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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137117, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074939

RESUMO

The accurate prediction of carbon prices poses a tremendous challenge to relevant industry practitioners and governments. This paper proposes a novel hybrid model incorporating modified ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) and long short-term memory (LSTM) optimized by the improved whale optimization algorithm (IWOA). This model is based on the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of carbon price. The original carbon price is first decomposed into nine intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual using the MEEMD model. Then, the random forest method is applied to determine the input variables of each IMF and the residual, in the LSTM neural network. The carbon price is then predicted by the LSTM model optimized by the IWOA. The proposed hybrid model is applied to predict the carbon prices of Beijing, Fujian, and Shanghai to assess its effectiveness. The results reveal that the model achieved higher prediction performance than 11 other benchmark models. Our observations indicate that decomposition of carbon price can effectively improve the accuracy of prediction. Moreover, the improved LSTM model is more suitable for time series prediction. The proposed model provides a novel and effective carbon price forecasting tool for governments and enterprises.

2.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059763

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play fundamental roles in cancer; however, we still lack knowledge about to what extent RBPs are dysregulated, as well as about perturbed signaling pathways in cancer. In this study, we integrated analysis of multidimensional data across >10,000 cancer patients and >1,000 cell lines. We identified a top candidate RBP: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit beta (EIF2S2). EIF2S2 is highly expressed in tumors and is associated with malignant features as well as patient prognosis. Functional assays performed in cancer cells revealed that EIF2S2 promotes cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations further demonstrated that EIF2S2 promotes tumorigenesis and progression by directly binding to a long non-coding RNA, LINC01600, which physically interacts with the MYC protein and increases its stability. Interestingly, we revealed that the EIF2S2-LINC01600-MYC axis can activate the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway by inhibiting the activity of FHIT-related enhancers and FHIT expression. Finally, EIF2S2 knockdown combined with oxaliplatin treatment could be a potential combination therapy in cancer. Our integrated analysis provided detailed knowledge of the function of the EIF2S2-LINC01600-MYC axis, which will facilitate the development of rational combination therapies for cancer.

3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 420-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary lymphedema is a refractory disease, for which adipose-derived stem cells have shown some therapeutic potential. However, the mechanism of this action remains poorly understood. METHODS: The authors identified podoplanin-expressing adipose-derived stem cells, which allowed them to divide adipose-derived stem cells into podoplanin-positive and podoplanin-negative groups that they characterized in vitro. The authors then used a mouse hindlimb model for lymphedema to trace the fate of podoplanin-positive, podoplanin-negative, and unsorted adipose-derived stem cells in vivo. RESULTS: When induced in culture, podoplanin-positive cells were noted to up-regulate the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers, including LYVE-1, and assumed a cobblestone morphology. In addition, a substantial increase in lymphangiogenic cytokines was detected in the podoplanin-positive supernatant. The above findings were largely absent from the podoplanin-negative and unsorted groups. In the mouse model, the implanted cells relieved the limb lymphedema by promoting lymphangiogenesis, with the podoplanin-positive group showing the most significant effect. Immunocolocalization further revealed that the podoplanin-positive cells incorporated into lymphatic vessels were positive for LYVE-1. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that actions by means of both paracrine and differentiation pathways were involved in the adipose-derived stem cell-mediated therapeutic effects. The podoplanin-positive cells possessed lymphatic paracrine and differentiation abilities and may represent lymphatic endothelial cell precursor cells. The podoplanin-negative cells, which constitute a considerable proportion of the adipose-derived stem cells, may play an important paracrine role by secreting mesenchymal stem cell-related factors.


