc limits cell growth under normal conditions and is essential for embryonic stem cell differentiation. Therefore, this study reveals a nonautophagic role of ATG5 in regulating of c-Myc protein degradation.

6.
iScience ; 24(11): 103276, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755096

RESUMO

Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal childhood dementia characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy manifesting in the teenage years, rapid neurological decline, and death typically within ten years of onset. Mutations in either EPM2A, encoding the glycogen phosphatase laforin, or EPM2B, encoding the E3 ligase malin, cause LD. Whole exome sequencing has revealed many EPM2A variants associated with late-onset or slower disease progression. We established an empirical pipeline for characterizing the functional consequences of laforin missense mutations in vitro using complementary biochemical approaches. Analysis of 26 mutations revealed distinct functional classes associated with different outcomes that were supported by clinical cases. For example, F321C and G279C mutations have attenuated functional defects and are associated with slow progression. This pipeline enabled rapid characterization and classification of newly identified EPM2A mutations, providing clinicians and researchers genetic information to guide treatment of LD patients.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756032

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important photochemical precursor to hydroxyl radicals particularly in an urban atmosphere, yet its primary emission and secondary production are often poorly constrained. Here, we measured HONO and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at both the inlet and the outlet in a busy urban tunnel (>30 000 vehicles per day) in south China. Multiple linear regression revealed that 73.9% of the inlet-outlet incremental HONO concentration was explained by NO2 surface conversion, while the rest was directly emitted from vehicles with an average HONO/NOx ratio of 1.31 ± 0.87%, which was higher than that from previous tunnel studies. The uptake coefficient of NO2, γ(NO2), on the tunnel surfaces was calculated to be (7.01 ± 0.02) × 10-5, much higher than that widely used in models. As tunnel surfaces are typical of urban surfaces in the wall and road materials, the dominance of HONO from surface reactions in the poorly lit urban tunnel demonstrated the importance of NO2 conversion on urban surfaces, instead of NO2 conversion on the aerosol surface, for both daytime and night-time HONO even in polluted ambient air. The higher γ(NO2) on urban surfaces and the elevated HONO/NOx ratio from this study can help explain the missing HONO sources in urban areas.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780333

RESUMO

Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) has attracted increasing attention in recent years, which adapts classifiers to an unlabeled target domain by exploiting a labeled source domain. To reduce the discrepancy between source and target domains, adversarial learning methods are typically selected to seek domain-invariant representations by confusing the domain discriminator. However, classifiers may not be well adapted to such a domain-invariant representation space, as the sample- and class-level data structures could be distorted during adversarial learning. In this article, we propose a novel transferable feature learning approach on graphs (TFLG) for unsupervised adversarial domain adaptation (DA), which jointly incorporates sample- and class-level structure information across two domains. TFLG first constructs graphs for minibatch samples and identifies the classwise correspondence across domains. A novel cross-domain graph convolutional operation is designed to jointly align the sample- and class-level structures in two domains. Moreover, a memory bank is designed to further exploit the class-level information. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach compared to the state-of-the-art UDA methods.

9.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796913

RESUMO

Flush shoot growth presents a fluctuation pattern alternating with root growth. The cyclic pattern determines the balance of root:shoot and can affect the direction and speed of carbohydrate translocation during the vegetative growth period. In this study, we used water deficit to limit corresponding growth in sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) 'OLL 4' grafted on 'US-942' rootstock, and then observed the changes of translocation dynamics between two flush statuses. Our first hypothesis was that water deficit would reduce root growth and extend the root growth phase during the growth cycle, delaying the following flush. We then tested the related second hypothesis that shoot flushes would switch the direction and slow the speed of carbohydrate transport due to fluctuation between single and dual sinks. After recovery from a severe deficit, the flush was synchronized and emerged within 2 weeks. Mild and moderate water-deficit plants showed a delayed new flush. Next, we used a 14 C-labeling method to test whether translocation was affected by the presence of new flush. Basipetal translocation was dominant, but the new flush increased the likelihood of acropetal translocation. Translocation speeds were not different in both directions regardless of flushing status, though speed estimates were highly variable, even though 14 C export from the source leaf increased when new flush was present. The results suggest that flush timing across an environmental gradient is governed by source-sink dynamics. The presence of new flush altered the direction of photoassimilate translocation and rate of leaf export, but stem transport speeds were not distinguishably different. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 755054, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803697

