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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631648

RESUMO

Objectives: This study evaluated the long-term cost-effectiveness of ultrasound screening for thyroid cancer compared with non-screening in asymptomatic adults. Methods: Applying a Markov decision-tree model with effectiveness and cost data from literature, we compared the long-term cost-effectiveness of the two strategies: ultrasound screening and non-screening for thyroid cancer. A one-way sensitivity analysis and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to verify the stability of model results. Results: The cumulative cost of screening for thyroid cancer was $18,819.24, with 18.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), whereas the cumulative cost of non-screening was $15,864.28, with 18.71 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $106,947.50/QALY greatly exceeded the threshold of $50,000. The result of the one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the utility values of benign nodules and utility of health after thyroid cancer surgery would affect the results. Conclusions: Ultrasound screening for thyroid cancer has no obvious advantage in terms of cost-effectiveness compared with non-screening. The optimized thyroid screening strategy for a specific population is essential.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 706914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484120

RESUMO

Background: Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have proven to be effective in improving glycemic control and lowering body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the efficacy and safety on weight loss in adults with overweight or obesity but not diabetes remain unclear. In this article, we aimed to identify the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in adults with overweight or obesity but not diabetes in randomized controlled studies (RCTs). Methods: We searched for RCTs concerning SGLT2 inhibitors in adults with overweight or obesity but not diabetes in Medline (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid SP), and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2021. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight and body mass index (BMI). Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to test the reliability of the primary outcomes. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5.3 and pooled data to calculate the mean differences (MDs) or the relative risk (RR). We assessed the evidence quality of evidence of outcomes according to GRADE. Results: Six randomized controlled trials involving 872 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the placebo group, the SGLT2 inhibitors group had statistically significant reductions in absolute changes in body weight (MD: -1.42 kg, 95% CI: -1.70 to -1.14; P<0.00001) and BMI (MD: -0.47 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.63 to -0.31; P<0.00001) in SGLT2 inhibitors group, as indicated by TSA. However, no significant benefits were observed in the SGLT2 inhibitors group in terms of waist circumference (MD: -1.34 cm, 95%CI: -2.75 to 0.07; Z=1.86, P=0.06) compared with the placebo group. The GRADE profiles indicated very low-quality evidence for body weight change and low-quality evidence for BMI change. SGLT2 inhibitors were generally safe and well tolerated. Conclusion: SGLT2 inhibitors could be used in selected adults with overweight and obesity but not diabetes if they are at low risk of genital infection and urinary infection. Further studies are warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in adults with overweight or obesity but not diabetes for long-term weight management. Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/#loginpage], identifier [PROSPERO, CRD42021252931].

