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1.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532571

RESUMO

Background and Objects: An atypical cytologic diagnosis arises from inflammation or early neoplastic process. It is commonly found in EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration/biopsy (EUS-FNA/FNB) tissue sampling of pancreatic malignancies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic performance of EUS-FNA/FNB in patients with cytologic diagnosis of atypical cells and to develop a prediction model for malignant tumors of the pancreas in the atypical cytologic diagnostic category. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-six patients in the atypical cytologic diagnostic category were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictive factors for pancreatic malignancies. The final diagnoses were confirmed by repeat biopsy; surgical pathology, or clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. Results: The atypical cytologic diagnosis using EUS-FNA/FNB was associated with an absolute risk of malignancy (82.3%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that older age, long axis of the mass, and increased carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were independent risk factors for true malignant pancreatic tumors among patients in the atypical cytologic diagnostic category. The calibration curve had a slope of 0.96, and a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.91. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the validation group was 0.803. Conclusions: Atypical lesions of EUS-FNA/FNB have a higher risk of malignancy. Older age, the long axis of the mass, and elevated serum CA19-9 level were identified as independent risk factors for true malignant pancreatic tumors among patients in the atypical cytologic diagnostic category.

2.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557278

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Increased vascular stiffness is a key mediator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Increased vascular stiffness in CKD is thought to be the consequence of long-standing hypertension and vascular calcification. However, vascular stiffness is increased early in patients with CKD, even before metabolic complications develop. Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) is a key mediator of collagen crosslinking and matrix remodeling. Up-regulation of LOX has been associated with increased tissue stiffness in cancer and wound healing. We hypothesize that increased LOX might be a key mechanism for increased vascular stiffness in CKD. ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a LOX inhibitor, was used to test the hypothesis. METHODS: 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) or Sham surgery was performed in 8-weeks old male C57BL/6 mice. 2-weeks after Nx, mice were randomized to BAPN (300 mg/kg/day in water) or vehicle for 4-weeks. Vascular stiffness was assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). LOX levels were measured by ELISA and qPCR. Collagen crosslinking was measured by mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were made using one-way ANOVA, p-Value <0.05 was accepted as significant. RESULTS: Nx resulted in decreased renal function at 8 weeks but no change in blood pressure or calcification. (~2-3-fold increase in creatinine, urea, and cystatin C) compared to control mice. Nx surgery resulted in increase in PWV (Con:179±32, Nx: 306 ± 47 cm/s, p<0.001). This was associated with an increased LOX in aorta (Con:118±8, Nx: 311±13 pg/mg dry weight, p<0.001). Mice with Nx surgery had an increased total collagen contents (183%, p<0.001) as well as cross-linked collagen (DPD; 83%, p<0.05, PYD: 270% p<0.01). BAPN treatment significantly attenuates PWV (211± 49 cm/s, p<0.01), LOX (256±21 pg/mg dry weight, p<0.05) and total collagen contents (23%, p<0.01). BAPN treatment reduced the crosslinked collagens (DPD and PYD) but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest: a) Increased vascular stiffness in CKD is independent of BP and calcification b) LOX mediated changes in extracellular matrix are at least in part responsible for the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness in CKD. Inhibition of excessive LOX may have therapeutic potential in alleviating increased vascular stiffness in CKD.

3.
Plant Divers ; 44(2): 141-152, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505989

RESUMO

Ferns and lycophytes have remarkably large genomes. However, little is known about how their genome size evolved in fern lineages. To explore the origins and evolution of chromosome numbers and genome size in ferns, we used flow cytometry to measure the genomes of 240 species (255 samples) of extant ferns and lycophytes comprising 27 families and 72 genera, of which 228 species (242 samples) represent new reports. We analyzed correlations among genome size, spore size, chromosomal features, phylogeny, and habitat type preference within a phylogenetic framework. We also applied ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analysis to preference of habitat type and genome size. Using the phylogeny, we conducted ancestral character reconstruction for habitat types and tested whether genome size changes simultaneously with shifts in habitat preference. We found that 2C values had weak phylogenetic signal, whereas the base number of chromosomes (x) had a strong phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, our analyses revealed a positive correlation between genome size and chromosome traits, indicating that the base number of chromosomes (x), chromosome size, and polyploidization may be primary contributors to genome expansion in ferns and lycophytes. Genome sizes in different habitat types varied significantly and were significantly correlated with habitat types; specifically, multinomial logistic regression indicated that species with larger 2C values were more likely to be epiphytes. Terrestrial habitat is inferred to be ancestral for both extant ferns and lycophytes, whereas transitions to other habitat types occurred as the major clades emerged. Shifts in habitat types appear be followed by periods of genomic stability. Based on these results, we inferred that habitat type changes and multiple whole-genome duplications have contributed to the formation of large genomes of ferns and their allies during their evolutionary history.

