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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641315

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) have been used in cosmetics and food due to their antimicrobial and antiviral effects. However, the applications of EOs are compromised because of their poor aqueous solubility and high volatility. Qiai (Artemisia argyi Levl. et Van. var. argyi cv. Qiai) is a traditional Chinese herb and possesses strong antibacterial activity. Herein, we report an innovative formulation of EO as nanohydrogels, which were prepared through co-assembly of Qiai EO (QEO) and Pluronic F108 (PEG-b-PPG-b-PEG, or PF108) in aqueous solution. QEO was efficiently loaded in the PF108 micelles and formed nanohydrogels by heating the QEO/PF108 mixture solution to 37 °C, by the innate thermo-responsive property of PF108. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of QEO reached 80.2% and 6.8%, respectively. QEO nanohydrogels were more stable than the free QEO with respect to volatilization. Sustained QEO release was achieved at body temperature using the QEO nanohydrogels, with the cumulative release rate reaching 95% in 35 h. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that the QEO nanohydrogels showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli than the free QEO due to the enhanced stability and sustained-release characteristics. It has been attested that thermo-responsive QEO nanohydrogels have good potential as antibacterial cosmetics.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390581

RESUMO

Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity are both important to adaptive evolution. However, how they act together on particular traits remains poorly understood. Here, we integrated phenotypic, genomic, and transcriptomic data from two allopatric but closely related congeneric oyster species, Crassostrea angulata from southern/warm environments and Crassostrea gigas from northern/cold environments, to investigate the roles of genetic divergence and plasticity in thermal adaptation. Reciprocal transplantation experiments showed that both species had higher fitness in their native habitats than in non-native environments, indicating strong adaptive divergence. The southern species evolved higher transcriptional plasticity, and the plasticity was adaptive, suggesting that increased plasticity is important for thermal adaptation to warm climates. Genome-wide comparisons between the two species revealed that genes under selection tended to respond to environmental changes and showed higher sequence divergence in noncoding regions. All genes under selection and related to energy metabolism exhibited habitat-specific expression with genes involved in ATP production and lipid catabolism highly expressed in warm/southern habitats, and genes involved in ATP consumption and lipid synthesis were highly expressed in cold/northern habitats. The gene for acyl-CoA desaturase, a key enzyme for lipid synthesis, showed strong selective sweep in the upstream noncoding region and lower transcription in the southern species. These results were further supported by the lower free fatty acid (FFA) but higher ATP content in southern species and habitat, pointing to significance of ATP/FFA trade-off. Our findings provide evidence that noncoding variation and transcriptional plasticity play important roles in shaping energy metabolism for thermal adaptation in oysters.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410122

RESUMO

The controlling synthesis of novel nanoclusters of noble metals (Au, Ag) and the determination of their atomically precise structures provide opportunities for investigating their specific properties and applications. Here we report a novel silver nanocluster [Ag307Cl62(SPhtBu)110] (Ag307) whose structure is determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The structure analysis shows that nanocluster Ag307 contains a Ag167 core, a surface shell of [Ag140Cl2S110], and a Cl60 intermediate layer located between Ag167 and [Ag140Cl2S110]. It is a first example that such many chlorides are intercalated into a Ag nanocluster. Chlorides are released in situ from solvent CHCl3. Nanocluster Ag307 exhibits superstability. Differential pulse voltammetry experiment reveals that Ag307 has continuous charging/discharging behavior with a capacitance value of 1.39 aF, while the Ag307 has a surface plasmonic feature. These characteristics show that Ag307 is of metallic behavior. However, its electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra display a spin magnetic behavior which could be originated from the unpassivated dangling bonds of surface atoms. The direct capture of EPR signals can be attributed to the Cl- intercalating layer which partly suppresses the electronic interactions between core and surface atoms, resulting in the relatively independent electronic states for core and surface atoms.

