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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134803, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731125

RESUMO

Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are key players in aquatic systems, while their diversity and community composition dynamics remain poorly understood. The monthly composition of PPEs in Lake Chaohu was investigated using a combination of flow cytometry sorting and high throughput sequencing. Results indicated that temperature is the most important factor shaping PPEs community structure. The PPEs community can be categorized into three groups that are dominant at different temperature ranges: high temperature (>21.8 °C), intermediate temperature (between 9.8 °C and 21.8 °C) and low temperature (<9.8 °C). At the supergroup level, Cryptophyta were dominant at the intermediate temperature level, and Bacillariophyta were prevalent at low temperatures. In comparison, Chlorophyta PPEs were sensitive to temperature at the order level. Molecular network analysis using 18S rDNA sequencing results from sorted samples revealed that the Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) of PPE from the same taxonomic groups were predominantly positive, implying that they were occupying similar niches. The cooccurrence patterns between PPEs and fungi were mostly negative. In particular, OTU101, which was associated with Chytridiomycota, was negatively related to many OTUs belonging to Chlorophyta and Diatom, indicating that their potential parasitic associations may be not species-specific.

2.
Cell Signal ; 66: 109467, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715260

RESUMO

The activation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) 1 is implicated in neuronal injury in experimental stroke. However, little is known about the relationship between CRHR1 activation and brain endothelial barrier impairment after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Recently we have demonstrated that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 as well as p38 is required for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-increased cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) phosphorylation in bEnd3 cells. Using this in vitro ischemic-like model, we found that both blockade and interference of CRHR1 inhibited H2O2-enhancd p38, Erk1/2 and cPLA2 phosphorylation and in turn suppressed monolayer hyperpermeability and ZO-1 redistribution. Then using the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mouse model, we revealed that CRHR1 antagonist NBI27914 pretreatment attenuated cPLA2 phosphorylation, Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, tight junction disruption and mitochondrial cytochrome c release. CRHR1 interference also inhibited cortical vascular hyperpermeability. Furthermore, NBI27914 administration attenuated neurovascular injury. After 30 min MCAO with 7 days reperfusion CRHR1 interference alleviated hippocampal blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage and improved spatial cognitive dysfunction. Thus, our study demonstrates that during ischemic stroke the activation of endothelial CRHR1 contributes to BBB impairment via cPLA2 phosphorylation.

3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721599

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of miR-155 and its target angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) are linked to the incidence of ischemic stroke (IS), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we therefore sought to investigate how miR-155 and AT1R polymorphisms affect IS risk. We included 579 IS patients and 509 age-matched controls in the present analysis, genotyping individuals for the rs767649 polymorphism in miR-155, as well as for the rs1492099 and rs275653 polymorphisms in AT1R via iMLDR-TM genotyping technology. The allele and genotype frequencies for the assessed polymorphisms were comparable in IS patients and controls, without any detectable association between AT1R haplotype and IS risk. We conducted additional trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment-mediated stratification, which indicated that the AT1R rs1492099 T allele was linked to a decreased risk of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) stroke. We further found that those with the AT1R rs275653 AA genotype had a decreased risk of small-artery occlusion (SAO) strokes. We further confirmed elevated miR-155 expression in IS patients, but observed no link between the rs767649 polymorphism and expression of this microRNA. Similarly, rs1492099 and rs275653 polymorphisms did not impact AT1R expression levels. The miR-155 rs767649 polymorphism does not seem to be a key determinant of IS risk, whereas the AT1R rs1492099 polymorphism is linked to reduced LAA-stroke risk, and the rs275653 AA genotype is potentially protective against SAO strokes.