4.
Ecol Evol ; 12(5): e8882, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509610

RESUMO

The mechanisms governing community assembly is fundamental to ecological restoration and clarification of the assembly processes associated with severe disturbances (characterized by no biological legacy and serious environmental problems) is essential. However, a systematic understanding of community assembly in the context of severe anthropogenic disturbance remains lacking. Here, we explored community assembly processes after metal mining, which is considered to be a highly destructive activity to provide insight into the assembly rules associated with severe anthropogenic disturbance. Using a chronosequence approach, we selected vegetation patches representing different successional stages and collected data on eight plant functional traits from each stage. The traits were classified as establishment and regenerative traits. Based on these traits, null models were constructed to identify the processes driving assembly at various successional stages. Comparison of our observations with the null models indicated that establishment and regenerative traits converged in the primary stage of succession. As succession progressed, establishment traits shifted to neutral assembly, whereas regeneration traits alternately converged and diverged. The observed establishment traits were equal to expected values, whereas regenerative traits diverged significantly after more than 20 years of succession. Furthermore, the available Cr content was linked strongly to species' ecological strategies. In the initial stages of vegetation succession in an abandoned metal mine, the plant community was mainly affected by the available metal content and dispersal limitation. It was probably further affected by strong interspecific interaction after the environmental conditions had improved, and stochastic processes became dominant during the stage with a successional age of more than 20 years.

5.
Theranostics ; 12(7): 3503-3517, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547751

RESUMO

The perioperative trauma-related platelet recruitment and activation severely affect tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, efficiently killing residual tumor cells and simultaneously inhibiting platelet activation to block platelet-cancer cell interaction might be a promising strategy to prevent postoperative tumor recurrence and metastasis. Methods: Biodegradable PLGA electrospun nanofibrous films co-delivering doxorubicin-loaded tumor repopulating cell-derived microparticles (DOX-MPs) and aspirin (ASA) were developed as the implant materials (DOX-MPs/ASA@NF) for postoperative in-situ treatment. The characterization, cytotoxicity against tumor cells, inhibition in platelet activation-triggered proliferation, migration and metastasis of tumor cells and in vivo anti-recurrence and anti-metastasis activity induced by DOX-MPs/ASA@NF were systematically evaluated. Results: PLGA nanofibrous films facilitate the enhanced distribution of DOX-MPs as well as DOX-MPs and ASA release in a time-programmed manner within the tumor resection cavity. The released DOX-MPs efficiently kill the residual tumor cells, while ASA decreases platelet activation and inhibits platelet-promoted proliferation, migration and metastasis of tumor cells, resulting in the remarkable inhibition of postoperative tumor recurrence and metastasis. Conclusions: DOX-MPs/ASA@NF may be a promising candidate to prevent the recurrence and metastasis of resectable tumors.

6.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35553138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Results from major epidemiological studies give evidence to the essential role that dietary salt plays in the development of hypertension. Contrastingly, the mechanisms that mediate individual susceptibility to salt-sensitive hypertension are unknown. Blood pressure (BP) and sodium reabsorption by the kidneys are regulated by the circadian clock. Consistent with these observations, when mice with global knockout (KO) of the circadian protein period 1 (PER1) are exposed to a high salt diet, they demonstrate increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, impaired natriuresis, and hypertension. However, the cumulative sodium balance of PER1 KO mice is not different from control mice. Thus, we hypothesize that PER1 might mediate endothelial cell dysfunction and susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) were transfected with siRNA targeting PER1 or non-targeting siRNA controls. Endothelial cell function was assessed by measurement of nitric oxide bioavailability, proliferation, and migration. Nitric Oxide (NO) was quantified by DAF fluorescence, proliferation by EZQuant™, and migration by measuring velocity and distance travelled by single cells using time lapse imaging. RESULTS: Nitric oxide bioavailability was increased with PER1 knockdown (Mean fluorescence 14433 ± 1344 vs. 7423 ± 472, p<0.005). Migration velocity and distance were decreased with PER1 siRNA compared to non-target controls, though not statistically significant (Mean distance 118.9 uM ± 11.39 vs. 138 uM ± 10.88, p=0.2) and (Mean velocity 42.3 uM/sec ± 3.98 vs. 46 uM/sec ± 3.6, p=0.14). There were no differences in proliferation at 24, 48, or 72 hours (Fold change in cell numbers of PER1 siRNA treated cells compared to non-target controls were 0.87 ± .05 at 24 hours, 0.87 ± .09 at 48 hours, and 0.90 ± .06 at 72 hours, p=NS). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that knock down of PER1 increases NO bioavailability and decreases migration of endothelial cells. ET-1 can increase NO bioavailability via ETB receptors. Experiments are ongoing to delineate the role of ET-1/ETA and ET-B in mediating the effect of PER1 on endothelial cell function.