4.
Foods ; 10(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359423

RESUMO

Previous studies found that the collagen hydrolysates of fish skin have antiplatelet activity, but this component remained unknown. In this study, eleven peptides were isolated and identified in the absorbates of Alcalase-hydrolysates and Protamex®-hydrolysates of skin collagen of H. Molitrix by reverse-phase C18 column and HPLC-MS/MS. Nine of them contained a Pro-Gly (PG) or Hyp-Gly (OG) sequence and significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which suggested that the PG(OG) sequence is the core sequence of collagen peptides with antiplatelet activity. Among them, OGSA has the strongest inhibiting activities against ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro (IC50 = 0.63 mM), and OGSA inhibited the thrombus formation in rats at a dose of 200 µM/kg.bw with no risk of bleeding. The molecular docking results implied that the OG-containing peptides might target the P2Y12 receptor and form hydrogen bonds with the key sites Cys97, Ser101, and Lys179. As the sequence PG(OG) is abundant in the collagen amino acid sequence of H. Molitrix, the collagen hydrolysates of H. Molitrix might have great potential for being developed as dietary supplements to prevent cardiovascular diseases in the future.

5.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(9): 2813-2820, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine myopia progression in children during the COVID-19 and the related factors associated with myopia. METHODS: All subjects underwent three-timepoint ocular examinations that were measured in July 2019, January, and August 2020. We compared the changes in uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), mydriatic spherical equivalent (SE), and axial length (AL) between two periods (before and during COVID-19). A questionnaire was performed to investigate risk factors for myopia. RESULTS: Compared with before the COVID-19, the mean (S.D.) myopia progression during the COVID-19 was significantly higher in right eyes (- 0.93 (0.65) vs. - 0.33 (0.47) D; p < 0.001). However, the differences in UCVA changes and the axial elongation between two periods were clinically insignificant. Through logistic regressive analysis, we found the difference of the SE changes was associated with the baseline AL (P = 0.028; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.058, 2.632), online education (P = 0.02; 95% CI, 1.587, 8.665), and time of digital screen (p < 0.005; 95% CI, 1.587, 4.450). CONCLUSIONS: Children were at higher risk of myopia progression during COVID-19, which was associated with the baseline AL, the longtime online learning, and digital screen reading.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Refração Ocular , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299589

RESUMO

Flavor is one of the most important factors in attracting consumers and maximizing food quality, and the Maillard reaction (MR) is highly-involved in flavor formation. However, Maillard reaction products have a big drawback in their relatively low stability in thermal treatment and storage. Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs), MR intermediates, can alternatively act as potential flavor additives for their better stability and fresh flavor formation ability. This review aims to elucidate key aspects of ARPs' future application as flavorings. The development of current analytical technologies enables the precise characterization of ARPs, while advanced preparation methods such as synthesis, separation and drying processes can increase the yield of ARPs to up to 95%. The stability of ARPs is influenced by their chemical nature, pH value, temperature, water activity and food matrix. ARPs are associated with umami and kokumi taste enhancing effects, and the flavor formation is related to amino acids/peptides of the ARPs. Peptide-ARPs can generate peptide-specific flavors, such as: 1,6-dimethy-2(1H)-pyrazinone, 1,5-dimethy-2(1H)-pyrazinone, and 1,5,6-trimethy-2(1H)-pyrazinone. However, further research on systematic stability and toxicology are needed.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Reação de Maillard , Peptídeos/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203004

RESUMO

Green tea and its bioactive components, especially polyphenols, possess many health-promoting and disease-preventing benefits, especially anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and metabolic modulation effects with multi-target modes of action. However, the effect of tea polyphenols on immune function has not been well studied. Moreover, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating immunoregulation are not well understood. This review summarizes the recent studies on the immune-potentiating effects and corresponding mechanisms of tea polyphenols, especially the main components of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). In addition, the benefits towards immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, cutaneous-related immune diseases, and obesity-related immune diseases, have been discussed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Polifenóis/química
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200163