Assuntos
Linfangiogênese/fisiologia , Vasos Linfáticos/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Linfedema/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fenótipo
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1859-1862, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950954

RESUMO

We present the design and synthesis of water-soluble quinoline-indole-based derivatives (IM-1, IM-2, and IM-3) with three-photon absorption activity. IM-3 can specifically target DNA and RNA accompanied by an obvious three-photon fluorescence enhancement in the second near-infrared window (1000-1700 nm). The in vitro experiments demonstrate that IM-3 can simultaneously stain mitochondria and the nucleolus both in living and fixed cells. The organelle-specific targeting behaviour is successfully visualized under stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D34-D39, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586392

RESUMO

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an RNA-processing mechanism on the 3' terminus that generates distinct isoforms of mRNAs and/or other RNA polymerase II transcripts with different 3'UTR lengths. Widespread APA affects post-transcriptional gene regulation in mRNA translation, stability, and localization, and exhibits strong tissue specificity. However, no existing database provides comprehensive information about APA events in a large number of human normal tissues. Using the RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project, we systematically identified APA events from 9475 samples across 53 human tissues and examined their associations with multiple traits and gene expression across tissues. We further developed APAatlas, a user-friendly database (https://hanlab.uth.edu/apa/) for searching, browsing and downloading related information. APAatlas will help the biomedical research community elucidate the functions and mechanisms of APA events in human tissues.

6.
Aesthet Surg J ; 40(1): NP8-NP20, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasal tip management is the most important and challenging aspect of rhinoplasty. Costal cartilage can be utilized in septal extension grafting to effectively correct nasal shape deformity. OBJECTIVES: The authors described their experience with costal cartilage grafting for septal extension utilizing a novel en-bloc mortise-tenon technique to correct primary or secondary nose deformity or to enhance nasal appearance in Asian patients. METHODS: From July 2015 to December 2017, costal cartilage grafts were applied as septal extension biomaterials utilizing the novel en-bloc mortise-tenon technique in 278 consecutive Asian rhinoplasty patients with primary (n = 95), secondary (n = 173), and tertiary (n = 10) nose deformity or in patients needing nasal reshaping. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 46 years. In all cases, the mucoperichondria of the nasal septum were dissected bilaterally from the septal cartilage. The prepared en-bloc costal cartilage graft was mounted onto the caudal portion of the septal cartilage and fixed to the septum with 5-0 polydioxanone sutures. RESULTS: The follow-up duration ranged from 10 months to 2.5 years. Of the 278 patients treated, 5 were male and 273 were female. External lengthening of the nose from the nasal root to the tip ranged from 3 to 10 mm. All patients except 1 were satisfied with the shape of the nose. CONCLUSIONS: The authors obtained good aesthetic results utilizing the novel en-bloc mortise-tenon method for connecting costal cartilage grafts as septal extension materials in patients with different types of nasal deformity and in patients needing nose reshaping.Level of Evidence: 4.

7.
Ann Plast Surg ; 84(1): 100-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) has been proven to be able to visualize pathological lymphatic networks and accompanying complications through subcutaneous injection of commonly used contrast agents. However, no comprehensive prior studies have previously been reported regarding MRL for the evaluation of upper extremity lymphedema in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). In this study, we establish a novel MRL protocol to characterize the normal and abnormal characteristics of different clinical stages of BCRL in patients using high-spatial-resolution MRL. METHODS: Fifty females with unilateral upper extremity BCRL underwent MRL. Lymphatic vessel morphology in normal and affected limbs was compared. The appearance, distribution pattern, morphologic characteristics, and maximum transversal diameter of the lymphatic vessels, dermal backflow, and regeneration of lymphatic vessels were analyzed. RESULTS: Lymph fluid was retained in the subcutis of the affected limbs, and no edema was observed in the subfascial compartment. In stage 1, tortuous and dilated lymphatic vessels exhibited a beaded appearance, and their diameters were larger than those in the contralateral forearm (P < 0.05). In stage 2, the dilated lymphatic vessels exhibited larger diameters. "Dermal backflow" and tiny regenerated lymphatic vessels appeared. The thickened subcutaneous tissue showed a honeycomb pattern induced by soft tissue fibrosis and adipose hypertrophy. In stage 3, disordered and unrecognizable affected lymphatic vessels were observed with many small regenerated lymphatics and confluent dermal backflow; the tissue fibrosis was more serious. CONCLUSIONS: Each stage presents different characteristics, and the deformity degree of the lymphatic network is consistent with the severity of the disease. Magnetic resonance lymphangiography could provide adequate information for clinical staging in patients with BCRL.