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456878

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes is prevalent worldwide including hospitalized patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This retrospective study investigated the association of diabetes with in-hospital adverse events in patients with HFrEF. Methods: We analyzed data from electronic medical records of patients hospitalized with HFrEF in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 1, 2011, to September 30, 2018. Propensity score matching balances the baseline characteristics between patients with and without diabetes. Logistic and Poisson regressions investigated the association of diabetes with risks of intubation, cardiogenic shock, acute kidney injury (AKI), intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death during hospitalization, and length of ICU and hospital stay in the matched cases. Results: Among 6,022 eligible patients (including 1,998 with diabetes), 1,930 patient pairs with and without diabetes were included by propensity score matching. Patients with diabetes had a significantly increased risk of intubation (odds ratio [OR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25-3.22; P<0.001), cardiogenic shock (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.72-2.35; P<0.001), AKI at any stage (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.44-1.94; P<0.001), ICU admission (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.65-2.15; P<0.001), and death (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 3.06-6.02; P<0.001) during hospitalization. Patients with diabetes had longer ICU (median difference, 1.47 days; 95% CI, 0.96-2.08; P<0.001) and hospital stay (2.20 days; 95% CI, 1.43-2.86; P<0.001) than those without diabetes. There were potential subgroup effects by age and by hypertension, and CKD status on the association of diabetes with risk of AKI at any stage; and subgroup effects by sex and CKD status on the association of diabetes with risk of intubation. The increase in length of hospital stay was larger in patients without hypertension than those with hypertension. Conclusions: Among patients with HFrEF, those with diabetes have a worse prognosis, including a higher risk of in-hospital intubation, cardiogenic shock, AKI, ICU admission and death during hospitalization, and longer ICU and hospital stay.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049130, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess values, preferences and burden of treatment that patients with type 2 diabetes consider when initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) compared with other glucose-lowering options. METHODS: Paired reviewers independently included studies reporting quantitative or qualitative methods to assess values, preferences and burden of treatment reported by patients with type 2 diabetes regarding the initiation of GLP-1 RA or SGLT-2i over other alternatives. A systematic search in MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until May 2020 was performed by an experienced librarian. Risk of bias was assessed with a specifically designed tool for values and preferences studies. RESULTS: 17 studies (7296 patients) proved eligible. Studies fulfilling criteria for SGLT-2i were not identified. Five studies (2662 patients) evaluated preferences for GLP-1 RA compared with other glucose-lowering medications. 12 studies (4634 patients) evaluated preferences between, at least, two kinds of GLP-1 RA or their injection devices based on the following attributes: efficacy, dose, application frequency, device characteristics. Among studies comparing GLP-1 RA to other glucose-lowering medications, some preferences were observed for dypeptil peptidase-4 inhibitors compared with once daily liraglutide. Comparing different attributes of GLP-1 RA drugs and devices, cardiovascular risk reduction, glucose lowering potential, once weekly and simple administered regimens were the most preferred. CONCLUSIONS: As no evidence for preferences on SGLT-2i was available, only preferences for GLP-1 RA were assessed; however, evidence is still limited for the latter. Studies comparing preferences for GLP1-RA to other glucose-lowering alternatives only included twice daily or once daily injection regimens of GLP-1 RA drugs. According to our findings, once weekly alternatives are widely preferred than the formers. The extent to which patients with type 2 diabetes value reduced adverse cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, weighed benefits against harms and burden of treatment is limited and with very low certainty. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020159284.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
5.
BMJ ; 373: n1091, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975892

RESUMO

CLINICAL QUESTION: What are the benefits and harms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists when added to usual care (lifestyle interventions and/or other diabetes drugs) in adults with type 2 diabetes at different risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes? CURRENT PRACTICE: Clinical decisions about treatment of type 2 diabetes have been led by glycaemic control for decades. SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists are traditionally used in people with elevated glucose level after metformin treatment. This has changed through trials demonstrating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) benefits independent of medications' glucose-lowering potential. RECOMMENDATIONS: The guideline panel issued risk-stratified recommendations concerning the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists in adults with type 2 diabetes• Three or fewer cardiovascular risk factors without established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation against starting SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists.• More than three cardiovascular risk factors without established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and weak against starting GLP-1 receptor agonists.• Established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists.• Established CVD and CKD: Strong recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and weak recommendation for starting GLP-1 receptor agonists.• For those committed to further reducing their risk for CVD and CKD outcomes: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors rather than GLP-1 receptor agonists. HOW THIS GUIDELINE WAS CREATED: An international panel including patients, clinicians, and methodologists created these recommendations following standards for trustworthy guidelines and using the GRADE approach. The panel applied an individual patient perspective. THE EVIDENCE: A linked systematic review and network meta-analysis (764 randomised trials included 421 346 participants) of benefits and harms found that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists generally reduce overall death, and incidence of myocardial infarctions, and end-stage kidney disease or kidney failure (moderate to high certainty evidence). These medications exert different effects on stroke, hospitalisations for heart failure, and key adverse events in different subgroups. Absolute effects of benefit varied widely based on patients' individual risk (for example, from five fewer deaths in the lowest risk to 48 fewer deaths in the highest risk, for 1000 patients treated over five years). A prognosis review identified 14 eligible risk prediction models, one of which (RECODe) informed most baseline risk estimates in evidence summaries to underpin the risk-stratified recommendations. Concerning patients' values and preferences, the recommendations were supported by evidence from a systematic review of published literature, a patient focus group study, a practical issues summary, and a guideline panel survey. UNDERSTANDING THE RECOMMENDATION: We stratified the recommendations by the levels of risk for CVD and CKD and systematically considered the balance of benefits, harms, other considerations, and practical issues for each risk group. The strong recommendation for SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with CVD and CKD reflects what the panel considered to be a clear benefit. For all other adults with type 2 diabetes, the weak recommendations reflect what the panel considered to be a finer balance between benefits, harms, and burdens of treatment options. Clinicians using the guideline can identify their patient's individual risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes using credible risk calculators such as RECODe. Interactive evidence summaries and decision aids may support well informed treatment choices, including shared decision making.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Humanos , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco
6.
Heart ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To inform a clinical practice guideline (BMJ Rapid Recommendations) considering sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes, we summarised the available evidence regarding the performance of validated risk models on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in these patients. METHODS: We systematically searched bibliographic databases in January 2020 to identify observational studies evaluating risk models for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, heart failure (HF) hospitalisations, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic stroke in ambulatory adults with type 2 diabetes. Using a random effects model, we pooled discrimination measures for each model and outcome, separately, and descriptively summarised calibration plots, when available. We used the Prediction Model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool to assess risk of bias of each included study and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to evaluate our certainty in the evidence. RESULTS: Of 22 589 publications identified, 15 observational studies reporting on seven risk models proved eligible. Among the seven models with >1 validation cohort, the Risk Equations for Complications of Type 2 Diabetes (RECODe) had the best calibration in primary studies and the highest pooled discrimination measures for the following outcomes: all-cause mortality (C-statistics 0.75, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.80; high certainty), cardiovascular mortality (0.79, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.84; low certainty), ESKD (0.73, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.94; low certainty), MI (0.72, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.74; moderate certainty) and stroke (0.71, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.74; moderate certainty). This model does not, however, predict risk of HF hospitalisations. CONCLUSION: Of available risk models, RECODe proved to have satisfactory calibration in primary validation studies and acceptable discrimination superior to other models, though with high risk of bias in most primary studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020168351.