RESUMO

Tea polysaccharides (TPSs) are one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with various biological activities such as hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory. The bioactivities of TPSs are directly associated with their structures such as chemical composition, molecular weight, glycosidic linkages, and conformation among others. To study the relationship between the structures of TPSs and their bioactivities, it is essential to elucidate the structure of TPSs, particularly the fine structures. Due to the vast variation nature of monosaccharide units and their connections, the structure of TPSs is extremely complex, which is also affected by several major factors including tea species, processing technologies of tea and isolation methods of TPSs. As a result of the complexity, there are few studies on their fine structures and chain conformation. In the present review, we aim to provide a detailed summary of the multiple factors influencing the characteristics of TPS chemical structures such as variations of tea species, degree of fermentation, and preparation methods among others as well as their applications. The main aspects of understanding the structural difference of TPSs and influencing factors are to assist the study of the structure and bioactivity relationship and ultimately, to control the production of the targeted TPSs with the most desired biological activity.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Monossacarídeos/química
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 556, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated crops and has been considered as an ideal model plant for C4 grasses. It has abundant type of anther and hull colors which is not only a most intuitive morphological marker for color selection in seed production, but also has very important biological significance for the study of molecular mechanism of regulating the synthesis and metabolism of flavonoids and lignin. However, only a few genetic studies have been reported for anther color and hull color in foxtail millet. RESULTS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for anther color and hull color was conducted using 400 F6 and F7 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs) derived from a cross between parents Yugu18 and Jigu19. Using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, 43,001 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3,022 indels were identified between both the parents and the RILs. A total of 1,304 bin markers developed from the SNPs and indels were used to construct a genetic map that spanned 2196 cM of the foxtail millet genome with an average of 1.68 cM/bin. Combined with this genetic map and the phenotypic data observed in two locations for two years, two QTL located on chromosome 6 (Chr6) in a 1.215-Mb interval (33,627,819-34,877,940 bp) for anther color (yellow - white) and three QTL located on Chr1 in a 6.23-Mb interval (1-6,229,734 bp) for hull color (gold-reddish brown) were detected. To narrow the QTL regions identified from the genetic map and QTL analysis, we developed a new method named "inconsistent rate analysis" and efficiently narrowed the QTL regions of anther color into a 60-kb interval (34.13-34.19 Mb) in Chr6, and narrowed the QTL regions of hull color into 70-kb (5.43-5.50 Mb) and 30-kb (5.69-5.72 Mb) intervals in Chr1. Two genes (Seita.6G228600.v2.2 and Seita.6G228700.v2.2) and a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene (Seita.1G057300.v2.2) with amino acid changes between the parents detected by whole-genome resequencing were identified as candidate genes for anther and hull color, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This work presents the related QTL and candidate genes of anther and hull color in foxtail millet and developed a new method named inconsistent rate analysis to detect the chromosome fragments linked with the quality trait in RILs. This is the first study of the QTL related to hull color in foxtail millet and clarifying that the CAD gene (Seita.1G057300.v2.2) is the key gene responsible for this trait. It lays the foundation for further cloning of the functional genes and provides a powerful tool to detect the chromosome fragments linked with quality traits in RILs.