7.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35553798

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) or progressive loss of kidney function, is a serious health condition that affects 1 in 7 adults or an estimated 37 million Americans. Epidemiological studies have linked CKD with Sleep Apnea (SA), a breathing disorder characterized by erratic breathing, and episodes of hypoxia. However, the mechanisms that underlie the association between CKD and SA are not well understood. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that regulates the body's response to hypoxia. Lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase likes (LOX and LOX-Ls) are a group of copper enzymes that are hypoxia responsive and pro-fibrotic. We hypothesized that hypoxia in SA upregulates HIF-1α to drive expression of LOX or LOX-L enzymes, fibrosis, and CKD. MATERIALS & METHODS: Samples from the Sleep and Nephrology and Outcomes Research Study (SNORE), a prospective observational study of sleep disorders in veterans with CKD, were used for this study. The patients were divided into three main groups: CKD with no SA (n=14), CKD with severe SA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=13). RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was isolated using PAXGene Blood RNA tubes (Qiagen). The RNA was then used as a template for reverse transcription, converting it into cDNA and fold changes in gene expression between groups were examined using real time PCR. Differences between groups were compared using nonparametric Mann Whitney U tests and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: LOX expression was lower in patients with CKD compared to healthy controls, regardless of SA (CKD with SA: 0.28 ± 0.06 (p=0.04) and CKD without SA: 0.33 ± 0.07 (p=0.09)). There were no significant differences seen in any of the LOX-L expression (LOX-L1 (p=0.84), LOX-L2 (p=0.35), or LOX-L3 (p=0.93)). Similarly, HIF-1α was lower in patients with CKD (CKD with SA: 0.69 ± 1.0 (p=0.47) and CKD without SA: 0.46 ± 0.06 (p=0.01)). There was no statistically significant correlation between LOX and HIF-1α (r=0.04, p=0.83). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that HIF-1α and LOX expression in PBMC was decreased in patients with CKD regardless of if they had SA or not. The mechanisms underlying these observations, the functional significance, and if these changes are representative of tissue LOX expression needs further studies.

8.
ACS Sens ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537188

RESUMO

Integration of motor enzymes with biological nanopores has enabled commercial DNA sequencing technology; yet studies of the similar principle applying to solid-state nanopores are limited. Here, we demonstrate the real-life monitoring of phi29 DNA polymerase (DNAP) docking onto truncated-pyramidal nanopore (TPP) arrays through both electrical and optical readout. To achieve effective docking, atomic layer deposition of hafnium oxide is employed to reduce the narrowest pore opening size of original silicon (Si) TPPs to sub-10 nm. On a single TPP with pore opening size comparable to DNAP, ionic current measurements show that a polymerase-DNA complex can temporally dock onto the TPP with a certain docking orientation, while the majority become translocation events. On 5-by-5 TPP arrays, a label-free optical detection method using Ca2+ sensitive dye, are employed to detect the docking dynamics of DNAP. The results show that this label-free detection strategy is capable of accessing the docking events of DNAP on TPP arrays. Finally, we examine the activity of docked DNAP by performing on-site rolling circle amplification to synthesize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which serves as a proof-of-concept demonstration of utilizing this docking scheme for emerging nanopore sensing applications.