4.
J Fish Biol ; 95(6): 1523-1529, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631336

RESUMO

activin ßA and ßB from diploid and allotriploid crucian carp were cloned.The differential expression of activin ßA and ßB genes in female allotriploid and diploid red crucian carp Carassius auratus red var. were studied and found to be expressed in all the tested tissues; particularly, the expression of activin ßA and ßB was elevated in the ovaries of allotriploids and differential expression in pituitaries during the non-breeding season and the breeding season period. The immunohistochemistry indicated that the abnormal triploid ovaries were dominated by small oogonium-like cells with dense signals and that the elevated expression of activin ßA and ßB in the ovaries of allotriploids may be related to allotriploid sterility.

5.
Water Res ; 167: 115102, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574346

RESUMO

Artificial sweeteners (ASs) have been frequently detected in aquatic environment and are of emerging concern due to their environmental persistence, acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) are two ASs that are difficult to remove. The ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) advanced oxidation process has been proven to remove ASs in real wastewater effectively. In this study, radical-based degradation kinetic model, pathways and toxicity evaluation of ASs by UV/PS process were explored. ACE and SUC were effectively removed by UV/PS process, and UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals (HO∙) and sulfate radicals (SO4∙-) contributes the degradation of ASs. A kinetic prediction model for ASs degradation was established based on the second-order rate constants with HO∙ and SO4∙-, and the steady state concentrations of HO∙ and SO4∙- were calculated through the degradations of two reference compounds. The kinetic model could predict the degradation process of ASs in five real wastewaters effluents. Furthermore, two models based on the kinetic and the water matrices parameters for ASs degradation in wastewater were compared. Finally, the tentative pathways of ASs degradations by UV/PS were proposed. Also, toxicity evaluation showed that ASs after UV/PS treatment enhanced the toxicity on C. carpio liver, and prolongation of treatment time and recovery in fresh water can reduce the toxicity on C. carpio.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Fotólise , Edulcorantes , Raios Ultravioleta , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134160, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639548

RESUMO

The widespread use of antibiotics has accelerated the development of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are now recognized as emerging environmental contaminants that pose a high risk to public health. In this study, simultaneous antibiotic and ARGs removal and bioelectricity generation was explored in a microbial electro-Fenton system using erythromycin (ERY) as a model antibiotic compound. The results showed that ERY could be degraded, with an average removal efficiency of 88.73% in 48 h, and the average removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in the microbial electro-Fenton with 50 µg L-1 ERY reached 86.84% in 48 h, which was lower than that in the control group (89.11%). The produced ARGs were analyzed and degraded in a cathode chamber. The quantity of ermB was significantly reduced, with log removal reaching a value of 1.96. More importantly, all erm genes (ermB, ermC, ermG) showed a tendency to be degraded. Furthermore, the maximum power density obtained with respect to the electrode area was 0.193 W m-2 when ERY was added, corresponding to a current density of 0.583 A m-2 (external resistor = 1000 Ω), which was 14% larger than that of the control group (0.169 W m-2). The results of this study demonstrate the potential of microbial electro-Fenton for ERY and ARGs removal.

7.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 80, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeker's yellow tail (Xenocypris davidi Bleeker, YT) and topmouth culter (Culter alburnus Basilewsky, TC) are both famous and important economic freshwater fish in China. YT, a kind of omnivorous fish, has strong resistance. TC, a kind of carnivorous fish, has high-quality meat but poor resistance. Distant hybridization can integrate the advantages of both parents. There has been no previous report regarding hybrid fish derived from female YT × male TC. It is expected that hybridization of these two kinds of fish will result in F1 hybrids with improved characteristics, such as faster growth rate, stronger resistance, and high-quality meat, which are of great significance in fish genetic breeding. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the main biological characteristics of diploid hybrid fish derived from female YT × male TC. The hybrids had an intermediate number of upper lateral line scales between those for YT and TC. The hybrids were diploids with 48 chromosomes and had the same karyotype formula as their parents. The hybrids generated variations in 5S rDNA (designated class IV: 212 bp) and lost specific 5S rDNA derived from the maternal parent (designated class II: 221 bp), which might be related to hybridization. In terms of reproductive traits, all the tested female hybrids exhibited normal gonadal development, and the two-year-old F1 females produced mature eggs. However, all the tested testes of the male hybrids could not produce mature sperm. It is possible that the hybrid lineage will be established by back-crossing the fertile female hybrids and their parents. CONCLUSIONS: Obtaining a fertile female hybrid fish made the creation of a new type of fish possible, which was significant in fish genetic breeding.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 697: 134088, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487591