Assuntos
Setaria (Planta) , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Setaria (Planta)/genética
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 271, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Setaria italica is the second-most widely planted species of millets in the world and an important model grain crop for the research of C4 photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. Through three genomes assembly and annotation efforts, all genomes were based on next generation sequencing technology, which limited the genome continuity. RESULTS: Here we report a high-quality whole-genome of new cultivar Huagu11, using single-molecule real-time sequencing and High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) mapping technologies. The total assembly size of the Huagu11 genome was 408.37 Mb with a scaffold N50 size of 45.89 Mb. Compared with the other three reported millet genomes based on the next generation sequencing technology, the Huagu11 genome had the highest genomic continuity. Intraspecies comparison showed about 94.97 and 94.66% of the Yugu1 and Huagu11 genomes, respectively, were able to be aligned as one-to-one blocks with four chromosome inversion. The Huagu11 genome contained approximately 19.43 Mb Presence/absence Variation (PAV) with 627 protein-coding transcripts, while Yugu1 genomes had 20.53 Mb PAV sequences encoding 737 proteins. Overall, 969,596 Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 156,282 insertion-deletion (InDels) were identified between these two genomes. The genome comparison between Huagu11 and Yugu1 should reflect the genetic identity and variation between the cultivars of foxtail millet to a certain extent. The Ser-626-Aln substitution in acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) was found to be relative to the imazethapyr tolerance in Huagu11. CONCLUSIONS: A new improved high-quality reference genome sequence of Setaria italica was assembled, and intraspecies genome comparison determined the genetic identity and variation between the cultivars of foxtail millet. Based on the genome sequence, it was inferred that the Ser-626-Aln substitution in AHAS was responsible for the imazethapyr tolerance in Huagu11. The new improved reference genome of Setaria italica will promote the genic and genomic studies of this species and be beneficial for cultivar improvement.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Genômica , Ácidos Nicotínicos/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/imunologia , China , Cromossomos de Plantas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/imunologia , Genoma de Planta , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the association of an integrated model (composed of retinal arteriolar caliber, height, and sex) with blood pressure (BP) among a group of Chinese children, and assess the predictive value of the integrated model for childhood hypertension. METHODS: This study included 1460 candidates aged 12.634 ± 0.420 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, and BP were obtained and ophthalmological measurements were taken. The computer-imaging program (IVAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI) was used to measure calibers of retinal vessels. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of the integrated model as a diagnostic test of elevated BP in children. RESULTS: The accuracy of the integrated model (assessed by area under the curve) for identifying elevated BP was 0.777 (95% confidence interval: 0.742-0.812). The optimal threshold of the integrated model for defining hypertension was 0.153, and the calculation formula for the specific predictive risk was: Logit (p/1 - p) = -5.666 - 0.261 × retinal arteriolar caliber + 0.945 × sex + 0.438 × height. In identifying elevated BP, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.711 and 0.736, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The model containing eye message is a comprehensive and relatively effective index to identify elevated BP in 12-year-old children, which can offer assistance to further understand childhood microcirculation disease. IMPACT: We firstly incorporated retinal vascular diameter, sex, and height into one integrated model to identify hypertension in 12-year-old children. The current discrimination of hypertension in children is difficult. There have been some studies to simplify the diagnosis of children's hypertension, but they were limited to anthropometric measurements. We proposed a composed model containing microcirculation information to predict childhood hypertension. Based on the knowledge that microcirculation is not only a means to study the manifestations but also early pathogenic correlates of hypertension, the combined model containing microcirculation message as a method may provide new insights into the diagnosis of childhood hypertension.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(21): 5938-5947, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003645

RESUMO

Theaflavins (TFs), formed by the dimerization of green tea catechins during "fermentation" to prepare black tea, possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Reported efficacious effects of black tea (∼2% of TFs) or related products come from catechins unless TFs are assayed. The present study aimed to target the preparation of black tea extract (BTE) enriched with theaflavin mono- and digallates majorly from dry tea leaves in aqueous media versus traditional fermentation of fresh leaves. We further investigated the protective function of the produced BTE on rat liver and kidney injury induced by CCl4 and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that BTE suppressed the activation level of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and the secretion of collagen was induced by CCl4. The relative expression levels of TGF-ß, p-ERK1/ERK1, p-ERK2/ERK2, p-Smad1/Smad1, and p-Smad2/Smad2 were reduced to 56, 68, 56, 44, and 32%, respectively, compared with those of CCl4-treated rats. Therefore, BTE enriched with TFs prevented rat hepatic fibrosis through the TGF-ß/Smad/ERK signaling pathway and kidney injury by inhibiting the expression of TGF-ß and proinflammatory cytokines in rats. We predict the broad application of TFs and related products because of their strong antioxidant and inhibitory effects on chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Chá , Animais , Biflavonoides , Catequina , Rim , Fígado , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(22): 6260-6270, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043345

RESUMO

Lung cancer is grouped into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC). SCLC exhibits a poor prognosis, and the current anticancer treatment remains unsatisfactory. Bavachinin, present in the seed of Psoralea corylifolia, shows anti-inflammatory effects, immune modulation, and anticancer potency. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effect of bavachinin on SCLC and its underlying mechanism. The SCLC cell line H1688 was treated with different concentrations of bavachinin and showed decreased viability with arrested G2/M and sub-G1 phase cell accumulation at a concentration as low as 25 µM. Expression levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9, as well as Fas, FasL, and Bax, increased with the concentration of bavachinin. The accumulated sub-G1 cells and annexin V confirmed increasing apoptotic cancer cells after treatment. The accumulated G2/M phase cells with increasing levels of phosphorylated CDC25C, CDC2, ATM/ATR, and CHK2/CHK1 confirmed the arrested cell cycle caused by bavachinin via a dose-dependent manner. This phenomenon can be reversed by an ATM/ATR inhibitor, caffeine. Following the administration of bavachinin to xenograft mice with SCLC, the tumor burden decreased without impairing hematologic or hepatorenal functions. Bavachinin induces SCLC apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways and causes cancer cell cycle arrest via the ATM/ATR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética
14.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 50-60, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770444