8.
Hepatology ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815296

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) is a key step that increases the diversity and complexity of the cancer transcriptome. Recent evidence has highlighted that AS has an increasingly crucial role in cancer. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying AS and its dysregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain elusive. Here, we report that the expression of RNA-binding protein p54nrb /non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO) is frequently increased in HCC patients and is associated with poor outcomes. Knockdown of NONO significantly abolished liver cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor formation. RNA-sequencing revealed that NONO regulates MYC box-dependent interacting protein 1 (or bridging integrator 1) (BIN1) (also known as amphiphysin 2 or SH3P9) exon 12a splicing. In the normal liver, BIN1 generates a short isoform (BIN1-S) that acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the binding of c-Myc to target gene promoters. In HCC, NONO is highly up-regulated and produces a long isoform (BIN1-L, which contains exon 12a) instead of BIN1-S. High levels of BIN1-L promote carcinogenesis by binding with the protein polo-like kinase 1 to enhance its stability through the prevention of ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent cullin 3 degradation. Further analysis revealed that NONO promotes BIN1 exon 12a inclusion through interaction with DExH-box helicase 9 (DHX9) and splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ). Notably, frequent coexpression of DHX9-NONO-SFPQ is observed in HCC patients. Taken together, our findings identify the DHX9-NONO-SFPQ complex as a key regulator manipulating the oncogenic splicing switch of BIN1 and as a candidate therapeutic target in liver cancer.

9.
Trends Mol Med ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836419

RESUMO

Spliceosomes comprise small nuclear (sn)RNAs and proteins. Through genome-wide analyses in large-scale tumor samples, recent studies by Shuai et al., Suzuki et al., and Inoue et al. have identified recurrent spliceosomal mutations that induced genome-wide splicing alterations of cancer-related genes to promote malignancy. These discoveries suggest novel RNA-based therapeutics in anticancer treatment.

10.
Ann Plast Surg ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tissue expansion has been applied in tissue repair and reconstruction of large soft tissue defects. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) transplantation is a promising treatment in raising expansion efficiency. However, the clinical utilization of SVF is limited because of its conventional collagenase-based production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of emulsified fat (EF), SVF obtained by using mechanical method, on accelerating tissue expansion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microstructure of EF fragments and the proportion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; CD45-/CD34+) in EF were detected. Wistar rats were divided into the following 3 groups randomly: the 1-mL EF group, the 0.5-mL EF group, and the control group. The tissue expansion was carried out twice a week to maintain the capsule pressure at 60 mm Hg. After 4 weeks, inflation volume and histological changes, which includes collagen content, cell proliferation, and capillary density, were observed to evaluate the effect of EF on tissue expansion. RESULTS: Mechanical emulsification effectively destroyed the mature adipocytes in adipose tissue. The proportion of MSCs population in the EF fragments was 12.40 ± 0.86%. After expansion, the inflation volume and the levels of collagen deposition, cell proliferation, and capillary density of the expanded tissue in the 1-mL EF group were significantly higher than that in the 0.5-mL EF group and the control group (P < 0.05). However, all these regenerative indicators in the 0.5-mL EF group showed no statistical difference from the control group (P > 0.05). The thickness of epidermal and dermal layers showed no significant difference among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that EF grafting can be used as a new alternative to increase tissue expansion efficiency.