RESUMO

Achieving both high yield and high nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) simultaneously is a current research hotspot in crop production. To investigate approaches for achieving high yield and NUE, field experiments using N fertilizer rates of 0, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 kg N ha-1 were conducted to study relationships between yield, N uptake and N efficiency during three wheat growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 in three experimental sites (Shangshui, Kaifeng and Wenxian) in the Huang-Huai Plain. Yield, biomass and N concentrations of plants and soil were determined. The results indicated that increased N application would affect soil N residue and increase N2O emission, suitable N application rate (N240-N268) contributed to maintaining soil fertility and reducing N2O emission for achieving high yield, high NUE and low N2O emission. High plant N accumulation (PNA) during jointing to anthesis had the best correlation coefficient with yield and NUE compared to other growth stages, which contributed to achieving high yield and NUE simultaneously. The dry matter produced by a unit of N was defined as N productivity, such as plant N net phase productivity (PNPn) and leaf N productivity (LNP). High PNPn during jointing to anthesis was significantly related to both yield and NUE. The LNP indicator (i.e. photosynthetic N use efficiency, PNUE) in the flag showed significant correlation with both yield and NUE after booting under high PNA levels. These results suggest that PNPn and PNUE could combine high yield and high NUE under high PNA conditions. Besides, to match soil N supply to plant N demand, optimum soil nitrate N accumulation and alkali-hydrolysable N (AHN) content ranges were determined. This study provides a theoretical basis to achieve high yield, high NUE and low N2O emission for N management in wheat field production.

9.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(10): 875-883, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503177

RESUMO

A survey was carried among 412 participants to examine mental health literacy in rural China. Two vignettes depicting schizophrenia and depression were presented, and participants were asked to reflect on their recognition and the beliefs about the causes, consequences, and the treatments of the conditions described. Results show that the recognition rates for schizophrenia and depression were 76.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Participants believed work stress, life stress, and encountered frustration were the most important reasons for mental illnesses. Participants believed that mental illnesses could cause many severe consequences to patients, such as emotional pain, bringing pain to the family, deterioration of interpersonal relationships, and destroying the individual's life. The participants were more likely to recommend nonmedical treatment for the patients in the two vignettes. Participants having a higher educational level were more likely to be aware of the consequences of the mental illnesses, and they also had a more positive attitude toward seeking professional help.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17103, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess whether the ultrasound (US) is a reliable approach in detecting lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients without symptoms of DVT. METHODS: The research team performed a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, and Web of Science without language or date restrictions. Full-text reports on prospective diagnostic studies involve the detection of lower-limb proximal and distal DVT in patients without symptoms of DVT using US and venography. A meta-analysis was performed using Meta-DiSc (version 1.4), providing the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios of the detection accuracy of US. There were 4 different classes of subgroup analysis-the class of patients stratified by location of US exam (proximal, distal, whole leg), the class stratified by technique (color/doppler, compression, both modalities), the class stratified by kind of surgery (orthopedic, otherwise hospitalized) and the class stratified by era of publishing (1980s, 1990s, 2000s). The study quality and the risk of bias were evaluated using QUADAS-2, with heterogeneity was assessed and quantified by the Q score and I statistics, respectively. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 26 articles containing 41 individual studies with a total of 3951 patients without symptoms of DVT. Using venography as the gold standard, US for proximal DVT had a pooled sensitivity of 59% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 51%-66%) and a pooled specificity of 98% (95% CI = 97%-98%), US for distal DVT had a poor sensitivity of 43% (95% CI = 38%-48%) and a pooled specificity of 95% (95% CI = 94%-96%), US for whole-leg DVT had a pooled sensitivity of 59% (95% CI = 54%-64%) and a pooled specificity of 95% (95% CI = 94%-96%), US for post-major orthopedic surgery patients had a pooled sensitivity of 52% (95% CI = 49%-55%), and US for other types of patients had a pooled sensitivity of 58% (95% CI = 43%-72%). Pure compression technique for DVT had a poor sensitivity of 43% (95% CI = 39%-48%), pure color/doppler technique for DVT had a pooled sensitivity of 58% (95% CI = 53%-63%), compression and color/doppler technique for DVT had a pooled sensitivity of 61% (95% CI = 48%-74%). CONCLUSION: US could be a useful tool for diagnosing DVT, but it has a lower positive rate and a higher false negative rate. The rate of missed diagnosis of lower-limb DVT by US amounts to 50% or so in the patients without symptoms of DVT. The negative results do not preclude the possibility of DVT and if appropriate heightened surveillance and continued monitoring or try a more accurate inspection method is warranted. The whole leg evaluation and color/doppler technique should be the preferred approach.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Ultrassonografia/normas , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 6569-6583, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460868