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes neurologic disabilities that effect musculature, sensory systems, and vision. This is largely due to demyelination of nerve fibers caused by chronic inflammation. Corticosteroid treatments ameliorate symptoms of MS, but do not successfully cure the disease itself. In the current study, the application of galangin, a phytochemical flavonoid extracted from the ginger family of Alpinis officinarum, on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; mouse model for MS) was explored. This study investigated prophylactic and therapeutic activity of the drug and mechanisms by which it acts. The results revealed that galangin at 40 and 80 mg/kg could lower the incidence rate of MS, and alleviate clinical/pathological manifestations. Mice administered galangin presented with less limb paralysis, lower levels of inflammatory cell infiltrates, and decreased demyelination compared to vehicle controls. Levels of CD4+IFNγ+ (TH1) and CD4+IL-17A+ (TH17) cells in the spinal cords of EAE mice administered galangin were reduced and both cell types were not capable of expansion. More surprisingly, galangin inhibited antigen presentation and cytokine production by dendritic cells (DC). Formation of cytokines like IL-6, IL-12, and IL-23 were significantly decreased due to galangin in co-culture models of DC and T-cells. Taken together, the data lead one to conclude that galangin could potentially be used as a potent immunoregulatory agent to alleviate clinical symptoms and reduce the prevalence of MS.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(13): 3871-3878, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759516

RESUMO

The integrity of the intestinal barrier is critical for homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of pterostilbene (PTE) on the intestinal epithelium barrier. In vitro results of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in Caco-2 cells indicated that PTE counteracted tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced barrier damage. In vivo PTE pretreatment markedly ameliorated intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Notably, intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) molecules were restored by PTE in mice exposed to DSS. The mechanism study revealed that PTE prevented myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) from driving phosphorylation of MLC (p-MLC), which is crucial for maintaining intestinal TJ stability. Furthermore, PTE blunted translocation of NF-κB subunit p65 into the nucleus to downregulate MLCK expression and then to safeguard TJs and barrier integrity. These findings suggest that PTE protected the intestinal epithelial barrier through the NF-κB- MLCK/p-MLC signal pathway.


Assuntos
Cadeias Leves de Miosina , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Estilbenos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
ChemSusChem ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686778

RESUMO

The synthesis of carbamates by electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 is an effective method to realize the utilization of CO2 resources. The development of high-performance electrocatalysts to complete this process more efficiently is of great significance to sustainable development. Owing to their unique structural characteristics, single-atom catalysts are expected to promote the reaction process more efficiently. In this study, an atomically dispersed Cu species on N-doped carbon nanosheet composite material (Cu-N-C) was prepared by metal-organic framework derivatization. Compared with traditional Cu bulk electrodes, the Cu-N-C material has better catalytic performance for the synthesis of methyl N-phenylcarbamate; and the optimized yield reached 71 % at room temperature and normal pressure. The Cu-N-C material has good stability that the catalytic performance does not decrease after repeated use for 10 times. In addition, the Cu-N-C material has good applicability to this catalytic system, and a variety of amines can be smoothly converted into corresponding carbamates.

17.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 134-145, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556301