RESUMO

It is well documented that curcumin (CUR), as a polyphenol molecule originated from turmeric, has many advantages such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antitumor effects. However, because of its poor water solubility and low bioavailability, the biomedical applications of CUR are limited. So, in this study, we modified CUR with conjugation to a food-derived hydrophilic hydroxyethyl starch (HES) via an ester linkage to fabricate the amphiphilic conjugate HES-CUR prior to self-assembling into uniform nanoparticles (HES-CUR NPs). And, the results of the 1H NMR spectra and FT-IR spectrum showed successful synthesis of HES-CUR NPs; moreover, the solubility and the drug loading efficiency of CUR were significantly increased. Next, we further explored the differences on the antitumor effects between HES-CUR NPs and CUR in HepG2 cells, and the results of the CCK8-assay and cell counting experiment showed that HES-CUR NPs exhibited a more significant antiproliferative effect than that of CUR in HepG2 cells. And HepG2 cells were more sensitive to apoptosis induced by HES-CUR NPs as evidenced by flow cytometry, increased cytochrome c level, and decreased full length caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein expressions. Additionally, we found that the efficacy of HES-CUR NPs against HepG2 cells might be related to the enhanced degree of mitochondrial damage (decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP) and autophagy (increased levels of Beclin-1 and LC3-II proteins). So, the findings in this study suggest that HES-CUR NPs have a great application potential in antitumor efficacy and play an important role in multiple signal pathways.

11.
Virus Res ; 308: 198627, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785275

RESUMO

Due to the lack of an adaptive immune system, insects rely on innate immune mechanisms to fight against pathogenic infections. Two major innate immune pathways, Toll and IMD, orchestrate anti-pathogen responses by regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Although the antifungal or antibacterial function of AMPs has been well characterized, the antiviral role of AMPs in insects remains largely unclear. Periplaneta americana (P. americana), or the American cockroach, is used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antiviral agent; however, the underlying mechanism of action of P. americana extracts is unclear. Our previous study showed that the P. americana genome encodes multiple antimicrobial peptide genes. Based on these data, we predicted five novel P. americana defensins (PaDefensins) and analyzed their primary structure, secondary structure, and physicochemical properties. The putative antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and anticancer activities suggested that PaDefensin5 is a desirable therapeutic candidate against viral diseases. As the first experimental evidence of the antiviral effects of insect defensins, we also showed the antiviral effect of PaDefensin5 in Drosophila Kc cells and Drosophila embryos in vivo . In conclusion, results of both in silico predictions and subsequent antiviral experiments suggested PaDefensin5 a promising antiviral drug.

12.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 94: 102009, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aim to evaluate a deep learning (DL) model and radiomic model for preoperative differentiation of nodular cryptococcosis from solitary lung cancer in patients with malignant features on CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively recruited 319 patients with solitary pulmonary nodules and suspicious signs of malignancy from three hospitals. All lung nodules were resected, and one by one radiologic-pathologic correlation was performed. A three-dimensional DL model was used for tumor segmentation and extraction of three-dimensional radiomic features. We used the Max-Relevance and Min-Redundancy algorithm and the eXtreme Gradient Boosting algorithm to select the nodular radiomics features. We proposed a DL local-global model, a DL local model and radiomic model to preoperatively differentiate nodular cryptococcosis from solitary lung cancer. The DL local-global model includes information of both nodules and the whole lung, while the DL local model only includes information of solitary lung nodules. Five-fold cross-validation was used to select and validate these models. The prediction performance of the model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and calibration curve. A new loss function was applied in our deep learning framework to optimize the area under the ROC curve (AUC) directly. RESULTS: 295 patients were enrolled and they were non-symptomatic, with negative tumor markers and fungus markers in blood tests. These patients have not been diagnosed by the combination of CT imaging, laboratory results and clinical data. The lung volume was slightly larger in patients with lung cancers than that in patients with cryptococcosis (3552.8 ± 1184.6 ml vs 3491.9 ± 1017.8 ml). The DL local-global model achieved the best performance in differentiating between nodular cryptococcosis and lung cancer (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.88), which was higher than that of the DL local model (AUC = 0.84) and radiomic (AUC = 0.79) model. CONCLUSION: The DL local-global model is a non-invasive diagnostic tool to differentiate between nodular cryptococcosis and lung cancer nodules which are hard to be diagnosed by the combination of CT imaging, laboratory results and clinical data, and overtreatment may be avoided.