9.
Zootaxa ; 5115(2): 210-220, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391372

RESUMO

We provide a key to mute Trigonidiinae species from China, and provide morphological features of some nondescript species in brown color. We established a new genus, Zilingxi He gen. nov. with two new species Z. danmai He sp. nov. and Z. dian He sp. nov. from China. The new genus possesses a black line above clypeus; pseudepiphallic paramere of male genitalia possessing 23 branches; ovipositor shorter than other genera. Two new species are very similar in morphology, but different in the color pattern in frontal rostrum, and the shape of male genitalia. The type specimens are deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e022279, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243903

RESUMO

Background Many patients after stroke are found to have elevated serum creatine kinase (CK). This study aimed to investigate the associations between serum CK levels and clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Methods and Results The study included 8910 patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from the CNSR-III (Third China National Stroke Registry). Baseline serum CK levels after admission were measured. The associations between CK and clinical outcomes (stroke recurrence, death, and disability, defined as modified Rankin scale score 3-6 or 2-6) were analyzed. Patients with elevated CK levels had higher risks of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.21-1.93), death (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-2.58), and disability (modified Rankin scale score, 3-6; odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.29-1.90) at 3 months after adjusting confounding factors. Similar results were found at 1 year. The effects of CK on death and disability were more significant in male patients than female patients (P value for interaction <0.05). Elevated CK-MB levels were not associated with clinical outcomes in this study. Conclusions Elevated serum CK after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack is associated with higher risks of recurrent stroke, death, and disability at 3 months and 1 year. Serum CK may act as a useful predictor for recurrent stroke and poor functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Sex modifies the relationship between elevated CK and disability or death.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Infarto Cerebral , Creatina Quinase , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
11.
Gene ; 824: 146378, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of glucokinase (GCK) gene, glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to GDM in Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study included 835 GDM patients and 870 non-diabetic pregnant women who had their prenatal examinations at 24-28 gestational weeks at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province from January 15, 2018 to March 31, 2019. The nurses were trained to collect clinical information and blood samples. The candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs, GCK rs1799884, rs4607517, rs10278336, rs2268574, rs730497 and GCKR rs780094, rs1260326) were genotyped on Sequenom Massarray platform. Statistical analysis including independent sample t test, chi-square test, logistic regression and one-way ANOVA were performed to evaluate the differences in allele and genotype distributions and their correlations with the odds of GDM. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in age, pre-gestational BMI, education level and family history of diabetes between case and control group (P < 0.05). After adjusting for these confounders, GCK rs1799884 was still significantly associated with GDM (P < 0.05), but there were no significant associations between rs4607517, rs10278336 and rs2268574, rs780094 and rs1260326 polymorphisms and GDM odds (P > 0.05). In addition, the pregnant women with rs4607517 TT genotype had the significantly higher fasting blood glucose level than CC genotype (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GCK rs1799884 mutation is associated with higher GDM odds in Chinese population. Further larger studies are needed to explore the association between GCK and GCKR polymorphisms and GDM susceptibility.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Glucoquinase , Proteínas de Transporte , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Feminino , Glucoquinase/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205307

RESUMO

The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene family in plants comprises two subfamilies: CCD and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). Genes in the NCED subfamily are mainly involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses such as salt, low temperature, and drought. Members of the NCED subfamily are the most important rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). In the present study, genome-wide analysis was performed to identify CCD gene members in six Cucurbitaceae species, including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), melon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C.sativus), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), and wax gourd (Benincasa hispida). A total of 10, 9, 9, 13, 8, 8 CCD genes were identified in the six species, respectively, and these genes were unevenly distributed in different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CCD genes of the six species clustered into two subfamilies: CCD and NCED, with five and three independent clades, respectively. The number of exons ranged from 1 to 15, and the number of motifs were set to 15 at most. The cis-acting elements analysis showed that a lot of the cis-acting elements were implicated in stress and hormone response. Melon seedlings were treated with salt, low temperature, drought, and ABA, and then tissue-specific analysis of CCDs expression were performed on the root, stem, upper leaf, middle leaf, female flower, male flower, and tendril of melon. The results showed that genes in CCD family exhibited various expression patterns. Different CCD genes of melon showed different degrees of response to abiotic stress. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of CCD gene family in six species of Cucurbitaceae, providing a strong foundation for future studies on specific genes in this family.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Cucurbitaceae , Dioxigenases , Ácido Abscísico , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Citrullus/genética , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Filogenia , Plantas/metabolismo
13.
J Fish Dis ; 45(5): 623-630, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176179