11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869503

RESUMO

Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.) or luffa is a diploid herbaceous plant with 26 chromosomes (2n = 26) and belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. To address the limited knowledge of the genome of Luffa species, the chromosome-level genome of L. cylindrica was assembled and analysed using PacBio long reads and Hi-C data. We combined Hi-C data with a draft genome assembly to generate chromosome-length scaffolds. Thirteen scaffolds corresponding to the 13 chromosomes were assembled from 1,156 contigs to a final size of 669 Mb with a contig N50 size of 5 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 53 Mb. After removing redundant sequences, 416.31 Mb (62.18% of the genome) of repeat sequences was detected. Subsequently, 31,661 protein-coding genes with an average of 5.69 exons per gene were identified in the L. cylindrica genome using de novo methods, transcriptome data and homologue-based approaches. In addition, 27,552 protein-coding genes (87.02%) were annotated in five databases. According to the phylogenetic analysis, L. cylindrica is closely related to Cucurbita and Cucumis species and diverged from their common ancestor ~28.6-67.1 million years ago. Genome collinearity analysis was performed in Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and L. cylindrica, and it demonstrated a high degree of conserved gene order in these three species. The completeness of the genome will provide high-quality genomic knowledge on breeding and reveal genetic variation in L. cylindrica.

12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(12): 5009-5015, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697833

RESUMO

The goal of this experiment was to demonstrate the ability of an infusion of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and its effects on gene expression related to calcium (Ca) transporters in the mammary gland and bone resorption markers in the femur. Thirty pregnant Bamei mutton sheep were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups. All groups received a daily intravenous infusion of saline (control group; n = 10), saline containing 0.178 mg of L-tryptophan/kg body weight (BW) (TRP group, n = 10) or 0.178 mg of 5-hydroxytryptophan/kg BW (5-HTP group, n = 10), beginning on day 7 of prepartum and continuing until delivery. Serum (pre- and postpartum), milk (postpartum), and femur and mammary gland tissue (day 9) were collected. Sheep infused with 5-HTP had a larger total serum Ca concentration on days 3, 6, 15, and 30 of lactation and total milk Ca concentration on days 3, 6, 12, and 15 of lactation compared with that of the control group. Sheep infused with 5-HTP and TRP increased blood and milk concentrations of 5-HT on days 3, 6, 9, and 30 of lactation and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on day 3 of prepartum and on days 3, 6, and 15 of lactation (P < 0.05). In addition, compared to that of the control group, the TRP or 5-HTP infusion upregulated PTHrP, a sodium/calcium exchanger, plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 2, secretory pathway Ca2+ ATPase 1, and calcium sensing receptor mRNA expression in mammary gland and receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B ligand mRNA expression in the femur, but had no effect on receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B and osteoprotegerin mRNA expression in the femur (P < 0.05). This suggests that 5-HT and PTHrP may be involved in regulating maternal Ca homeostasis during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in the sheep.

13.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 89, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells provides a unique opportunity to study human heart development in vitro and offers a potential cell source for cardiac regeneration. Compared to the large body of studies investigating cardiac maturation and cardiomyocyte subtype-specific induction, molecular events underlying cardiac lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells at early stage remain poorly characterized. RESULTS: In order to uncover key molecular events and regulators controlling cardiac lineage commitment from a pluripotent state during differentiation, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq sequencing and obtained high-quality data for 6879 cells collected from 6 stages during cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells and identified multiple cell subpopulations with distinct molecular features. Through constructing developmental trajectory of cardiac differentiation and putative ligand-receptor interactions, we revealed crosstalk between cardiac progenitor cells and endoderm cells, which could potentially provide a cellular microenvironment supporting cardiac lineage commitment at day 5. In addition, computational analyses of single-cell RNA-Seq data unveiled ETS1 (ETS Proto-Oncogene 1) activation as an important downstream event induced by crosstalk between cardiac progenitor cells and endoderm cells. Consistent with the findings from single-cell analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) against ETS1 revealed genomic occupancy of ETS1 at cardiac structural genes at day 9 and day 14, whereas ETS1 depletion dramatically compromised cardiac differentiation. CONCLUSION: Together, our study not only characterized the molecular features of different cell types and identified ETS1 as a crucial factor induced by cell-cell crosstalk contributing to cardiac lineage commitment from a pluripotent state, but may also have important implications for understanding human heart development at early embryonic stage, as well as directed manipulation of cardiac differentiation in regenerative medicine.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614789