7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1317-1323, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) changed the therapeutic strategy of guidelines for type 2 diabetes. We compared the characteristics of patients from real-world hospital settings with those of participants in recent pragmatic randomized trials. METHODS: This electronic medical record (EMR)-based retrospective observational study investigated the data of patients with diabetes from inpatient and outpatient settings in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2019. We identified patients meeting the inclusion criteria of a pragmatic randomized trial (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) based on EMRs and compared their baseline characteristics with those of the trial participants. The cutoff for the clinical significance of each characteristic was set as its minimal clinically important difference based on expert consultation. RESULTS: We included 48,257 inpatients and 36,857 outpatients with diabetes and found that 8389 (17.4%) inpatients and 2646 (7.2%) outpatients met the inclusion criteria for the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. Compared with the trial population, the real-world inpatients meeting the eligibility criteria of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME had similar age, blood pressure, and lipid profiles but comprised of fewer males, metformin users, anti-hypertensive drug users, and aspirin users, and had a lower body mass index. The group of outpatients meeting the eligibility criteria had fewer males, similar age, fewer metformin users, fewer insulin users, fewer anti-hypertensive drug users, and fewer aspirin users compared with the trial population. CONCLUSIONS: The trial population in EMPA-REG OUTCOME represents only a small portion of patients with diabetes from the inpatient and outpatient departments of a Chinese tertiary medical center. Evidence localization in different clinical settings and validation are essential to enabling extrapolation of the results from CVOTs in patients with diabetes to Chinese clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Canagliflozina , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, and validate the association in an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. METHODS: We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, started in 2011-2012 with follow ups in 2013-2014 and 2015-2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regressions were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between hs-CRP level and incident T2DM. An updated meta-analysis was conducted to combine our estimates with those in previous prospective studies. RESULTS: Included in the analyses were 7985 participants (mean age: 59.38 years; men: 46.73%). Higher hs-CRP was associated with increased risk of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.64 for comparing extreme quartiles). The association was stronger in participants with body mass index (BMI) of 24.0 kg/m2 or higher than those with a BMI lower than 24.0 kg/m2 (p for interaction = 0.038). In a meta-analysis of 28 cohorts, 2 case-cohort, and 6 nested case-control studies among 125,356 participants with 10,759 cases, the pooled relative risk for T2DM was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.60, 1.96) for the highest versus lowest level of hs-CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-CRP was associated with higher risk of T2DM in middle-aged and elderly Chinese, and this association was confirmed by an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. Our findings highlight the role of elevated hs-CRP in the development of T2DM.