RESUMO

The protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans is one of the most important ectoparasites of marine fish, causing 'white spot disease' and mass mortality in aquaculture. To accurately predict disease outbreaks and develop prevention strategies, improved detection methods are required that are sensitive, convenient and rapid. In this study, a pair of specific primers based on the C. irritans 18S rRNA gene was developed and used in a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. This assay was able to detect five theronts in 1 L of natural seawater. Furthermore, a linear model was established to analyse the log of Ct value and parasite abundance in seawater (y = -2.9623x + 24.2930), and the coefficient of determination (R2 ) value was 0.979. A lysis buffer was optimized for theront DNA extraction and used for storage sample. This method was superior to the commercial water DNA kit, and there was no significant degradation of DNA at room temperature for 24-96 hr. A dilution method was developed to manage qPCR inhibitors and used to investigate natural seawater samples in a net cage farm with diseased fish, and the findings were consistent with the actual situation. This study provides a valuable tool for assisting in the early monitoring and control of cryptocaryoniasis in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos , Cilióforos , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Perciformes , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Água do Mar , Manejo de Espécimes
14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204347

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the feasibility of ultrasound radiomics analysis before invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for evaluating the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) quantified by the SYNTAX score (SS). This study included 105 carotid plaques from 105 patients (64 low-SS patients, 41 intermediate-high-SS patients). The clinical characteristics and three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) features before ICA were assessed. Ultrasound images of carotid plaques were used for radiomics analysis. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, which generated several nonzero coefficients, was used to select features that could predict intermediate-high SS. Based on those coefficients, the radiomics score (Rad-score) was calculated. The selected clinical characteristics, 3D-US features, and Rad-score were finally integrated into a radiomics nomogram. Among the clinical characteristics and 3D-US features, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and plaque volume were identified as predictors for distinguishing between low SS and intermediate-high SS. During the radiomics process, 8 optimal radiomics features most capable of identifying intermediate-high SS were selected from 851 candidate radiomics features. The differences in Rad-score between the training and the validation set were significant (p = 0.016 and 0.006). The radiomics nomogram integrating HDL, Apo B, plaque volume, and Rad-score showed excellent results in the training set (AUC, 0.741 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.646-0.835)) and validation set (AUC, 0.939 (95% CI: 0.860-1.000)), with good calibration (mean absolute errors of 0.028 and 0.059 in training and validation sets, respectively). Decision curve analysis showed that the radiomics nomogram could identify patients who could obtain the most benefit. We concluded that the radiomics nomogram based on carotid plaque ultrasound has favorable value for the noninvasive prediction of intermediate-high SS. This radiomics nomogram has potential value for the risk stratification of CAD before ICA and provides clinicians with a noninvasive diagnostic tool.

15.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 780751, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155389

RESUMO

More than 200 million people have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 4 million deaths have been reported worldwide to date. Cathepsin B/cathepsin L (CTSB/L) are SARS-CoV-2 entry-associated proteases and facilitate SARS-CoV-2 to infect host cells. However, the expressions of CTSB/L in healthy individuals and cancer patients remain not fully elucidated yet. Here, we comprehensively profiled the expressions and distributions of CTSB/L in human normal tissues, cancer tissues, and cell lines. Moreover, we compared CTSB/L expressions between various cancers and matched normal tissues, and investigated their genetic alteration and prognostic values in pan-cancer. Finally, we also explored the correlation between CTSB/L expressions and immune infiltration. We found that CTSB was highly expressed in most tissues, and CTSL was highly expressed predominantly in the digestive, urinary, and respiratory systems, such as the lungs, liver and gallbladder, and kidney tissues in the translational level. Moreover, cancer patients may be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggested that CTSB/L are overexpressed in aerodigestive and genitourinary cancers when compared with that in matched normal tissues, and their expressions were closely related to the prognosis of some cancer types. Interestingly, CTSB/L expressions were significantly correlated with immune cell infiltration in manifold cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. In conclusion, our study shows a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of two important SARS-CoV-2 entry-related proteases, which could provide a potential indication on prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112486, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many epidemiological studies suggest an association between antibiotic exposure and the development of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. However, the majority of these studies are observational and still the question remains, "Does the specific antibiotic administration regimen play a role in the development of colitis?" This study aimed to compare the possible effects of continuous and intermittent antibiotic exposure on the development of colitis using a colitis-susceptible IL-10 knockout [IL-10-/-] mouse model. METHODS: IL-10-/- mice [C57BL/6] were randomly assigned to a non-antibiotic group, continuous antibiotic group and intermittent antibiotic group, and observed for 30 weeks. The antibiotic cocktail was given via the drinking water. The differential response to antibiotics was assessed. RESULTS: Intermittent antibiotic treatment resulted in severe colitis with early disease onset in IL-10-/- mice. Higher unit colon weight and spleen weight were observed in intermittent antibiotic-treated mice but not in the continuous antibiotic group. Moreover, intermittent antibiotic treatment aggravated epithelial damage and colonic inflammation, mucosal barrier dysfunction and colonic allergic sensitization in IL-10-/- mice, whereas continuous antibiotic treatment ameliorated these symptoms. Male IL-10-/- mice with intermittent antibiotic exposure were more susceptible to colonic inflammation and allergic response than females. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, intermittent antibiotic exposure accelerated the development of severe colitis more than continuous antibiotic exposure in IL-10-/- male mice. In addition to the colonic damage and impaired barrier function, stimulation of allergic response may play a role in accelerating the development of colitis in genetically susceptible mice.


