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1.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 34(7): 419-426, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149837

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association between the incidence of acute radiation gastritis attributed to postoperative intensity modulated irradiation therapy (IMRT) and the dose volume of intrathoracic stomach of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after radical esophagectomy. Methods: The authors retrospectively collected the data of 49 ESCC patients who participated in postoperative IMRT treatment after radical esophagectomy, and analyzed the incidence of acute radiation gastritis during the treatment. Results: Among all the 49 patients, acute grade ≥2 radiation gastritis was observed in 19 patients (39%). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the physical variables, such as stomach Dmax, Dmean, length of the whole stomach received 5-40 Gy (LSTT5-LSTT40), and V10-V50, were associated with acute radiation gastritis. Patients were grouped according to cutoff values in physical indicators obtained from the ROC curve. Other than V5, the incidence of acute grade ≥2 radiation gastritis was significantly higher in the group with indicators above cutoff values than that below cutoff values, and the between-group difference was statistically significant in terms of physical indicators. Multivariate analysis suggested that LSTT5 and V40 could be acted as indicators to predict the incidence of acute grade ≥2 radiation gastritis. Conclusions: In the postoperative IMRT treatment for ESCC patients, protection of intrathoracic stomach is strongly recommended. Dose-volume histogram is a preferable predictive indicator for the occurrence of acute radiation gastritis, especially for the stomach LSTT5 and V40. Nevertheless, a larger sample size is needed to provide insight into the relevant study.

2.
Ground Water ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228260

RESUMO

In west-central Lower Peninsula of Michigan, population growth and expanded agricultural activities over recent decades have resulted in significant increases in distributed groundwater withdrawals. The growth of the extensive well network and anecdotes of water shortages (dry wells) have raised concerns over the region's groundwater sustainability. We developed an unsteady, three-dimensional (3D) groundwater flow model to describe system dynamics over the last 50 years and evaluate long-term impacts of groundwater use. Simulating this large aquifer system was challenging; the site is characterized by strong, spatially distributed, and statistically nonstationary heterogeneity, making it difficult to avoid over-parameterization using traditional approaches for conceptualizing and calibrating a flow model. Moreover, traditional pumping and water level data were lacking and prohibitively expensive to collect given the large-scale and long-term nature of this study. An integrated, stochastic-deterministic approach was developed to characterize the system and calibrate the flow model through innovative use of high-density water well datasets. This approached allowed (1) implementation of a "zone-based," nonstationary stochastic approach to conceptualize complex spatial variability using a small set of geologic material types; (2) modeling the spatiotemporal evolution of many water well withdrawals across several decades using sector-based parameterization; and (3) critical analysis of long-term water level changes at different locations in the aquifer system for characterizing the system dynamics and calibrating the model. Results show the approach is reasonably successful in calibrating a complex model for a highly complex site in a way that honors complex distributed heterogeneity and stress configurations.

3.
Chemosphere ; 226: 351-359, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947045

RESUMO

Phthalates are widespread endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have been suggested to affect neurodevelopment. However, association between lactational exposure to phthalates and neurodevelopmental effects has rarely been reported in epidemiological studies. We conducted a pilot prospective study of 138 mother-infant pairs to evaluate whether lactational exposure to phthalates was associated with neurodevelopmental effects in infants. At baseline survey, the spot urine samples from both mothers and infants were collected for measuring ten metabolites of phthalates, and the food intake information of infants was assessed by the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). At the follow-up survey in 9 months of age, the neurodevelopmental Function of infants was assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Edition 3 (ASQ-3). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for delayed development according to the level of exposure to phthalates. Our results indicated that MnBP and MiBP were high in lactating infants and mothers. In the overall study population, most metabolites showed positive associations with delayed development of most ASQ-3 domains. In male, MMP, MEP, MiBP and MnBP but not DEHP metabolites were significantly associated with increased odds of delayed development of all domains. In female, most LMWP metabolites and the four oxidative metabolites of DEHP were significantly associated with increased odds of delayed development of most domains. In conclusion, we found a significant negative association between lactational exposure to phthalates and ASQ-3 domains. Some of the sex-specific observations warrant further investigation. The dietary source of lactational phthalates exposure may not the breast milk or infant formula but the complementary food.