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Alantolactone, the bioactive component in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae), exhibits multiple biological effects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of alantolactone in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model and its immunomodulatory effects on Th17 differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CIA mouse model was established with DBA/1 mice randomly divided into four groups (n = 6): healthy, vehicle and two alantolactone-treated groups (25 or 50 mg/kg), followed by oral administration of alantolactone to mice for 21 consecutive days after arthritis onset. The severity of CIA was evaluated by an arthritic scoring system and histopathological examination. Levels of cytokines and anti-CII antibodies as well as percentages of splenic Th17 and Th17 differentiation with or without alantolactone treatments (0.62, 1.2 or 2.5 µM) were detected with ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate intracellular signalling in alantolactone-treated spleen cells. RESULTS: In CIA mice, alantolactone at 50 mg/kg attenuated RA symptoms, including high arthritis scores, infiltrating inflammatory cells, synovial hyperplasia, bone erosion and levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17A, but not IL-10 in paw tissues. Alantolactone also reduced the number of splenic Th17 cells and the capability of naïve CD4+ T cells to differentiate into the Th17 subset by downregulating STAT3/RORγt signalling by as early as 24 h of treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Alantolactone possesses an anti-inflammatory effect that suppresses murine CIA by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation, suggesting alantolactone is an adjunctive therapeutic candidate to treat rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/farmacologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inula/química , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/administração & dosagem , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/citologia
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6656365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542921

RESUMO

Macrocybe gigantea (M. gigantea) is a macrofungus genus that contains a big number of fairly fleshy gilled mushrooms with white spores. This macrofungus produces diverse bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and water-soluble polysaccharides. However, the genomic resources of this species remain unknown. Here, we assembled the genome of M. gigantea (41.23 Mb) into 336 scaffolds with a N50 size of 374,455 bp and compared it with the genomes of eleven other macrofungi. Comparative genomics study confirmed that M. gigantea belonged to the Macrocybe genus, a stand-alone genus different from the Tricholoma genus. In addition, we found that glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28) in M. gigantea shared conserved motifs that were significantly different from their counterparts in Tricholoma. The genomic resource uncovered by this study will enhance our understanding of fungi biology, especially the differences in their growth rates and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/metabolismo , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia
19.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(1): 225-251, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443802

RESUMO

The intestinal barrier plays a central role in sustaining gut homeostasis and, when dysfunctional, may contribute to diseases. Dietary flavonoids derived from Citrus genus represent one of the main naturally occurring phytochemicals with multiple potential benefits for the intestinal barrier function. In the intestine, citrus flavonoids (CFs) undergo ingestion from the lumen, biotransformation in the epithelial cells and/or crosstalk with luminal microbiota to afford various metabolites that may in turn exert protective actions on gut barrier along with their parental compounds. Specifically, the health-promoting properties of CFs and their metabolic bioactives for the intestinal barrier include their capacity to (a) modulate barrier permeability; (b) protect mucus layer; (c) regulate intestinal immune system; (d) fight against oxidative stress; and (e) positively shape microbiome and metabolome. Notably, local effects of CFs can also generate systemic benefits, for instance, improvement of gut microbial dysbiosis helpful to orchestrate gut homeostasis and leading to alleviation of systemic dysmetabolism. Given the important role of the intestinal barrier in overall health, further understanding of underlying action mechanisms and ultimate health effects of CFs as well as their metabolites on the intestine is of great significance to future application of citrus plants and their bioactives as dietary supplements and/or functional ingredients in medical foods.

20.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(5): 1281-1288, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of reading with mobile phone versus text on accommodation accuracy and near work-induced transient myopia (NITM) and its subsequent decay during near reading in young adults with mild to moderate myopia. METHODS: The refractions of 31 young adults were measured with an open-field autorefractor (WAM-5500, Grand Seiko) for two reading tasks with a mobile phone and text at 33 cm. The mean age of the young adults was 24.35 ± 1.80 years. The baseline refractive aspects were determined clinically with full distance refractive correction in place. The initial NITM and its decay time and accommodative lag were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly viewing a mobile phone or text for 40 min. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) initial NITM magnitude was greater for reading with text (0.23 ± 0.26 D) than for reading with mobile phone (0.12 ± 0.17 D), but there was no significant difference between the two reading tasks (p = 0.082). The decay time (median, first quartile, and third quartile) was 60 s (16, 154) and 70 s (32, 180) in the phone task and text task groups, respectively. There was also no significant difference in the decay time between the two reading types in general (p = 0.294). The accommodative lags of text tasks and mobile phones tasks were equivalent (1.27 ± 0.52 D vs 1.31 ± 0.64 D, p = 0.792). CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in accommodative lags and the initial NITM and its decay time between reading with a mobile phone and text in young adults.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Miopia , Acomodação Ocular , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Miopia/diagnóstico , Leitura , Refração Ocular , Adulto Jovem
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