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association analyses show an association between ADAMTS7 variations and coronary risk. However, the link between ADAMTS7 variability and ischaemic stroke (IS) has yet to be determined. This study evaluated ADAMTS7 variants with respect to the risk of IS. Genetic association analyses were performed in two independent case-control cohorts with 1279 patients with IS and 1268 age-matched healthy controls. Four variant genotypes of the ADAMTS7 gene were identified using the Multiplex SNaPshot assay. The rs3825807, rs11634042, and rs7173743 variants of ADAMTS7 were related to lower IS risk in both initial and replication cohort. The G-T-T-C and G-T-C-C haplotypes are significantly less prevalent in the IS group than in the control group. Further stratification according to IS subtypes indicated that carriers with the variant alleles of the rs3825807, rs11634042 and rs7173743 variants of ADAMTS7conferred a lower risk of developing large-artery atherosclerosis stroke subtype. Also, the mutated rs3825807 G allele, as well as the mutated rs11634042 T allele of ADAMTS7, are linked to a significant reduction of ADAMTS7 in patients with IS. Our findings confirm the role of ADAMTS7 in the pathophysiology of IS, with potentially significant implications for the prevention, treatment, and development of novel therapies for IS.

12.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 117, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In theory, proximal gastrectomy with double-tract reconstruction (PG-DT) was superior to total gastrectomy (TG) in hematologic and nutritional outcomes. However, its clinical effects in proximal early gastric cancer (EGC) have been controversial. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double-tract reconstruction (LPG-DT) for proximal EGC. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for articles published before December of 2018 in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, Medline, and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: The results showed no significant difference in the anastomotic stenosis (OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.33-2.50, p = 0.85) and reflux esophagitis (OR = 1.87, 95%CI = 0.62-5.65, p = 0.27) between LPG-DT and laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). The vitamin B12 supplementation rate in the LPG-DT group was lower than the LTG group (OR = 0.06, 95%Cl = 0.01-0.59, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Due to comparable clinical effect, PG-DT is comparable to TG for patients with proximal EGC. In addition, LPG-DT not only appears superior to TG in terms of preventing vitamin B12 deficiency, but also does not increase the risk of anastomotic stricture and reflux esophagitis.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Esofagite Péptica/etiologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/prevenção & controle
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388105