Assuntos
Lactação , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Ground Water ; 57(5): 784-806, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802949

RESUMO

Managing nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution of groundwater systems is a significant challenge because of the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface, high costs of data collection, and the multitude of scales involved. In this study, we assessed a particularly complex NPS groundwater pollution problem in Michigan, namely, the salinization of shallow aquifer systems due to natural upwelling of deep brines. We applied a system-based approach to characterize, across multiple scales, the integrated groundwater quantity-quality dynamics associated with the brine upwelling process, assimilating a variety of modeling tools and data-including statewide water well datasets scarcely used for larger scientific analysis. Specifically, we combined (1) data-driven modeling of massive amounts of groundwater/geologic information across multiple spatial scales with (2) detailed analysis of groundwater salinity dynamics and process-based flow modeling at local scales. Statewide "hotspots" were delineated and county-level severity rankings were developed based on dissolved chloride (Cl- ) concentration percentiles. Within local hotspots, the relative impact of upwelling was determined to be controlled by: (1) streams-which act as "natural pumps" that bring deeper (more mineralized) groundwater to the surface; (2) the occurrence of nearly impervious geologic material at the surface-which restricts fresh water dilution of deeper, saline groundwater; and (3) the space-time evolution of water well withdrawals-which induces slow migration of saline groundwater from its natural course. This multiscale, data-intensive approach significantly improved our understanding of the brine upwelling processes in Michigan, and has applicability elsewhere given the growing availability of statewide water well databases.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Michigan , Poços de Água
5.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 340-348, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243182

RESUMO

The effect of human exposure to phthalates and consequent contribution to the development of cardiometabolic health problems is unknown. However, oxidative stress has been established as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic outcomes. In this study, we aimed to explore whether exposure to phthalate metabolites could induce cardiometabolic risk by increasing oxidative stress in a diabetic population from Shanghai. We collected paired blood and urine samples from a total of 300 volunteers, and measured 10 phthalate metabolites in urine and biomarkers of oxidative stress from serum including glucose and lipid levels, and liver and kidney damage. The insulin resistance (IR) risk was assessed by the surrogate indices including homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride glucose (TyG). We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association between phthalates and these physiological parameters. Mediation and modification analyses were performed to identify the role that oxidative stress played in the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that most of the determined phthalate metabolites were positively associated with HOMA-IR, 8­hydroxy­2'­deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), and malondialdehyde (MDA). In the mediation analysis, only γ­glutamiltransferase (GGT) was found to be a significant mediator of the association between phthalates and TyG. In the modification analysis, exposure to phthalates strengthened the association between oxidative stress (MDA and 8-OHDG) and HOMA-IR. Our findings demonstrate that exposure to phthalates might be positively associated with elevated IR and oxidative stress. The direct participation (mediation effect) of GGT might play an important mechanism in promoting IR.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 871-880, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763868

RESUMO

Phthalates are predominantly used as plasticizers in daily consumer products. People are regularly exposed to phthalates through contact with these products. Phthalates are suspected to cause adverse effects in general population. We detected 10 metabolites of 6 phthalates in 3348 urine samples of general population (infants (0-1 yr), children and adolescents (2-19 yr), adults (≥20 yr), and pregnant women) from Shanghai. The Daily intake for phthalates was estimated based on the levels of urinary metabolites. Hazard quotient (HQ) was used to evaluate the risk from the exposure to a single chemical. For the cumulative risk calculation, HQs of different phthalates were added to produce the Hazard index (HI). Overall, exposure was low in adults but presented at a relatively high level throughout childhood. The exposure to some specific phthalates was high in infants and pregnant women. The cumulative risk assessment showed cause for concern mainly for infants and children subgroups. The results indicated that general population from Shanghai was widely exposed to phthalates and the infants were possibly at a high risk of cumulative exposure to phthalates.