Assuntos
Ampicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-10/genética , Neomicina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Permeabilidade
18.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105577, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959178

RESUMO

Phallus rubrovolvatus is an important commercially cultivated mushroom species in China. However, the volva of P. rubrovolvatus usually discarded as a by-product due to the unpleasant flavor and difficulty in processing. In this study, we investigated the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the volva of P. rubrovolvatus. As a result, fifteen rare aniline derivatives, including twelve new compounds (1-11, 14) and three new natural products (12, 13, 15) were isolated from the volva. Their structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR data and HR-ESI-MS data, while the relative and absolute configurations were confirmed by NOESY correlations and comparison between experimental and calculated ECD spectra. In addition, compounds 1-15 were tested for anti-inflammatory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 4, 9 and 10 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.5 to 15.6 µM.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resíduos/análise , Compostos de Anilina/química , Compostos de Anilina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150626, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597554

RESUMO

Mining is the most destructive human activity towards ecosystems through changing the terrain, substrate properties, and vegetation community structure. Vegetation succession, the theoretical basis of restoration, is influenced by site conditions and anthropogenic intervention. In order to provide general practical applications for mine restoration, it is critical to identify the optimal intervention that promotes succession, and the influence of climates. Here, we hypothesized that high-intervention contributes to positive characteristics and more successful succession, while increasing climatic severity presents negative characteristics and succession is hard to succeed. In this study, we collected 55 global studies (n = 804) on the vegetation succession of abandoned metal mines, and evaluated the ecological characteristics and successional trends under spontaneous succession and anthropogenic intervention conditions by conducting meta-analyses. Furthermore, we considered factors that may affect the vegetation succession after closing mines, including geological conditions, mining area (area of degraded land in mine field) and mining time (duration of mining operations). Species richness and evenness increased with the age of succession under low- and non- intervention conditions, while coverage increased under high-intervention, and species diversity decreased significantly with increasing mining time in cold areas. There were significant differences in succession trends under different climate types. The vegetation structure was more likely to develop towards the target vegetation in megathermal and mesothermal than in microthermal regions. We contend that a low level of intervention can help succession, while high-intervention will not. Vegetation succession can be achieved more easily with less climatic severity, and the reduction of large-scale mining processes (area and time) can increase vegetation evenness, especially for continental or microthermal regions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Humanos , Metais , Mineração
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 814: 152509, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968605

RESUMO

This study evaluated the humification and maturation of kitchen waste during indoor composting by individual households. In total, 50 households were randomly selected to participate in this study using kitchen waste of their own for indoor composting using a standard 20 L sealed composter. Garden waste was also collected from their local communities and used as the bulking agent. Both effective microorganisms and lime were inoculated at 1% (wet weight) of raw composting materials to facilitate the composting initiation. Results from this study demonstrate for the first time that ordinary residents could correctly follow the instruction to operate indoor composting at household level to manage urban kitchen waste at source. Overall, 30 households provided valid and complete data to show an increase (to ~50 °C) and then decrease in temperature in response to the decline of biodegradable organic substances during indoor composting. The compost physiochemical characteristics varied significantly toward maturation with an increase in seed germination index to above 50% for most households. Furthermore, organic humification occurred continuously during indoor composting as indicated by the enhanced content of humic substances, degree of polymerization, and spectroscopic characteristics.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Jardins , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Temperatura
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