RESUMO

Genetic studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have revealed multigene variations that converge on synaptic dysfunction. DOCK4, a gene at 7q31.1 that encodes the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dock4, has been identified as a risk gene for ASD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether and how Dock4 disruption leads to ASD features through a synaptic mechanism remain unexplored. We generated and characterized a line of Dock4 knockout (KO) mice, which intriguingly displayed a series of ASD-like behaviors, including impaired social novelty preference, abnormal isolation-induced pup vocalizations, elevated anxiety, and perturbed object and spatial learning. Mice with conditional deletion of Dock4 in hippocampal CA1 recapitulated social preference deficit in KO mice. Examination in CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that excitatory synaptic transmission was drastically attenuated in KO mice, accompanied by decreased spine density and synaptic content of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)- and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)-type glutamate receptors. Moreover, Dock4 deficiency markedly reduced Rac1 activity in the hippocampus, which resulted in downregulation of global protein synthesis and diminished expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. Notably, Rac1 replenishment in the hippocampal CA1 of Dock4 KO mice restored excitatory synaptic transmission and corrected impaired social deficits in these mice, and pharmacological activation of NMDA receptors also restored social novelty preference in Dock4 KO mice. Together, our findings uncover a previously unrecognized Dock4-Rac1-dependent mechanism involved in regulating hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission and social behavior.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 518(1): 148-153, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416614

RESUMO

AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24) and AGAMOUS-LIKE 18 (AGL18) are two vital MIKC-type transcription factors to mediate flowering transition in plants. Previous studies indicated that AGL24 acted as an activator but AGL18 served as an inhibitor from vegetative to reproductive growth. However, it is still elusive whether and how AGL24 directly interacts with AGL18 protein. In this study, three homologues of AGL18 (AGL18-1, AGL18-2 and AGL18-3) and AGL24 were cloned in Brassica juncea. Three AGL18 homologues and AGL24 decoded MIKC-type proteins, which were most highly conserved in the M and C domains. AGL18-1, AGL18-2 and AGL18-3 were quite different in the tertiary protein structures. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that AGL18-1, -2 and -3 interacted with AGL24 directly and their K domains of AGL18s were sufficient for their protein interactions. Additionally, mutations in the K domains of AGL18s were costructed and protein interactions were further detected. The results indicated that AGL18-2L113F, AGL18-2E116H, AGL18-2L118F, AGL18-2K165T, AGL18-3L114P, AGL18-3E117G, AGL18-3R118G and AGL18-3L119P still interacted with AGL24. However, interestingly, AGL24 interacted with AGL18-1L114V and AGL18-1E117V but not AGL18-1K190I. It suggested that the 190th amino acid residue of AGL18-1 played crucial roles in mediating the protein dimerization of AGL18-1/AGL24 in flowering time control.

15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 371, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propamocarb (PM) is one of the main pesticides used for controlling cucumber downy mildew. However, due to its volatility and internal absorption, PM can easily form pesticide residues on cucumber fruits that seriously endanger human health and pollute the environment. The breeding of new cucumber varieties with a low abundance of PM residues via genetic methods constitutes an effective strategy for reducing pesticide residues and improving cucumber safety and quality. To help elucidate the molecular mechanism resulting in a low PM residue abundance in cucumber, we used the cucumber cultivar 'D0351' (which has the lowest PM residue content) as the test material and identified genes related to low PM residue abundance through high-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-Seq). RESULTS: CsMAPEG was constitutively expressed and showed both varietal and organizational differences. This gene was strongly expressed in 'D0351'. The expression levels of CsMAPEG in different cucumber tissues under PM stress were as follows: fruit>leaf>stem>root. CsMAPEG can respond to salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA) and Corynespora cassiicola Wei (Cor) stress and thus plays an important regulatory role in plant responses to abiotic and biological stresses. The PM residue abundance in the fruits of CsMAPEG-overexpressing plants was lower than those found in antisense CsMAPEG plants and wild-type plants at all tested time points. The results revealed that CsMAPEG played a positive role in reducing the PM residue abundance. A CsMAPEG sense construct increased the contents of SOD, POD and GST in cucumber fruits, enhanced the degradation and metabolism of PM in cucumber, and thus effectively reduced the pesticide residue abundance in cucumber fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The expression patterns of CsMAPEG in cucumber cultivars with high and low pesticide residue abundances and a transgenic verification analysis showed that CsMAPEG can actively respond to PM stress and effectively reduce the PM residue abundance in cucumber fruits. The results of this study will help researchers further elucidate the mechanism responsible for a low PM residue abundance in cucumber and lay a foundation for the breeding of new agricultural cucumber varieties with low pesticide residue abundances.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/farmacologia , Cucumis sativus/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Genes de Plantas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Clonagem Molecular , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/enzimologia , Cucumis sativus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transformação Genética
16.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460799