7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 37(1): 51, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triptolide is a structurally unique diterpene triepoxide with potent antitumor activity. However,the effect and mechanism of triptolide on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well studied. METHODS: Cells were treated with triptolide, and the anti-HCC activity of triptolide was evaluated using flow cytometry, western blot, and xenograft studies. MicroRNA microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to identify differential microRNAs induced by triptolide. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was employed to study the interaction between c-Myc and genomic regions of miR106b-25. MicroRNAs overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed to determine the role of these microRNAs in triptolide-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: Triptolide inhibited cell proliferation and induced marked apoptosis in multiple HCC cell lines with different p53 status. Several signaling molecules involved in different pathways were altered after the treatment of triptolide. Xenograft tumor volume was significantly reduced in triptolide-treated group compared with vehicle control group. Two miRNA clusters, miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25, were significantly suppressed by triptolide, which resulted in the upregulation of their common target genes, including BIM, PTEN, and p21. In HCC samples, high levels of these miRNA clusters correlated with shorter recurrence free survival. Triptolide inhibited the expression of theses miRNAs in a c-Myc-dependent manner, which enhanced triptolide-induced cell death. We further showed that triptolide down-regulated the expression of c-Myc through targeting ERCC3, a newly identified triptolide-binding protein. CONCLUSIONS: The triptolide-induced modulation of c-Myc/miRNA clusters/target genes axis enhances its potent antitumor activity, which indicates that triptolide serves as an attractive chemotherapeutic agent against HCC.

8.
Nutrients ; 10(2)2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364173

RESUMO

The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC)-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)-2011, including 3-day-24-h dietary recalls were used in this study. The CHEI was assessed by four exemplary menus developed by the DGC-2016, the general linear models, the independent t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Spearman's correlation analysis, the principal components analysis (PCA), the Cronbach's coefficient, and the Pearson correlation with nutrient intakes. A higher CHEI score was linked with lower exposure to known risk factors of Chinese diets. The CHEI scored nearly perfect for exemplary menus for adult men (99.8), adult women (99.7), and the healthy elderly (99.1), but not for young children (91.2). The CHEI was able to distinguish the difference in diet quality between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.0001), people with higher and lower education levels (P < 0.0001), and people living in urban and rural areas (P < 0.0001). Low correlations with energy intake for the CHEI total and component scores (|r| < 0.34, P < 0.01) supported the index assessed diet quality independently of diet quantity. The PCA indicated that underlying multiple dimensions compose the CHEI, and Cronbach's coefficient α was 0.22. Components of dairy, fruits and cooking oils had the greatest impact on the total score. People with a higher CHEI score had not only a higher absolute intake of nutrients (P < 0.001), but also a more nutrient-dense diet (P < 0.001). Our findings support the validity and reliability of the CHEI when using the 3-day-24-h recalls.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Avaliação Nutricional , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Ground Water ; 56(3): 377-398, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853150

