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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 655-661, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530186

RESUMO

Owing to the low cost, high energy density, and high theoretical specific capacity, lithium-sulfur batteries have been deemed as a potential choice for future energy storage devices. However, they also have suffered from several scientific and technical issues including low conductivity, polysulfides migration, and volume changes. In this study, CoS2-TiO2@carbon core-shell fibers were fabricated through combination of coaxial electrospinning and selective vulcanization method. The core-shell fibers are able to efficiently host sulfur, confine polysulfides, and accelerate intermediates conversion. This electrode delivers an initial specific capacity of 1181.1 mAh g-1 and a high capacity of 736.5 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with high coulombic efficiency over 99.5% (capacity decay of 0.06% per cycle). This strategy of isolating interactant and selective vulcanization provides new ideas for effectively constructing heterostructure materials for lithium-sulfur batteries.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 291-298, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Gold Finger' is a grape cultivar with a finger-like shape and a milk flavor. The process by which its aroma profile evolves during ripening is unclear. Thus, changes in the free and bound volatile compounds present in 'Gold Finger' grapes during ripening were investigated using headspace sampling-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC-MS). RESULTS: A total of 83 volatile aroma components were identified in the grapes, with aldehydes, esters, acids, and alcohols being the main components. The total aroma compound content exhibited significant differences between the bound and free forms. The total content of bound volatile compounds did not change significantly during fruit development, although the free aroma compound content was significantly higher than the bound content. The total content of free aldehydes, free alcohols, bound norisoprenoids, and ketones gradually increased for up to 70 days after flowering (DAF), while the total free ester, terpene, and acid content decreased. The characteristic aroma compounds of 'Gold Finger' grapes were identified as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and ethyl hexanoate. CONCLUSIONS: These results give a foundation for the further development of 'Gold Finger' grapes and provide a theoretical basis for the selection and breeding of novel aromatic grape varieties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Mol Plant ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848346

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays) endosperm filling is coordinated with cell expansion to enlarge the grain size, but the mechanism coupling the two processes is poorly understood. Starchy endosperm cells basically contain no visible vacuoles for cell expansion. During grain filling, efficient synthesis of storage compounds leads to reduced cytoplasm and thus lowered cell turgor pressure. Although bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are essential for cell expansion, they accumulate at a low level at this stage. We identified an endosperm-specific GRAS domain-containing protein (ZmGRAS11) that lacks the DELLA domain and promotes cell expansion in the filling endosperm. The zmgras11 mutants showed a normal grain filling but a delayed cell expanding process, thereby resulting in a reduced kernel size and weight. Overexpression of ZmGRAS11 led to larger endosperm cells and therefore an increased kernel size and weight. ZmGRAS11 positively regulated the expression of ZmEXPB12 at endosperm filling stage, which is essential for cell expansion. Consistent with this, the zmexpb12 mutants showed a reduced kernel size and weight due to delayed cell expanding and overexpression of ZmEXPB12 led to larger endosperm cells. Moreover, we found that Opaque2 (O2), a central transcription factor that regulates endosperm filling, could directly bind to the promoter of ZmGRAS11 and activate its expression. Taken together, these results suggest that endosperm cell expansion is coupled with endosperm filling, which is orchestrated by the O2-ZmGRAS11-centered transcriptional regulatory network. Our findings also provide potential targets for maize yield improvement by increasing storage capacity of endosperm cells.

4.
J Pain Res ; 14: 3593-3600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849017

RESUMO

Introduction: Bone cancer pain (BCP) seriously affects the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer, but effective treatment methods are lacking. This study mainly investigates the role of EZH2 in a well-established BCP model induced by Walker 256 breast cancer cells in rats. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age weighing approximately 160 g were selected for the experiment. The BCP model was established by injecting inactivated Walker 256 breast cancer cells into the tibia. von Frey filaments were used to measure the paw withdrawal threshold, and bone destruction in the rat was observed using x-ray. The spinal EZH2 and H3K27Tm levels were measured using Western blotting and RT-qPCR analysis. Intrathecal injection of an EZH2 inhibitor was performed to examine the role of EZH2 in trigeminal BCP. Results: Experimental results showed that injecting Walker 256 breast cancer cells into the tibia induced bone cancer pain. Spinal EZH2 and H3K27Tm levels were significantly increased over time in BCP rats. An intrathecal injection of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a selective EZH2 inhibitor, downregulated the expression of EZH2 and attenuate the BCP-induced mechanical allodynia state. Conclusion: Intrathecal injection of DZNep relieve bone cancer pain in rats. EZH2 expressed in spinal cord tissue may be involved in the process of bone cancer pain in rats.

