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2.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 941, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350256

RESUMO

Background: Risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by stratifying by the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis status is still uncertain. Methods: We included 1,590 hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay or high-throughput sequencing of pharyngeal and nasal swab specimens from 575 hospitals across China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. Times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were described and turned into binary variables by the maximally selected rank statistics method. Then, survival analysis, including a log-rank test, Cox regression, and conditional inference tree (CTREE) was conducted, regarding whether patients progressed to a severe disease level during the observational period (assessed as severe pneumonia according to the Chinese Expert Consensus on Clinical Practice for Emergency Severe Pneumonia, admission to an intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, or death) as the prognosis outcome, the dependent variable. Independent factors included whether the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was longer than 5 days (the exposure) and other demographic and clinical factors as multivariate adjustments. The clinical characteristics of the patients with different times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis were also compared. Results: The medians of the times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit, and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were 6, 3, and 2 days. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and comorbidity status, age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04], comorbidity (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.73), and a duration from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis of >5 days (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10-2.60) were independent predictors of COVID-19 prognosis, which echoed the CTREE models, with significant nodes such as time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, age, and comorbidities. Males, older patients with symptoms such as dry cough/productive cough/shortness of breath, and prior COPD were observed more often in the patients who procrastinated before initiating the first medical consultation. Conclusions: A longer time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis yielded a worse COVID-19 prognosis.

3.
Allergol Int ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) on smooth muscle (SM) and nerves in small airways are unclear. METHODS: We recruited 15 patients with severe refractory asthma, who received BT treatment. Endobronchial optical-coherence tomography (EB-OCT) was performed at baseline, 3 weeks' follow-up and 2 years' follow-up to evaluate the effect of BT on airway structure. In addition, we divided 12 healthy beagles into a sham group and a BT group, the latter receiving BT on large airways (inner diameter >3 mm) of the lower lobe. The dogs' lung lobes were resected to evaluate histological and neuronal changes of the treated large airways and untreated small airways 12 weeks after BT. RESULTS: Patients receiving BT treatment had significant improvement in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores and significant reduction in asthma exacerbations. EB-OCT results demonstrated a notable increase in inner-airway area (Ai) and decrease in airway wall area percentage (Aw%) in both large (3rd-to 6th-generation) and small (7th-to 9th-generation) airways. Furthermore, the animal study showed a significant reduction in the amount of SM in BT-treated large airways but not in untreated small airways. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)-positive nerves and muscarinic receptor 3 (M3 receptor) expression in large and small airways were both markedly decreased throughout the airway wall 12 weeks after BT treatment. CONCLUSIONS: BT significantly reduced nerves, but not SM, in small airways, which might shed light on the mechanism of lung denervation by BT.

4.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1097-1104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of pulmonary malignancies remains a challenge. The efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of lung cancer are not well elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of RFA guided by bronchoscopic transparenchymal nodule access (BTPNA) in vivo. METHODS: In an attempt to determine the parameters of RFA, we first performed RFA in conjunction with automatic saline microperfusion in the lung in vitro with various ablation energy (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 W) and ablation times (3, 5, 8, and 10 min). The correlation between ablated area and RFA parameter was recorded and analyzed. Further, we conducted a canine study with RFA by BTPNA in vivo, observing the ablation effect and morphological changes in the lung assessed by chest CT and histopathologic examination at various follow-up time points (1 day, n = 3; 30 days, n = 4; 90 days, n = 4). The related complications were also observed and recorded. RESULTS: More ablation energy, but not ablation time, induced a greater range of ablation area in the lung. Ablation energy applied with 15 W for 3 min served as the appropriate setting for pulmonary lesions ≤1 cm. RFA guided by BTPNA was performed in 11 canines with 100% success rate. Inflammation, congestion, and coagulation necrosis were observed after ablation, which could be repaired within 7 days; subsequently, granulation and fibrotic scar tissue developed after 30 days. No procedure-related complication occurred during the operation or in the follow-up periods. CONCLUSION: The novel RFA system and catheter in conjunction with automatic saline microperfusion present a safe and feasible modality in pulmonary parenchyma. RFA guided by BTPNA appears to be well established with an acceptable tolerance; it might further provide therapeutic benefit in pulmonary malignancies.