RESUMO

Recent trends of assimilating water well records into statewide databases provide a new opportunity for evaluating spatial dynamics of groundwater quality and quantity. However, these datasets are scarcely rigorously analyzed to address larger scientific problems because they are of lower quality and massive. We develop an approach for utilizing well databases to analyze physical and geochemical aspects of groundwater systems, and apply it to a multiscale investigation of the sources and dynamics of chloride (Cl- ) in the near-surface groundwater of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Nearly 500,000 static water levels (SWLs) were critically evaluated, extracted, and analyzed to delineate long-term, average groundwater flow patterns using a nonstationary kriging technique at the basin-scale (i.e., across the entire peninsula). Two regions identified as major basin-scale discharge zones-the Michigan and Saginaw Lowlands-were further analyzed with regional- and local-scale SWL models. Groundwater valleys ("discharge" zones) and mounds ("recharge" zones) were identified for all models, and the proportions of wells with elevated Cl- concentrations in each zone were calculated, visualized, and compared. Concentrations in discharge zones, where groundwater is expected to flow primarily upwards, are consistently and significantly higher than those in recharge zones. A synoptic sampling campaign in the Michigan Lowlands revealed concentrations generally increase with depth, a trend noted in previous studies of the Saginaw Lowlands. These strong, consistent SWL and Cl- distribution patterns across multiple scales suggest that a deep source (i.e., Michigan brines) is the primary cause for the elevated chloride concentrations observed in discharge areas across the peninsula.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Qualidade da Água , Análise Espacial , Poços de Água
10.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 30(10): 727-736, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Consuming phthalates may be due to the presence of food contact materials, such as plastic containers. In this study, we investigated the association between plastic container use and phthalate exposure in 2,140 Shanghai adults. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire on the frequency of using plastic containers in different scenarios in the previous year (e.g., daily, weekly) and on the consumption of plastic-packaged foods in the previous three days (yes or no). Urinary phthalate metabolites were used to assess the association between phthalate exposure and the use of plastic containers. RESULTS: The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most frequently detected in urine. The results revealed that phthalate exposure was associated with consumption of plastic-packaged breakfast or processed food items in the previous three days. The consumption of these two food items had strong synergistic effects on increasing urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites. CONCLUSION: Our results of plastic-packaged breakfast and processed food may be explained by the use of flexible plastic containers, indicating the importance of risk assessment for the application of flexible plastic containers.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Plásticos/química , Adulto , China , Cidades , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo
11.
World J Surg Oncol ; 15(1): 192, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five-year overall survival rate of TESCC after surgery is low (approximately 30% to 60%), so it is meaningful to discuss the significance of PORT. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the data of 227 patients with PT3N0M0 esophageal cancer (EC). The failure pattern after surgery was analyzed. Difference of adjuvant PORT in patients with PT3N0M0 TESCC and the appropriate population were explored based on the relevant studies. RESULTS: There were 58 cases with intrathoracic locoregional recurrence (LRR) after radical surgery and 27 cases with distant metastasis, including 10 cases of recurrence. The recurrence rate of mediastinal lymph nodes in the thoracic cavity was 50.0%. Univariate analysis revealed that compared with patients with middle and lower thoracic EC, the 3/5-year survival rate of patients with upper thoracic EC was significantly lower, accompanied with remarkably higher thoracic LRR. Compared with those with moderately- and well-differentiated TESCC, the 3/5-year survival rate of patients with poorly differentiated TESCC was significantly lower, whereas the distant metastasis rate was notably higher. Multivariate analysis revealed that different lesion locations and different pathologic differentiation were the independent prognostic factors. The lesion location and degree of differentiation were the independent influencing factors for thoracic LRR and distant metastasis, respectively. CONCLUSION: The intrathoracic LRR is the major failure pattern for patients with PT3N0M0 TESCC after conventional two-field lymphadenectomy. In addition, recurrence rate of PT3N0M0 TESCC was significantly higher in upper thoracic EC than in middle and lower thoracic EC. PORT is recommended to patients with PT3N0M0 upper TESCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Esofagectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Mediastino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/patologia , Falha de Tratamento
12.
Nutrients ; 9(9)2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872591

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association with typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Data from 14,584 participants (≥2 years) from the CHNS-2011, including three 24-h dietary recalls and additional variables, were used to develop the CHEI. The standard portion size was applied to quantify food consumption. The CHEI was designed as a continuous scoring system, comprising 17 components; the maximum total score is 100. The mean, 1st and 99th percentiles of the CHEI score were 52.4, 27.6 and 78.3, respectively. Young and middle-aged adults scored better than the elderly. Diet insufficiency was chiefly manifested in fruits, dairy, whole grains and poultry; diet excess was mainly reflected in red meat, cooking oils and sodium. The CHEI was positively associated with education and urbanization levels; current smokers and unmarried people obtained relative low CHEI scores. Occupation and body mass index (BMI) were also related to the CHEI. Our findings indicate that the CHEI is capable of recognizing differences in diet quality among the Chinese, and it is sensitive to typical sociodemographic/economic factors.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo/etnologia , Tamanho da Porção/etnologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde Suburbana/etnologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 110(4): 585-592, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058577

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen causing infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface-related proteins are often explored as potential vaccine candidates and diagnostic antigens. In the present study, glutamate dehydrogenase, a highly conserved immunogenic extracellular protein, was used to establish a dot horseradish peroxidase enzyme-linked staphylococcal protein A immunosorbent assay (Dot-PPA-ELISA) for diagnosis of S. suis infection. The antigen-antibody reaction was optimised through checkerboard titration involving serial dilutions, followed by selective blocking tests and evaluations of cross-reaction, repeatability, and stability. Comparative analysis by using a conventional plate ELISA kit showed that the specificity and sensitivity of the Dot-PPA-ELISA were 97.5 and 96.6%, respectively. Furthermore, dynamic changes in the levels of antibody in rabbits immunised with a propolis inactivated vaccine were monitored by Dot-PPA-ELISA. A total seroprevalence of 73.1% in 305 pig serum samples indicated the method's applicability to detect S. suis infection. Cumulatively, the results suggested that Dot-PAA-ELISA is a convenient, rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic method suitable for studying large numbers of samples obtained from clinical and epidemiological studies, thereby helping reduce important economic losses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Glutamato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus suis/imunologia , Animais , Coelhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
14.
Nutrients ; 8(8)2016 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455322