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the rumen degradation characteristic of amaranth silage (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) including four kinds of growing stages (budding stage (BS), 50 d after planting (DAP); early flowering stage (ES), 58 DAP; peak flowering stage (PS), 70 DAP; heading stage (HS), 90 DAP). Four Holstein dairy cows with permanent ruminal cannulas were used as experimental animals. Nylon-bag method was used to assess the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The results showed that the concentration of DM in HS was significantly higher than other stages (p < 0.05), whereas the contents of CP, were lower than in other stages (p < 0.05). With the extension of the growing period, the DM effective degradability of amaranth silage decreased gradually, and the difference was significant (p < 0.05). The ruminal CP degradation of 72 h was more than 80%, and compared with ES and HS, the degradation rate of BS and PS was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Compared to BS, the effective degradability of CP was increased (p < 0.05) in ES and HS. For ruminal NDF degradability, the effective degradability of HS was minimum, and it had a noticeable difference with BS and ES (p < 0.05). Thus, the different quality of amaranth growth stage including chemical contents and rumen degradation should be taken into consideration when making amaranth silage. In the present study, the optimal growth stage of amaranth was from the peak flowering stage to heading stage for ensiling.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634851

RESUMO

Quality control / assessment of ultrasound (US) images is an essential step in clinical diagnosis. This process is usually done manually, suffering from some drawbacks, such as dependence on operator's experience and extensive labors, as well as high inter- and intra-observer variation. Automatic quality assessment of US images is therefore highly desirable. Fetal US cardiac four-chamber plane (CFP) is one of the most commonly used cardiac views, which was used in the diagnosis of heart anomalies in the early 1980s. In this paper, we propose a generic deep learning framework for automatic quality control of fetal US CFPs. The proposed framework consists of three networks: (1) a basic CNN (B-CNN), roughly classifying four-chamber views from the raw data; (2) a deeper CNN (D-CNN), determining the gain and zoom of the target images in a multi-task learning manner; and (3) the aggregated residual visual block net (ARVBNet), detecting the key anatomical structures on a plane. Based on the output of the three networks, overall quantitative score of each CFP is obtained, so as to achieve fully automatic quality control. Experiments on a fetal US dataset demonstrated our proposed method achieved a highest mean average precision (mAP) of 93.52% at a fast speed of 101 frames per second (FPS). In order to demonstrate the adaptability and generalization capacity, the proposed detection network (i.e., ARVBNet) has also been validated on the PASCAL VOC dataset, obtaining a highest mAP of 81.2% when input size is approximately 300×300.

16.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652592

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of heat stress on the autophagy and apoptosis of the rumen, abomasum, duodenum, liver and kidney in calves. Two groups of Holstein male calves were selected with similar birth weights and health conditions. Heat stress (HT): Six calves (birth weight 42.2 ± 2.3) were raised from July 15 to August 19. Cooling (CL): Six calves (birth weight 41.5 ± 3.1 kg) were raised from April 10 to May 15. All the calves were euthanized following captive bolt gun stunning at 35 d of age. The expression of protein 1 light chain 3-Ⅱ (LC3-Ⅱ) and caspase3 in the rumen, abomasum, duodenum, liver and kidney were determined by western blotting. In addition, other possible relevant serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Significant differences were observed in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB) and glucose (Glu). The results showed that heat stress could increase the autophagy and apoptosis of the kidney, duodenum and abomasum. However, heat stress had no effect on the autophagy and apoptosis of the liver. Additionally, the expression of caspase-3 in the rumen in HT was significantly lower than that in CL. In conclusion, the effects of heat stress on autophagy and apoptosis are organ-specific. The results provide knowledge regarding autophagy and autophagy in calf heat stress management.

17.
Chem Sci ; 10(30): 7228-7232, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588291

RESUMO

Multiphoton bioimaging benefits from good penetration of tissue, low phototoxicity and high resolution. Hence, development of efficient multiphoton imaging agents is highly desirable but remains challenging. Herein, a novel terpyridine-based Zn(ii) complex bearing a thiophene bridge was designed rationally and fabricated. Thanks to its aggregation-induced emission (AIE), DZ1 emitted bright yellow-green fluorescence (λ em = 575 nm) under physiological conditions. The three-photon spectral changes of DZ1 when binding with RNA unambiguously reflected its RNA-specific targeting behaviour, resulting in twofold enhancement in three-photon action cross-sections located at the second near-infrared window (1700 nm).