6.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(5): 2218-2228, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164271

RESUMO

Background: Airway stenting is frequently used in the palliative treatment of patients with advanced tumor-induced airway stenosis and fistulas. However, there is paucity of studies regarding the use of airway stents in restoring patency. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of hybrid silicon Y stents and covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) and in reestablishing patency in airway stenoses and fistulas. Methods: This retrospective study included 31 patients between January 2016 to December 2019 with inoperable complex malignant airway stenoses and fistulas, managed with Silicone Y stents, and covered SEMS. The clinical details, clinical outcomes and complications up to 6 months were extracted from medical records. The improvement of performance was assessed based on modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scores (t=6.892, P<0.001), Karnofsky Performance Scores (KPS) (t=-11.653, P<0.001), and performance status (PS) (t=3.503, P<0.001). Result: A total of 31 silicon Y stents and 35 covered SEMSs were inserted. Of the 31 patients (M:F 20:11; age: 54.64±9.57), 25/31 (80.6%) experienced immediate relief of symptoms following stent placement. Patients' mMRC dyspnea scores, KPS, and PS showed significant improvement following stenting. The mean duration of stent placement was 146.3±47.7 days, and 17/31 (55%) patients were alive at 6 months. No major complications related to hybrid stenting were observed during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Hybrid stenting is a feasible and safe palliative treatment for malignant airway stenosis and fistulas to improve quality of life and can be performed without major complications.

7.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211019564, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS) is one of the most common complications of tracheobronchial tuberculosis. Silicone stent serves as a major treatment for maintaining airway patency. However, silicone stent placement remains a large challenge in patients with severe cicatricial PTBS. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of covered, self-expanding, metallic stents (SEMSs) as a transition to silicone stent implantation for treating severe PTBS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with severe PTBS who received airway stenting in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University between September 2015 and May 2019. The types of the stent, intervention procedures, bronchoscopic findings, clinical outcomes and related complications were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-eight cases with severe PTBS were included in this study. Thirteen (22.4%) of the patients received bronchial silicone stent implantation immediately after dilations. For the remaining 45 (77.6%) patients, silicone stents could not be deployed after dilations and SEMSs implantation was implemented as a bridge to silicone stenting. The SEMSs were placed for an interval of 28.4 ± 11.1 days. All of the silicone stents were inserted successfully following the removal of SEMSs. No SEMS-related complication occurred. The subgroup analysis showed that patients who received transitional SEMSs had less luminal caliber but fewer transbronchial dilations before silicone stent implantation (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Covered SEMS placement as a transition to silicone stenting could serve as a feasible procedure to reduce complications and improve the success rate of silicone stent implantation in patients with severe PTBS.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 655856, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816312

RESUMO

The treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is challenging because there is no randomized controlled trial has been reported. The value of neoadjuvant and adjuvant targeted therapy remains unclear. Herein, we show that systemic treatment with ALK inhibitor crizotinib before surgery can provide the potential to cure the initially inoperable tumor. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with a stage IIIAcT3N2M0 (7thUICC/AJCC) upper left lung adenocarcinoma harboring EML4-ALK fusion gene. Clinically, the patient had a large primary lesion adjacent to the pericardium and regional lymph node metastasis at the ipsilateral mediastinum. Poor tumor response was observed after 3 cycles of chemotherapy (gemcitabine plus cisplatin), and upon multidisciplinary discussion, the patient was started with 250 mg crizotinib twice daily. Successive clinical examinations showed a progressive reduction of the lesions. After 2 months of therapy, the patient was downstaged to cT2aN2M0, then video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed and the final histopathological stage was ypT2aN2M0. The treatment with crizotinib (250 mg, qd) was continued more than 30 months post surgery and stopped until intracranial oligometastasis. The patient's overall survival (OS) time is 68 months at last follow-up. This case presented here supports the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment with ALK inhibitors in ALK positive locally advanced NSCLC.

9.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(1): 82-91, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569188

RESUMO

Background: The short-term efficacy of Dumon stent has been well demonstrated. Across years, however, due to insufficient sample size and absent of the randomized controlled trial, no reliable conclusion could be reach for Dumon stent's long-term efficacy. So, we conducted the first meta-analysis to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of the Dumon stent for benign tracheal stenosis. Methods: Data on related trials were obtained by doing a literature search in PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Random-effect and fixed-effect models were used to calculate the efficacy and incidence of complication of Dumon stent placement. Results: A total of 395 patients from 8 studies were included in this study, revealing that the stability rate was 41.12% (95% CI, 34.85-48.52%) of Dumon stenting. Further, a curative rate of 40.74% (95% CI, 34.92-47.53%), and efficacy of 75.49% (95% CI, 70.89-80.39%) were obtained from this study. Analysis of the incidence of complications indicated 25.04% of migration (95% CI, 17.52-35.79%), 15.66% granulation (95% CI, 9.39-26.11%) and 23.82% of mucus retention 23.82% (95% CI, 13.77-41.20%). Conclusions: Dumon stent has a moderate efficacy for treating benign tracheal stenosis with approximately 20% incidence of complication, regular bronchoscopy follow-up should be conducted. Thus, further research is required to modified Dumon stenting.