RESUMO

Background: This paper purports to use a meta-analysis to compare the postoperative quality of life (QoL) and nutritional status of between Roux-en-Y (R-Y) and Billroth-I (B-I) reconstruction after distal gastrectomy. Methods: For this study, the following databases were searched for articles published from inception until December 2018: PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library. Results: A total of 13 eligible studies, covering 3645 patients, were selected for a meta-analysis. The analysis showed that compared with B-I group in term of short-term outcomes, patients undergoing R-Y reconstruction did not only have significantly better physiological function (P = 0.02), but had significantly less pain (P = 0.04). In the long-term outcomes, the dyspnea and constipation in the B-I group were worse than that in the R-Y group (P = 0.004; P = 0.04, respectively). Patients in the B-I group had higher cholesterol than those in the R-Y group at 5 years postoperatively (P = 0.003). There were no significant differences in termof other nutritional indicators including total protein, cholesterol, albumin, hemoglobin and weight in short-term outcomes. Conclusions: The final conclusion was that R-Y may be superior to the B-I reconstruction in some aspects of QoL. Besides, R-Y reconstruction could reduce the patient's cholesterol level for a long time. For the short-term outcomes, there were no significant differences in other common nutritional indicators.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1012-1022, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280147

RESUMO

The etiology of depression is not known, it is thought that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to the disease. Results of our previous research have shown that nonylphenol (NP), a well-known EDC, has neurotoxic effects, however, whether NP can induce depressive behavior by affecting synaptic plasticity has not yet been clearly elucidated. The depressive behavior induced by subchronic exposure to NP and its effect on the neuronal synaptic plasticity in rats are dynamically observed. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (C, corn oil), NP group (NP, 4 mg/kg), and depression model group (D, corticosterone 20 mg/kg). There were 8 rats in each group. The depressive behavior of rats was tested by sucrose preference test, open-field test, and forced swimming test once a month for 3 months. The serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and corticosterone were detected by ELISA assay, and cellular morphological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The number of nerve cells, the length of dendrites, and the density of dendritic spines were observed by Golgi staining, and the synaptic cleft width, the postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness, and the synaptic interface curvature were observed by transmission electron microscope. Compared with the control group, the consumption of sucrose solution decreased in the NP group at the 2nd and 3rd month compared to the 1st month (F = 9.887, P = 0.002). The number of central square entries, the central square duration, and the total distance of movement were all decreased, and the decreasing degrees at the 3rd month were greater than those at the 1st month (F = 21.191, P < 0.001; F = 9.836, P = 0.002). The time of immobility for the NP group at the 1st month was higher than that in the control group (F = 6.912, P = 0.002). The expression of BDNF in the NP-treated group was higher than the control, while the expression of corticosterone in the NP-treated group was lower than the control. In the NP group, the cytoplasm of nerve cells contracted and appeared disordered. The neuron arrangement was disordered, and the number of cells, the length of the apex, the length of the basal dendrites, and the dendritic spine density were all lower in the NP group than those in the control group. The PSD thickness, the synaptic cleft width, and synaptic interface curvatures were all decreased in the NP group when compared to the control group. Subchronic exposure to 4 mg/kg NP led to depressive behavior in rats, and the depressive behavior and alterations in synaptic plasticity were more obvious with longer exposure time.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 138: 536-545, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330210