9.
BMJ ; 372: m4573, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes at varying cardiovascular and renal risk. DESIGN: Network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to 11 August 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists with placebo, standard care, or other glucose lowering treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes with follow up of 24 weeks or longer. Studies were screened independently by two reviewers for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequentist random effects network meta-analysis was carried out and GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) used to assess evidence certainty. Results included estimated absolute effects of treatment per 1000 patients treated for five years for patients at very low risk (no cardiovascular risk factors), low risk (three or more cardiovascular risk factors), moderate risk (cardiovascular disease), high risk (chronic kidney disease), and very high risk (cardiovascular disease and kidney disease). A guideline panel provided oversight of the systematic review. RESULTS: 764 trials including 421 346 patients proved eligible. All results refer to the addition of SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists to existing diabetes treatment. Both classes of drugs lowered all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and kidney failure (high certainty evidence). Notable differences were found between the two agents: SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced mortality and admission to hospital for heart failure more than GLP-1 receptor agonists, and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced non-fatal stroke more than SGLT-2 inhibitors (which appeared to have no effect). SGLT-2 inhibitors caused genital infection (high certainty), whereas GLP-1 receptor agonists might cause severe gastrointestinal events (low certainty). Low certainty evidence suggested that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists might lower body weight. Little or no evidence was found for the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists on limb amputation, blindness, eye disease, neuropathic pain, or health related quality of life. The absolute benefits of these drugs vary substantially across patients from low to very high risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes (eg, SGLT-2 inhibitors resulted in 5 to 48 fewer deaths in 1000 patients over five years; see interactive decision support tool (https://magicevidence.org/match-it/200820dist/#!/) for all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced cardiovascular and renal outcomes, with notable differences in benefits and harms. Absolute benefits are determined by individual risk profiles of patients, with clear implications for clinical practice, as reflected in the BMJ Rapid Recommendations directly informed by this systematic review. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019153180.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
10.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(2): 182-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between blood glucose levels and mortality in patients with sepsis. METHODS: Medline and EMBASE were searched from inception to April 8, 2018. Cohort studies or case-control studies reported the association between blood glucose and mortality in patients with sepsis were selected. Study characteristics, baseline characteristics, definition of hyperglycemia, and outcomes of interest were extracted. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to assess the effect of blood glucose level on mortality. We also conducted meta-analysis for patients with or without diabetes separately. RESULTS: Ten cohort studies involving 26 429 patients were included, of which 5 were prospective studies and 5 retrospective studies. Dose-response analysis showed that the effect of blood glucose on mortality may differ in patients with versus without diabetes. There was a U-shaped relationship for patients with diabetes and a J-shaped relationship for patients without diabetes, with blood glucose at 145 to 155 mg/dL corresponding to lowest mortality both in patients with and without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggested U-shaped relationship between blood glucose and mortality in all patients irrespective of their diabetes status. Diabetic patients with blood glucose below 145 mg/dL may have poorer prognosis compared to patients without established diabetes.

11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 215-220, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the associations between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C) with structural and functional early atherosclerosis vascular changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This hospital-based cross-sectional study included 814 patients with T2DM. Structural atherosclerotic parameters included carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaque, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was considered as the functional parameter. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were preformed to identify the associations between LDL-C/HDL-C with atherosclerotic parameters. RESULTS: Increased LDL-C/HDL-C corresponded with the increase levels in CIMT and percentage of carotid plaque. LDL-C/HDL-C was found to be positively associated with CIMT both in female and male patients in unadjusted model. This association persisted in male patients but not in female patients after adjusted for other related factors. No association was found between LDL-C/HDL-C with CAVI both in female and male patients. LDL-C/HDL-C was positively associated with the presence of carotid plaque in male patients. However, this association was not found in female patients. CONCLUSION: LDL-C/HDL-C was positively associated with CIMT and presence of carotid plaque though not with CAVI in male T2DM patients. However, these associations were not observed in female patients.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 13: 2533-2540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765032