5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766239

RESUMO

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a form of severe childhood-onset refractory epilepsy typically caused by a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation. DS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are appropriate human cells for exploring disease mechanisms and testing new therapeutic strategies in vitro. Repeated spontaneous seizures can cause neuroinflammatory reactions and oxidative stress, resulting in neuronal toxicity, neuronal dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, and hippocampal inflammation. Antiepileptic drug therapy does not delay the development of chronic epilepsy. The application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is one therapeutic strategy for thwarting epilepsy development. This study evaluated the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (HUMSC-CM) in a new in vitro model of neurons differentiated from DS patient-derived iPSCs. In the presence of HUMSC-CM, increases in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione (GSH) levels were found to contribute to a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In parallel, inflammation was rescued in DS patient-derived neuronal cells via increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-ß, IL-6, and IL-10) and significant downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß expression. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS levels were decreased in DS patient-derived cells. In addition, action potential (AP) firing ability was enhanced by HUMSC-CM. In conclusion, HUMSC-CM can effectively eliminate ROS, affect migration and neurogenesis, and promote neurons to enter a highly functional state. Therefore, HUMSC-CM is a promising therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of refractory epilepsy such as DS.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(12): 1095, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799559

RESUMO

Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a special histological subtype of breast cancer, featured with extremely high rates of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Based on a previous series of studies, our team proposed the hypothesis of "clustered metastasis of IMPC tumor cells". However, the transcriptomics characteristics underlying its metastasis are unknown, especially in spatial transcriptomics (ST). In this paper, we perform ST sequencing on four freshly frozen IMPC samples. We draw the transcriptomic maps of IMPC for the first time and reveal its extensive heterogeneity, associated with metabolic reprogramming. We also find that IMPC subpopulations with abnormal metabolism are arranged in different spatial areas, and higher levels of lipid metabolism are observed in all IMPC hierarchical clusters. Moreover, we find that the stromal regions show varieties of gene expression programs, and this difference depends on their distance from IMPC regions. Furthermore, a total of seven IMPC hierarchical clusters of four samples share a common higher expression level of the SREBF1 gene. Immunohistochemistry results further show that high SREBF1 protein expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival in IMPC patients. Together, these findings provide a valuable resource for exploring the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity of IMPC and identify a new marker, SREBF1, which may facilitate accurate diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1229, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal modality for postoperative analgesia after uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (UVATS) for the treatment of lung cancer has not yet been determined. Both ultrasound-guided paravertebral block (PVB) and retrolaminar block (RLB) have been reported to be successful in providing analgesia after UVATS. However, which block technique provides superior analgesia after UVATS is still unclear. This randomized study was designed to compare the postoperative analgesic effects and adverse events associated with ultrasound-guided PVB and RLB after UVATS. METHODS: Sixty patients with lung cancer were randomized to undergo ultrasound-guided PVB (group P) or ultrasound-guided RLB (group R). In group P, 30 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine was injected at the T3 and T5 levels via ultrasound-guided PVB (15 mL at each level on the operative side). In group R, 30 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine was injected at the T3 and T5 levels via ultrasound-guided RLB (15 mL at each level on the operative side). The primary outcome was the numerical rating scale (NRS) score within 48 h after surgery. The secondary outcomes were total postoperative sufentanil consumption, time to first analgesic request and adverse events. RESULTS: At 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h postoperatively, the NRS score at rest in group P was lower than that in group R (p < 0.05). At 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h postoperatively, the NRS score while coughing in group P was lower than that in group R (p < 0.05). The total postoperative sufentanil consumption in group P was significantly lower than that in group R (p < 0.001). Additionally, the time to first analgesic request was longer in group R than in group P (p < 0.0001). The incidence of nausea in group R was higher than that in group P (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with lung cancer undergoing UVATS, ultrasound-guided PVB with 0.5% ropivacaine provides better analgesia and results in less nausea than ultrasound-guided RLB. Compared with ultrasound-guided RLB, ultrasound-guided PVB seems to be a better technique for analgesia in UVATS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The name of this study is the Effect And Mechanism Of Ultrasound-guided Multimodal Regional Nerve Block On Acute And Chronic Pain After Thoracic Surgery. This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR2100044060 ). The date of registration was March 9, 2021.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769524