RESUMO

Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso/etnologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Prevalência , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 36(6): 1650-5, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052365

RESUMO

Photonic crystal fiber can generate particular dispersion properties and highly nonlinear, because of the special guiding mechanism and the adjustable structure parameters,which provides new conditions for the study of nonlinear fiber optics. There are rich nonlinear spectral properties produced by a variety of nonlinear physical effect, under different pump light pulse parameters in photonic crystal fibers with different structure and transmission properties. At present many papers have reported the experimental results of nonlinear optical properties in photonic crystal fiber, but there is little theoretical analysis about the produced mechanism and the change rule of the nonlinear spectrum. In the paper, solving nonlinear Schrodinger equation with split-step Fourier method, transmission process of femtosecond laser pulse in photonic crystal fiber is simulated. The relationship between the output spectrum and incident light pulse parameters (the peak power of pump light P, the wavelength of pump light λ, the shape of light pulse, the width of light pulse TFWHM), the structure parameters of optical fiber (the pitch Λ, the hole-to-pitch ratio d/Λ, the length of fiber), the transmission characteristics (the dispersion properties, the nonlinear coefficient) is obtained. The spectral characteristics produced by nonlinear effects of the Raman soliton, dispersive wave, self-phase modulation are analyzed. The nonlinear optical spectrum of cladding note in photonic crystal fiber is studied in experiments, the broadband spectrum of soliton wave and dispersive wave is obtained. There are blue-shift dispersive wave near the wavelength of 0.5 µm, residual pump light near the wavelength of 0.82 µm, soliton wave near the wavelength of 1.1 µm, red-shift broadband dispersion wave near the wavelength of 2 µm in the spectrum obtained both in theory and experiment. The numerical simulation is confirmed through experimental observation. The physics principle of the nonlinear spectrum in photonic crystal fiber is revealed. These are useful and practical to realize the controllable output of broadband spectrum. These provide guidance for the structure design, fabrication, applied research of high nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

16.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 26(3): 306-16, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26608625

RESUMO

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants because of the broad use of plastics. We conducted a case-control study to determine whether uterine leiomyomata were related to exposure to phthalates. Urine specimens and questionnaires were collected from 61 cases and 61 age-matched controls. Nine phthalate monoesters were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy. Cases had significantly higher levels of creatinine-adjusted mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), total di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHPmet), and total dibutyl phthalate metabolites (∑DBP(met)) than controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that leiomyomata were positively associated with MiBP, MnBP, MEHP, MEHHP, MECPP, ∑DEHP(met), and ∑DBP(met). In summary, our data support the hypothesis that uterine leiomyomata are related to phthalate exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ésteres/urina , Leiomioma/epidemiologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Uterinas/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140430, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452279

RESUMO

The sources of water and corresponding delivery mechanisms to groundwater-fed fens are not well understood due to the multi-scale geo-morphologic variability of the glacial landscape in which they occur. This lack of understanding limits the ability to effectively conserve these systems and the ecosystem services they provide, including biodiversity and water provisioning. While fens tend to occur in clusters around regional groundwater mounds, Ives Road Fen in southern Michigan is an example of a geographically-isolated fen. In this paper, we apply a multi-scale groundwater modeling approach to understand the groundwater sources for Ives Road fen. We apply Transition Probability geo-statistics on more than 3000 well logs from a state-wide water well database to characterize the complex geology using conditional simulations. We subsequently implement a 3-dimensional reverse particle tracking to delineate groundwater contribution areas to the fen. The fen receives water from multiple sources: local recharge, regional recharge from an extensive till plain, a regional groundwater mound, and a nearby pond. The regional sources deliver water through a tortuous, 3-dimensional "pipeline" consisting of a confined aquifer lying beneath an extensive clay layer. Water in this pipeline reaches the fen by upwelling through openings in the clay layer. The pipeline connects the geographically-isolated fen to the same regional mound that provides water to other fen clusters in southern Michigan. The major implication of these findings is that fen conservation efforts must be expanded from focusing on individual fens and their immediate surroundings, to studying the much larger and inter-connected hydrologic network that sustains multiple fens.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Água Subterrânea , Hidrologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geologia , Humanos , Lagos , Michigan , Tanques
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 74: 71-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26349965