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid dysfunction is associated with diabetes, but it is unclear if the thyroid hormone levels change in euthyroid adults with diabetes. Objective: To investigate the association between thyroid hormone levels and diabetes in euthyroid adults. Methods: Among the euthyroid adults who underwent health examination in West China Hospital of Sichuan University in 2016, patients with diabetes were identified according to the medical history, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c. Age and sex matched controls were identified from the population. The patients with diabetes group was further divided into two subgroups: patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) and with previously diagnosed diabetes (PDD). Independent t-test and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the difference in the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and the ratio of FT4/FT3 between groups. Results: We included 32,557 participants, 2,271 with diabetes. Compared to the adults without diabetes, the odds ratios (ORs) per one unit elevation of TSH, FT4, FT4/FT3 ratio and FT3 in patients with diabetes were 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-0.95], 1.11 (95% CI: 1.08-1.14), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.81-2.32) and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78-0.93), respectively. Compared to the NDD group, the ORs per one unit elevation of TSH, FT4, FT4/FT3 ratio and FT3 of the PDD group were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), 1.76 (95% CI: 1.49-2.08) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.92-1.12), respectively. Conclusion: In euthyroid adults, diabetes was associated with increased FT4/FT3 ratio, which is linked to the peripheral turnover of the thyroid hormones.

13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(9): 1619-1627, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364674

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of sodium-glucoseco-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to 13 June 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared SGLT2 inhibitors with control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Paired reviewers independently screened citations, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Peto's method was used as the primary approach to pool the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on DKA. Sensitivity analyses with the alternative effect measure (risk ratio) or pooling method (Mantel-Haenszel), the use of continuity correction of 0.5 for zero-event trials or a generalized linear mixed model were conducted. Six preplanned subgroup analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 39 RCTs were included, involving 60 580 patients and 85 DKA events. SGLT2 inhibitors were statistically associated with an increased risk of DKA versus control (SGLT2 inhibitors: 62/34 961 [0.18%] vs. control: 23/25 211 [0.09%], Peto odds ratio [OR] 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38 to 3.27, I2 = 8%; RD 1.7 more events, 95% CI 0.6 more to 3.4 more events per 1000 over 5 years; high-quality evidence). Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. The subgroup analyses by mean age (interaction P = 0 .02) and length of follow-up (interaction P = 0 .03) showed a larger relative effect among older patients (aged ≥60 years) and those with longer use of SGLT2 inhibitors (>52 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: High-quality evidence suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors may increase the risk of DKA in patients with type 2 diabetes. The apparent differences in treatment effects among patients of a different age or follow-up were probable, suggesting the advisability of caution in patients with long-term use of SGLT2 inhibitors or in older patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Cetoacidose Diabética , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Simportadores , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/induzido quimicamente , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/prevenção & controle , Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 157-165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021100

RESUMO

Background: For patients with inadequate control of cholesterol using moderate-dose statins in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), either doubling the dose of statins or adding ezetimibe should be considered. The cost-effectiveness of them is unknown in the Chinese context. The aim of this study is to compare the cost and effectiveness of the two regimens, and estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Methods: A Markov model of five health statuses were used to estimate long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of the two treatment regimens from the healthcare perspective. The effectiveness data used to calculate the transition probability was based on a previously published randomized trial. The utility data was gathered from literature and the costs were gathered from the electronic medical record system of West China Hospital in Chinese Yuan (CNY) in 2017 price. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted. Results: The ICER for ezetimibe plus moderate-dose rosuvastatin was 47,102.99 CNY per QALY for 20 years simulation, which did not reach the threshold of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of 59,660 CNY per QALY in 2017 in China. Non-CVD-related mortality and CVD-related mortality contributed most to the ICER. Conclusion: Adding ezetimibe to the moderate-dose statin in secondary prevention for CVD is cost-effective, compared with the high-dose statin in the Chinese context whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) was not inadequately controlled by moderate-dose statin alone.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Cadeias de Markov , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , China , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Ezetimiba/economia , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/economia
15.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(3): 339-347, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914329