13.
Mar Drugs ; 19(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822471

RESUMO

Crustins are widely distributed among different crustacean groups. They are characterized by a whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, and most examined Crustins show activity against Gram-positive bacteria. This study reports two Crustins, Al-crus 3 and Al-crus 7, from hydrothermal vent shrimp, Alvinocaris longirostris. Al-crus 3 and Al-crus 7 belong to Crustin Type IIa, with a similarity of about 51% at amino acid level. Antibacterial assays showed that Al-crus 3 mainly displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria with MIC50 values of 10-25 µM. However, Al-crus 7 not only displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria but also against Gram-negative bacteria Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, in a sensitive manner. Notably, in the effective antibacterial spectrum, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (ESBLs) and Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii were drug-resistant pathogens. Narrowing down the sequence to the WAP domain, Al-crusWAP 3 and Al-crusWAP 7 demonstrated antibacterial activities but were weak. Additionally, the effects on bacteria did not significantly change after they were maintained at room temperature for 48 h. This indicated that Al-crus 3 and Al-crus 7 were relatively stable and convenient for transportation. Altogether, this study reported two new Crustins with specific characteristics. In particular, Al-crus 7 inhibited Gram-negative imipenem-resistant A. baumannii.

14.
J Mol Biol ; : 167379, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838808

RESUMO

Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death executed by transmembrane pore-forming proteins known as gasdermins and can be activated in an inflammasome-dependent or -independent manner. Inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis is triggered in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and has emerged as an important player in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases, mainly by releasing inflammatory contents. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the intricate mechanisms of pyroptosis and its role in the development of neuroinflammation in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In this review, we summarize current understandings of the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of pyroptosis. In addition, we discuss how pyroptosis can drive different forms of neurological diseases and new promising therapeutic strategies targeting pyroptosis that can be leveraged to treat neuroinflammation.

15.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211058100, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784773

RESUMO

Primary ectopic meningioma of the middle ear is relatively rare in clinical practice. It is often difficult to distinguish it from chronic otitis media or otitis media with effusion due to its similar and atypical clinical symptoms. We report a case of epithelial tympanic ectopic meningioma with the main complaints of otalgia, aural fullness, and hearing loss. It was accidentally discovered during tympanotomy due to the symptoms of recurring refractory secretory otitis media. This article briefly reviews the relevant literature in recent years, summarizes the characteristics of primary ectopic tympanic meningioma with intact tympanic membrane, and emphasizes the diagnosis and treatment strategy of the middle ear mass.

16.
J Gene Med ; : e3398, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary Factor VII Deficiency (FVIID) is a rare congenital autosomal recessive bleeding disorder. In clinical manifestations, its onset is caused by variant of the F7 gene (NM_019616) with strong heterogeneity. We identified a family with hematuria caused by a novel F7 compound heterozygous variant and studied the FVIID-dependent mechanism impacted by these variants. METHODS: Coagulation factors in the proband were functionally verified. We located pathogenic variants in relevant genes using next-generation sequencing after target enrichment and verified them by Sanger sequencing. We examined the coagulation activity and secretion pattern of recombinant FVII variants expressed in cells and observed their location and stability by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: We found a missense variant c.1207G>A (p.Gly403Ser) and a frameshift variant c.154_155del (p.Arg53fs) in the F7 gene of the proband. FVII activity tests showed that the variants significantly decreased its presence in the cell culture supernatant. Moreover, the R53fs mutant lacked the FVII functional domain and had no detectable activity. Immunofluorescence indicated that the p.Gly403Ser variant was distributed to the cell membrane and cytoplasm, while the FVII R53fs variant was not detected. Deficient FVII protein function and severe coagulation disorder are the likely causes of hematuria and other bleeding symptoms in the proband. CONCLUSION: The newly discovered F7 gene variants enrich the spectrum of hereditary FVII deficiency and provide a new foundation for the diagnosis and treatment of this type of coagulation disorder.