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569592

RESUMO

This study assessed whether harvest time and microbial anaerobic fermentation could affect ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of whole Zhang hybrid millet, and estimate the effect of microbial anaerobic fermented whole Zhang hybrid millet as feedstuff on milk yield and milk quality. Protein degradation and intestinal digestion were determined using in situ nylon bag technique and three-step in vitro method, respectively. Results showed that harvest time, microbial anaerobic fermentation, or their interaction significantly affected EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF (p < 0.05). In vitro fermentation was significantly influenced by harvest time. Early harvested samples appeared to have higher Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and lower acetate: propionate ratio than late harvested ones (p < 0.01). However, significant effect of harvest time and fermentation was failed to find in the estimation of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) (p > 0.05). Microbial anaerobic fermented whole Zhang hybrid millet as feedstuff provided similar milk compositions compared with controls, and it significantly reduced SCC (p = 0.04). Milk yield was numerically higher in whole Zhang hybrid millet groups. In conclusion, harvest time and microbial anaerobic fermentation could further improve ruminal utilization of whole Zhang hybrid millet. Whole Zhang hybrid millet could be an alternative feedstock for dairy cows with acceptable safety profile and potential benefit in milk production.

19.
Med Image Anal ; 58: 101548, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525671

RESUMO

It is essential to measure anatomical parameters in prenatal ultrasound images for the growth and development of the fetus, which is highly relied on obtaining a standard plane. However, the acquisition of a standard plane is, in turn, highly subjective and depends on the clinical experience of sonographers. In order to deal with this challenge, we propose a new multi-task learning framework using a faster regional convolutional neural network (MF R-CNN) architecture for standard plane detection and quality assessment. MF R-CNN can identify the critical anatomical structure of the fetal head and analyze whether the magnification of the ultrasound image is appropriate, and then performs quality assessment of ultrasound images based on clinical protocols. Specifically, the first five convolution blocks of the MF R-CNN learn the features shared within the input data, which can be associated with the detection and classification tasks, and then extend to the task-specific output streams. In training, in order to speed up the different convergence of different tasks, we devise a section train method based on transfer learning. In addition, our proposed method also uses prior clinical and statistical knowledge to reduce the false detection rate. By identifying the key anatomical structure and magnification of the ultrasound image, we score the ultrasonic plane of fetal head to judge whether it is a standard image or not. Experimental results on our own-collected dataset show that our method can accurately make a quality assessment of an ultrasound plane within half a second. Our method achieves promising performance compared with state-of-the-art methods, which can improve the examination effectiveness and alleviate the measurement error caused by improper ultrasound scanning.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480153

RESUMO

Objective: Caseins and fatty acids of milk are synthesized and secreted by the epithelial cells of the mammary gland. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, has been shown to promote mammary development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ATRA on casein synthesis and fatty acid composition in MAC-T cells. Methods: MAC-T cells were allowed to differentiate for 4 d, treated with ATRA (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 µM), and incubated for 3 d. We analyzed the fatty acid composition, the mRNA expression of casein and fatty acid synthesis-related genes, and the phosphorylation of casein synthesis-related proteins of MAC-T cells by gas chromatography, qPCR, and western blotting, respectively. Results: In MAC-T cells, ATRA increased the mRNA levels of αS1-casein and ß-casein, janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 ß (STAT5-ß) pathway, ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, inhibited the mRNA expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) of the mTOR pathway, and promoted the phosphorylation of STAT5-ß and S6K1 proteins. Additionally, ATRA increased the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, reduced the content of long-chain fatty acids, the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA), the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to SFA, and the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA. The mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were enhanced by ATRA. Conclusion: ATRA promotes the synthesis of casein by regulating JAK2/STAT5 pathway and downstream mTOR signaling pathway, and it improves the fatty acid composition of MAC-T cells by regulating SREBP1-related genes.

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