11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(1): 71-78, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910179

RESUMO

Importance: Lymphopenia is common and correlates with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether a therapy that increases peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte cell counts leads to clinical improvement in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting and Participants: Between February 18 and April 10, 2020, we conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial at 3 participating centers in China. The main eligibility criteria were pneumonia, a blood lymphocyte cell count of 800 per µL (to convert to ×109/L, multiply by 0.001) or lower, and no comorbidities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Exposures: Usual care alone, or usual care plus 3 doses of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, 5 µg/kg, subcutaneously at days 0-2). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the time from randomization to improvement of at least 1 point on a 7-category disease severity score. Results: Of 200 participants, 112 (56%) were men and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 45 (40-55) years. There was random assignment of 100 patients (50%) to the rhG-CSF group and 100 (50%) to the usual care group. Time to clinical improvement was similar between groups (rhG-CSF group median of 12 days (IQR, 10-16 days) vs usual care group median of 13 days (IQR, 11-17 days); hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.71; P = .06). For secondary end points, the proportion of patients progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock was lower in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group, 2% vs usual care group, 15%; difference, -13%; 95%CI, -21.4% to -5.4%). At 21 days, 2 patients (2%) had died in the rhG-CSF group compared with 10 patients (10%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95%CI, 0.04-0.88). At day 5, the lymphocyte cell count was higher in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group median of 1050/µL vs usual care group median of 620/µL; Hodges-Lehmann estimate of the difference in medians, 440; 95% CI, 380-490). Serious adverse events, such as sepsis or septic shock, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, occurred in 29 patients (14.5%) in the rhG-CSF group and 42 patients (21%) in the usual care group. Conclusion and Relevance: In preliminary findings from a randomized clinical trial, rhG-CSF treatment for patients with COVID-19 with lymphopenia but no comorbidities did not accelerate clinical improvement, but the number of patients developing critical illness or dying may have been reduced. Larger studies that include a broader range of patients with COVID-19 should be conducted. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000030007.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Hematológicos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , China , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Proteínas Recombinantes , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Virology ; 551: 84-92, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859395