17.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787056

RESUMO

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modifications in human messenger RNAs (mRNAs). This study aimed at investigating the function and mechanism of demethyltransferase fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) in prostate cancer(PCa). The expression level of FTO in PCa was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Besides, the impacts of FTO on the proliferation, migration and invasion of PCa cells were also detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and transwell assays. Furthermore, we also explored the potential mechanism of FTO in PCa. The results showed that FTO expression was decreased in PCa, and the low expression of FTO showed an obvious relevance to the clinical characteristics. Downregulation of FTO facilitated the proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth of PCa cells. Besides, MC4R displayed a remarkably high expression in PCa tissues, whose expression and m6A level were regulated by FTO. Meanwhile, the in vitro experiments revealed that highly expressed FTO partially reversed the facilitating effect of highly expressed MC4R on the malignant phenotype of PCa cells. Overall, FTO was downregulated in PCa and its expression level showed a relevance to the prognosis of PCa patients. Additionally, FTO could regulate the proliferation, migration and invasion of PCa via regulating the expression level of MC4R.

18.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the tongue movement patterns on Mandarin speaking children with repaired cleft palate with lateralized and palatalized misarticulation (LPM) using ultrasound imaging technique. METHODS: A group of 20 subjects who were diagnosed with speech sound disorder after cleft palate repairment, and another group of 18 children with LPM were recruited. A group of 20 typical children were recruited as the control group. The ultrasonography was used to collect the articulation pattern of the 8 single vowels that are /a/, /o/, /[Latin Small Letter Reversed e]/, /i/, /u/, /y/, /ɨ/, /u/ in Mandarin Chinese. Various ultrasonic tongue parameters were analyzed from both sagittal and coronal planes. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, coronal height of peak point, coronal tongue dorsum constraint index, sagittal peak point offset distance, sagittal distance between tongue tip and peak point, and sagittal tongue dorsum constraint index of /[Latin Small Letter Reversed e]/,/i/, /y/ and /ɨ/ were significantly smaller in the cleft-related lateralized and palatalized group (CLP) and noncleft-related lateralized and palatalized group (NLP) (P < 0.05). Compared with the noncleft-related lateralized and palatalized group and control group, sagittal peak point offset distance of the vowels /[Latin Small Letter Reversed e]/ and /i/ was significant smaller in the cleft-related lateralized and palatalized group group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The ultrasound images on the children with cleft palate showed a midline elevation of the tongue and a significant apical constriction. The children with LPM showed a midline elevation at the coronal plane and anterior movement of the tongue high point at the sagittal plane. The apical vowels were more informative and accurate in indicating the features of LPM than other vowels.

19.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) using a meta-analysis method. METHODS: The China Knowledge Network, VIP database, WanFang database PubMed database, Embase database, and Cochrane Library were searched for a collection of comparative studies on Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review indicated that Arbidol had a higher positive-to-negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid on Day 7 [P=0.03], a higher positive-to-negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid on Day 14 [P=0.006], a higher improvement rate of chest CT on Day 14 [P=0.02], a lower incidence of adverse reactions [P=0.002] and lower rate of mortality[P=0.007]. There was no difference in the rate of cough disappearance on Day 14 [P=0.24] or the rate of severe/critical illness [P=0.07] between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Arbidol may be superior tolopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19. However, due to the small number of included studies and the number of patients, high-quality multi-centre large-sample randomized double-blind controlled trials are still needed for verification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 584, 2021 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study seeks to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 on knowledge, attitude, and infection control behaviors among dentists. METHODS: Changes in knowledge, attitude, and infection control behaviors reported in 2020 (COVID-19 period) were compared to the historical control of the non-COVID-19 period in 2018. A proportional random sampling method was used to select the study samples from 400 dental institutions. The response rate was 69% in 2018 and 62.8% in 2020. A total of 276 dentists in 2018 and 251 dentists in 2020 responded to this questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the associations between factors and recommended infection control practices. RESULTS: High rates of correct COVID-19 knowledge (94.76%), fears of being infected with the virus (94%) and use of personal protective equipment (mask, glove and protection gown; 95%) were reported. We found that knowledge regarding environmental infection control, HIV transmission, and the window of HIV transmission were significantly higher in the post-COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. High compliance rates of wearing mask, gloves and protection were reported. The number of dentists wearing a hair cap and a protective eye mask/face shield during the pandemic significantly increased compared with that noted before the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors associated with the use of a hair cap and an eye mask/face shield differed between the pre- and post-COVID-19 periods. The factors associated with compliance regarding environment infection control also differed between the pre- and post-COVID-19 periods. CONCLUSION: The significant impact of COVID-19 on the knowledge, attitude, and infection control behaviors among dental care workers was observed in the current study. In particular, the use of hair caps and protective eye mask or face shields as well as environmental disinfection protocols has significantly improved. Trial registration TMU-JIRB: N201804006.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Odontólogos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
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