RESUMO

Recently, rare sugars have caused extensively attention due to their beneficial physiological functions and potential applications in food systems and medical fields. Ketose 3-epimerase (KEase) can catalyze reversibly the epimerization between ketoses which is the pivotal enzyme in Izumoring strategy and an effective tool for biological production of rare sugars. In this work, a KEase from Caballeronia fortuita was recombined and characterized as a d-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTEase, EC 5.1.3.31). The recombinant DTEase displayed the highest activity at pH7.5 and 65°C in the presence of Co2+. The recombinant DTEase displayed the relatively high thermostability and the half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 7.13, 5.13, and 1.05h at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. The recombinant DTEase had a wide substrate specificity and the specific activities towards d-tagatose, d-allulose, d-fructose and l-sorbose were measured to be 801±2.3, 450±2.7, 270±1.5 and 55±1.8Umg-1, respectively. So far, the recombinant DTEase exhibited the highest specific activity towards d-tagatose compared with other reported KEases. Furthermore, the recombinant DTEase could produce 314.2g/L d-sorbose from 500g/L d-tagatose and 147.0g/L d-allulose from 500g/L d-fructose, with a transformation ratio of 68.2% and 29.4%, respectively. The recombinant DTEase could realize effectively the transformations between various ketoses and was a prominent candidate for production of rare sugars.

19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(18): 7703-7717, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359103

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, are among the most important targets against which many small molecule drugs have been developed. However, only two antibody drugs targeting GPCRs have been approved for clinical use although many antibody drugs against non-GPCR protein targets have been successfully developed for various disease indications. One of the challenges for developing anti-GPCR drugs is the high difficulty to perform affinity maturation due to their insolubility in aqueous solutions. To address this issue, CHO cell display libraries of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) and full-length antibodies were maturated directly against vesicle probes prepared from CHO cells displaying the endothelin A receptor (ETaR) GPCR. The probe in the vesicle form ensures the physiological conformation and functional activity of the protein and avoids issues with membrane protein insolubility. The size of the vesicle had a clear effect on protein-ligand interaction; we used small-sized vesicles with low expression levels of GPCRs for the affinity maturation. Four rounds of affinity maturation combining vesicles as probes with the CHO cell display platform improved affinity by 13.58-fold for scFvs and 5.05-fold for full-length antibodies. We expect that this method will not only be used for the affinity maturation of antibodies against GPCRs but will also be used to mature antibodies for other types of proteins where the conformation/activity of which depends on the proper membrane environment.

20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 1889-1900, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213776

RESUMO

Background: Liver fibrosis occurs due to chronic liver disease due to multiple pathophysiological causes. The main causes for this condition are chronic alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and infection due to hepatitis C virus. Currently, there is more and more information available about the molecular as well as cellular mechanisms, which play a role in the advancement of liver fibrosis. However, there is still no effective therapy against it. Purpose: In order to find an effective treatment against liver fibrosis, our study explored whether salvianolic acid A (SA-A), a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from the plant Danshen, could effectively inhibit the liver fibrosis, which is induced by CCl4 in vivo. Methods: The effects of SA-A were evaluated by assessing the parameters related to liver fibrosis such as body weight, histological changes, and biochemical parameters. Thereafter, the related protein or gene levels of P13K/AKT/mTOR, Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3/cleaved caspase-3 signaling pathways were determined by western blotting, real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry staining. Results: According to the results of our study, SA-A could reduce liver fibrosis by inhibiting liver function, liver fibrosis index, collagen deposition, and improving the degree of liver fibrosis in rats. Mechanistically, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascade was inhibited by SA-A to prevent the stimulation of hepatic stellate cell, as well as the synthesis of extracellular matrix, and regulated Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3/cleaved caspase-3 signaling pathways to prevent hepatocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: The novel findings of this study suggested that SA-A could reduce liver fibrosis and the molecular mechanisms behind it are closely associated with the regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3/cleaved caspase-3 signaling pathways.

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