RESUMO

Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) infections are ubiquitous in mammals. Increasing evidence suggests that some MRVs can cause severe respiratory disease and encephalitis in humans and other animals. Previously, we isolated six bat MRV strains. However, the pathogenicity of these bat viruses remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the host range and pathogenicity of 3 bat MRV strains (WIV2, 3 and 7) which represent three serotypes. Our results showed that all of them can infect cell lines from different mammalian species and displayed different replication efficiency. The BALB/c mice infected by bat MRVs showed clinical symptoms with systematic infection especially in lung and intestines. Obvious tissue damage were found in all infected lungs. One of the strains, WIV7, showed higher replication efficiency in vitro and vivo and more severe pathogenesis in mice. Our results provide new evidence showing potential pathogenicity of bat MRVs in animals and probable risk in humans.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Quirópteros , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Sorogrupo
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 183, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, is genetically characterised by NUT midline carcinoma family member 1 (NUTM1) gene rearrangement. NMC can arise from the lungs; however, there is no standard for the management of primary pulmonary NMC. This study aimed to confirm the clinical features and report the treatments, especially with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and outcomes of patients with primary pulmonary NMC. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with primary pulmonary NMC was performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University between January 2015 and December 2018. Clinical manifestations as well as radiographic and pathological findings were recorded. Whole-exome sequencing (WES), a predictor for ICI response, was used to determine the tumour mutational burden (TMB). Treatments, especially by immune checkpoint blockade, and patient survival were analysed. RESULTS: Seven patients with primary pulmonary mass (four men and three women) with a mean age of 42 years (range, 23-74) who were diagnosed with NMC according to NUT immunohistochemistry staining were included for analysis. One patient had a rare fusion of CHRM5-NUTM1 by tumour sequencing. A wide range of TMB (1.75-73.81 mutations/Mbp) was observed. The initial treatments included chemotherapy (5/7, 71.4%), surgery (1/7, 14.3%), and radiotherapy (1/7, 14.3%). Five patients (5/7, 71.4%) received ICIs (programmed cell death protein 1 [PD1]/programmed cell death ligand 1 [PDL1] monoclonal antibody) as second- or higher-line treatments. The median overall survival (OS) was 4.1 months (range, 1.5-26.7 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with primary pulmonary NMC have a poor prognosis and chemotherapy is often preferred. Checkpoint immunotherapy is a good option as the second- or higher-line treatment. TMB seems to be not associated with OS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Respiration ; 99(6): 500-507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The predictors and airway morphological changes during the development of postintubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) have not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the validation of endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) in assessing the airway morphological changes in PITS. METHODS: We performed oral endotracheal intubation in 12 beagles to establish the PITS model. EB-OCT was performed respectively before modeling and on the 1st, 7th, and 12th day after extubation in 9 canines, and was conducted consecutively in 3 canines during the development of PITS. Histological findings and the thickness and gray-scale value of the tracheal wall assessed by EB-OCT measurements were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The tracheal wall edema, granulation tissue proliferation, cartilage destruction in PITS, and airway wall thickening detected by EB-OCT were in concordance with the histopathological measurements. The consecutive EB-OCT observation of the airway structure demonstrated the tracheal wall thickness significantly increased from 344.41 ± 44.19 µm before modeling to 796.67 ± 49.75 µm on the 9th day after modeling (p < 0.05). The airway wall gray-scale values assessed by EB-OCT decreased from 111.19 ± 14.71 before modeling to 74.96 ± 4.08 on the 9th day after modeling (p < 0.05). The gray-scale value was negatively correlated with the airway wall thickness (r = -0.945, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The EB-OCT imaging, in concordance with the histopathological finding, was validated for assessing the airway morphological changes during the development of PITS. The EB-OCT evaluation of cartilage damage and gray-scale value measurement might help predict the development and prognosis of PITS.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Estenose Traqueal/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Cães , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia
20.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), consistent and considerable differences in disease severity and mortality rate of patients treated in Hubei province compared to those in other parts of China have been observed. We sought to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients being treated inside and outside Hubei province, and explore the factors underlying these differences. METHODS: Collaborating with the National Health Commission, we established a retrospective cohort to study hospitalised COVID-19 cases in China. Clinical characteristics, the rate of severe events and deaths, and the time to critical illness (invasive ventilation or intensive care unit admission or death) were compared between patients within and outside Hubei. The impact of Wuhan-related exposure (a presumed key factor that drove the severe situation in Hubei, as Wuhan is the epicentre as well the administrative centre of Hubei province) and the duration between symptom onset and admission on prognosis were also determined. RESULTS: At the data cut-off (31 January 2020), 1590 cases from 575 hospitals in 31 provincial administrative regions were collected (core cohort). The overall rate of severe cases and mortality was 16.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Patients in Hubei (predominantly with Wuhan-related exposure, 597 (92.3%) out of 647) were older (mean age 49.7 versus 44.9 years), had more cases with comorbidity (32.9% versus 19.7%), higher symptomatic burden, abnormal radiologic manifestations and, especially, a longer waiting time between symptom onset and admission (5.7 versus 4.5 days) compared with patients outside Hubei. Patients in Hubei (severe event rate 23.0% versus 11.1%, death rate 7.3% versus 0.3%, HR (95% CI) for critical illness 1.59 (1.05-2.41)) have a poorer prognosis compared with patients outside Hubei after adjusting for age and comorbidity. However, among patients outside Hubei, the duration from symptom onset to hospitalisation (mean 4.4 versus 4.7 days) and prognosis (HR (95%) 0.84 (0.40-1.80)) were similar between patients with or without Wuhan-related exposure. In the overall population, the waiting time, but neither treated in Hubei nor Wuhan-related exposure, remained an independent prognostic factor (HR (95%) 1.05 (1.01-1.08)). CONCLUSION: There were more severe cases and poorer outcomes for COVID-19 patients treated in Hubei, which might be attributed to the prolonged duration of symptom onset to hospitalisation in the epicentre. Future studies to determine the reason for delaying hospitalisation are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Tosse/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Dispneia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Faringite/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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