RESUMO

Objectives: Limited evidence has suggested that cefoperazone-sulbactam causes coagulation disorders and bleeding.Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective study to compare patients receiving cefoperazone-sulbactam versus those treated with cefoperazone-tazobactam or ceftazidime. Propensity-score matching was used to explore whether treatment with cefoperazone-sulbactam increased the risk of prothrombin time (PT) prolongation, coagulation disorders, and bleeding, or decreased platelets (PLT).Results: The cohort included 23,242 patients. Among patients receiving cefoperazone-sulbactam, the risk of PT prolongation, coagulation disorders, decreased PLT, and bleeding was 5.3%, 9.2%, 15.7%, and 4.2%, respectively. Propensity-score matching analyses suggested that cefoperazone-sulbactam increased the risk of PT prolongation (aOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.61-3.18), coagulation disorders (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.43-2.30), and decreased PLT (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.72), but not increase bleeding (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 0.79-1.40) compared with ceftazidime. Patients receiving cefoperazone-sulbactam had higher risk of PT prolongation (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), coagulation disorders (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.21-1.95), but not decreased PLT (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.81-1.07) or bleeding (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87-1.42), compared with those receiving cefoperazone-tazobactam.Conclusion: Cefoperazone-sulbactam may be associated with a higher risk of PT prolongation and coagulation disorders compared with cefoperazone-tazobactam and ceftazidime.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/induzido quimicamente , Cefoperazona/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Sulbactam/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceftazidima/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Protrombina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tazobactam/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(2): 270-281, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802093

RESUMO

Pharmacotherapy towards hypercalcemia treatment mainly caused by osteoporosis and bone tumor is an effective method to regulate in vivo calcium equilibrium. As a clinical therapeutic peptide, salmon calcitonin (sCT) is considered as a quick-acting medicine but it is limited by the short half-life. To address this challenge, we designed an injectable thermo-sensitive hydrogel based on hydroxypropyl chitin (HPCH) and incorporated the complex of sCT and hyaluronic acid (HA) (sCT-HA) with high association efficiency up to 96.84 ± 7.25%. This composite hydrogel showed a tunable biodegradable property. In vitro sCT release profiles revealed that this hydrogel can achieve long-term sustained sCT release (28 days) with considerable structure stability. The cellular study illustrated outstanding compatibility and osteoconductive potential of this multi-component hydrogel according to the higher ALP activity (2.10-fold), calcium expression (2.30-fold) and extracellular calcium deposition (1.10-fold) compared to that of the sCT group. In vivo sCT release confirmed that this hydrogel system realized sustained sCT release and a continuous hypocalcemic effect for as long as 28 days, and there were no inflammation and immune responses according to the histological evaluations (H&E and IgG staining). These findings demonstrate that this osteoconductive hydrogel system can provide a promising method for therapy of bone related disease.


Assuntos
Calcitonina , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Hipercalcemia/tratamento farmacológico , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcitonina/farmacologia , Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Quitina/uso terapêutico , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 426-432, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between visit-to-visit HbA1c variability and cardiovascular events and microvascular complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients from Tayside and Fife in the Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration (SCI-DC) who were observable from the diagnosis of diabetes and had at least five HbA1c measurements before the outcomes were evaluated. We used the previously reported HbA1c variability score (HVS), calculated as the percentage of the number of changes in HbA1c >0.5% (5.5 mmol/mol) among all HbA1c measurements within an individual. The association between HVS and 10 outcomes was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We included 13,111-19,883 patients in the analyses of each outcome. The patients with HVS >60% were associated with elevated risks of all outcomes compared with the lowest quintile (for example, HVS >80 to ≤100 vs. HVS ≥0 to ≤20, hazard ratio 2.38 [95% CI 1.61-3.53] for major adverse cardiovascular events, 2.4 [1.72-3.33] for all-cause mortality, 2.4 [1.13-5.11] for atherosclerotic cardiovascular death, 2.63 [1.81-3.84] for coronary artery disease, 2.04 [1.12-3.73] for ischemic stroke, 3.23 [1.76-5.93] for heart failure, 7.4 [3.84-14.27] for diabetic retinopathy, 3.07 [2.23-4.22] for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 5.24 [2.61-10.49] for diabetic foot ulcer, and 3.49 [2.47-4.95] for new-onset chronic kidney disease). Four sensitivity analyses, including adjustment for time-weighted average HbA1c, confirmed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that higher HbA1c variability is associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and microvascular complications of diabetes independently of high HbA1c.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 622589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664710