RESUMO

Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway, has been demonstrated to promote carcinogenesis through enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Dysregulation of TKTL1 expression also leads to poor prognosis in patients with urothelial and colorectal cancer. However, the expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we measured TKTL1 expression in ESCC cell lines and paraffin-embedded ESCC tumor tissues. Our results revealed that TKTL1 expression was upregulated in all of the four ESCC cell lines and in 61.25% (98/160) of ESCC specimens detected, while only 27.5% (11/40) in normal epithelium. Silencing of TKTL1 expression decreased cell proliferation through inhibiting the expression of MKI67 and cyclins including Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccnd1 and Ccne1. Meanwhile, down-regulation of TKTL1 also associated with increased apoptotic ratio and altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family in ESCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of TKTL1 significantly reduced the invasive potential of ESCC cells through up-regulation of anti-metastasis genes (MTSS1, TIMP2 and CTSK) and down-regulation of pr-metastasis genes (MMP2, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13). Taken together, our results indicate that TKTL1 is associated with a more aggressive behavior in ESCC cells and suppresses its expression or enzyme activity might represents a potential target for developing novel therapies in human ESCCs.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Transcetolase/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Regulação para Cima
19.
Appl Opt ; 54(10): 2851-6, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967199

RESUMO

A modified structure of single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with different background materials is presented and analyzed by using the full-vector finite-element method. Simulation results confirmed that the proposed PCF can realize low-loss SPSM on three wavebands with the same structure and different background materials. The wavebands are 1.46-1.60 µm for silica-based fiber, 1.97-2.3 µm for lead silicate glass fiber, and 3.16-3.58 µm for chalcogenide glass fiber. For three PCFs with different background materials, only the slow-axis mode exists and the confinement loss is less than 100 dB/m in the SPSM wavebands.

20.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 24(1): 23-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25858365

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the morphology of facial motoneurons and its death course as well as caspase 3, caspase 8, cyto-c death proteins' expression and their correlation following facial nerve distal transection or crush in rats. METHODS: The right facial nerve underwent distal transaction and crush as experimental group, while the left facial nerve acted as normal control. We observed the morphology and the death course of motoneurons by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Expressions of caspase 3, 8, and cyto-c protein were studied by immunohistochemistry (S-P) and image analysis. SPSS 10.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: (1) Both axon distal transection and axon crush resulted in death of facial motoneurons. The motoneurons' loss reached peak 28 days after injuries and were mainly through apoptotic pathway. The number of motoneurons' loss in the distal transection group were more than that in the crush group. (2) Caspase 3, caspase 8 and cyto-c protein expressions were observed in wide spread areas of normal rat facial nucleus. In addition to neurons, glial cells were also stained. Cells of the distal transection group stained more strongly than that of crush group. Expressions of the proteins began to increase 3 days after the injuries. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 protein expression reached peak 14 days whereas cyto-c protein expression reached peak 7 days after the injuries. Expression of caspase 8 and cytoc protein were correlated with expression of caspase 3 protein. CONCLUSIONS: (1)Different facial nerve injuries result in death of facial motoneurons. The loss of motoneurons is related with the injuries' patterns. Clinical nerve reparation should be performed as early as possible within 4 weeks after the transection. (2)The expression of caspase 3, 8 and cyto-c protein were related with facial nerve injuries' patterns. Caspase 8 and cyto-c protein expressions were correlated with caspase 3 protein expression, indicating that caspase 8 and cyto-c may take part in activating caspase 3. Caspase cascade reaction may have an important role in the apoptosis of facial motoneurons.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Caspases , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial , Neurônios Motores , Animais , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Citocromos c , Nervo Facial , Neuroglia , Ratos
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