RESUMO

Aims: Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and is a major health and economic burden in society. New drugs are urgently needed to treat MAFLD. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in patients with MAFLD. Method: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library database, and Web of Science since 1977. We selected all randomized controlled trials which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and evaluated the quality of evidence. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to assess all the primary and second outcomes. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials, including 396 patients, of which 265 patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the placebo or active agents group, the GLP-RA group showed a significant reduction in the liver fat content [weight mean difference (WMD) -3.17%, 95%CI -5.30 to -1.03, P < 0.0001], body weight (WMD -4.58 kg, 95%CI -8.07 to -1.10, P = 0.010), waist circumference (WMD -3.74 cm, 95%CI -6.73 to -0.74, P = 0.010), alanine aminotransferase (WMD -10.73 U/L, 95%CI -20.94 to -0.52, P = 0.04), γ- glutamyl transferase (WMD -12.25 U/L,95% -18.85 to -5.66, P = 0.0003, with I²=23%), fasting blood glucose (MD, -0.36 mmol/L; 95%CI, -0.69 to -0.03, P = 0.030), and hemoglobin A1c (WMD -0.36%, 95%CI -0.52 to -0.19, P < 0.0001). The reported adverse events were gastrointestinal complications with no serious adverse events, and most symptoms were relieved within 1-2 weeks after dose titration. Conclusion: GLP-RAs may improve liver injury and metabolic disorder in patients with MAFLD, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The benefits of GLP-RAs treatment outweigh the adverse effects of drugs in patients with MAFLD.


Assuntos
Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 566-570, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of American Urological Association symptom index (AUA-SI) score in female patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with neurogenic bladder. METHODS: This study included 289 female patients with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized in our hospital from July 2015 to July 2018. To each of them, residual urine volume (RUV) test, fundus test, and random urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) test were performed, and a questionnaire survey was conducted using AUA-SI scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of diabetic neurogenic bladder (DNB) in women with type 2 diabetes.RUV≥100 mL was used as the diagnostic golden standard for DNB, and the patients were divided into DNB group and non-DNP group. The ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of AUA-SI. Linear regression was used to test the linear trend of AUA-SI score with diabetic retinopathy stage and diabetic nephropathy stage. RESULTS: The levels of the fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and AUA-SI score in DNP group were higher than those in non-DNP group (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that AUA-SI score had the greatest predictive value for the occurrence of DNB 〔odds ratio (OR)=1.876, P < 0.001〕.The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.843, P=0.000, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.799, 0.888). The optimal diagnostic threshold was 7.5, the corresponding sensitivity was 0.747, and the specificity was 0.822. There was a positive correlation between the severity of AUA-SI score and the stage of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: AUA-SI score can be used to screen female patients with DNB, while it seems parallel to the severity of DNP, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia
20.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026677, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the publication of hundreds of trials on gout and hyperuricemia, management of these conditions remains suboptimal. We aimed to assess the quality and consistency of guidance documents for gout and hyperuricemia. DESIGN: Systematic review and quality assessment using the appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) II methodology. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE (27 October 2016), two Chinese academic databases, eight guideline databases, and Google and Google scholar (July 2017). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included the latest version of international and national/regional clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements for diagnosis and/or treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, published in English or Chinese. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently screened searched items and extracted data. Four reviewers independently scored documents using AGREE II. Recommendations from all documents were tabulated and visualised in a coloured grid. RESULTS: Twenty-four guidance documents (16 clinical practice guidelines and 8 consensus statements) published between 2003 and 2017 were included. Included documents performed well in the domains of scope and purpose (median 85.4%, range 66.7%-100.0%) and clarity of presentation (median 79.2%, range 48.6%-98.6%), but unsatisfactory in applicability (median 10.9%, range 0.0%-66.7%) and editorial independence (median 28.1%, range 0.0%-83.3%). The 2017 British Society of Rheumatology guideline received the highest scores. Recommendations were concordant on the target serum uric acid level for long-term control, on some indications for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and on the first-line drugs for ULT and for acute attack. Substantially inconsistent recommendations were provided for many items, especially for the timing of initiation of ULT and for treatment for asymptomatic hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological quality needs improvement in guidance documents on gout and hyperuricemia. Evidence for certain clinical questions is lacking, despite numerous trials in this field. Promoting standard guidance development methods and synthesising high-quality clinical evidence are potential approaches to reduce recommendation inconsistencies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016046104.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Ácido Úrico/análise , Consenso , Gota/sangue , Gota/diagnóstico , Gota/terapia , Supressores da Gota/farmacologia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/terapia
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