RESUMO

To explore the mass concentration levels and health risks of heavy metals in the air in dense traffic environments, PM2.5 samples were collected at three sites in the city of Kunming in April and October 2013, and January and May 2014. Ten heavy metals--V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb--were analyzed by ICP-MS, and the results showed PM2.5 concentrations significantly higher in spring and winter than in summer and autumn, especially for Zn and Pb. The concentration of heavy metals on working days is significantly higher, indicating that vehicle emissions are significant contributors. An enrichment factor analysis showed that Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb come mainly from anthropogenic sources, while V and Co may be both anthropogenic and natural. The correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb mainly come from vehicles emissions and metallurgical industries; Cr and Mn, from vehicles emissions and road dust; and As, mainly from coal combustion. The health risk assessment shows that the non-carcinogenic risk thresholds of the heavy metals in PM2.5 to children and adult men and women are all less than 1. The carcinogenic risk of Cr for men and women in traffic-intensive areas exceeds 10-4, reaching 1.64 × 10-4 and 1.4 × 10-4, respectively.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
10.
Virus Res ; 308: 198626, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780884

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb, and the stem tissue is the main medicinal that is harvested from D. officinale. Recently, the first viroid was identified from D. officinale in China, and it has been named Dendrobium viroid (DVd). Whether DVd interferes with metabolic pathways in dendrobium plants and affects the medicinal value of the host is unknown. In this study, metabolomics data from stem tissues supported by transcriptome studies were used to investigate how metabolism modulate of D. officinale is altered by DVd infection. Our results show that metabolism of D. officinale is reprogrammed in many ways during DVd infection, and this is reflected by significant changes in the levels of flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenolic acids. Furthermore, we found that DVd infection significantly decreased the accumulation of flavonoids and alkaloid metabolites in infected stems, and the decreases in these metabolites appears to affect the medicinal components of the infected plants, weakening the host antiviral immune response as well. Conversely, phenolic acids occupy a larger proportion of the up-regulated metabolites from DVd infection in comparison with the mock-inoculated control, and the increase in the total phenolic acids may reflect the activation of the pathogen defense response in D. officinale. Taken together, our results provide an interesting overview and give a better understanding of the relationship between metabolism and DVd infection in the orchid D. officinale.

11.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826047

RESUMO

The induction of anesthesia in children makes its safety one of the most important global health problems. Neuroinflammation contributes to anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in young individuals. However, the mechanisms underlying anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity have not been established. In this study, the level of interleukin (IL)-6 in the hippocampus of mice and N2A cells treated with sevoflurane was increased, and long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) Riken was sufficient to decrease sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, and the level of inflammatory cytokine IL-6. The RNA pull-down assay verified that miR-101a was bound to lncRNA Riken in N2A cells. In addition, miR-101a blocked the protective effect of lncRNA Riken on anesthesia-induced neuroinflammation. These data suggest that lncRNA Riken attenuated anesthesia-induced neuroinflammation by interacting with microRNA-101a. Finally, we also demonstrated that MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) was a downstream target of miR-101a, and lncRNA Riken can regulate the expression of MKP-1; the JNK signal transduction pathway has been implicated in sevoflurane-induced IL-6 secretion. Our findings demonstrated that lncRNA Riken alleviated the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxic effects, and the lncRNA Riken/miR-101a/MKP-1/JNK axis plays an important role in the cognitive disorder.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804174

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic cystitis is an important complication of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, and current therapies for the disease are limited. The natural flavonoid luteolin (LUT) has significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but its protective effect on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced bladder toxicity has yet to be evaluated. This study aims to explore the protective effect of LUT on CYP-induced acute cystitis in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (CON) group, CON + LUT group, CYP group, and CYP + LUT group. A single intraperitoneal injection of CYP was administered to establish an acute hemorrhagic cystitis model. HE staining was performed to detect the degree of bladder tissue damage, and TUNEL staining was performed to count apoptotic cells. Oxidative stress indicators were measured using commercial kits, and bladder surgery was performed to assess urinary function. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related indicators, TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway, and NF-κB pathway were detected by western blot. We found that LUT treatment reduced bladder bleeding, congestion, and edema caused by CYP. Compared with the CYP + LUT group, the level of apoptosis was more highly expressed in the CYP group. We also found that caspase-3, caspase-8, and Bax were significantly upregulated and Bcl-2 was downregulated after LUT treatment. In addition, LUT inhibited the activation of NF-κB signal pathway in the rat bladder tissue after CYP exposure. LUT treatment can also reduce the NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1) and TXNIP in the bladder. Finally, LUT can reduce the increase in the urination frequency and maximum urination pressure caused by cystitis. These results indicate that LUT displays effective anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic properties in CYP-induced acute hemorrhagic cystitis rats by inhibiting the TXNIP/NLRP3 and NF-κB pathways. LUT may be a potent therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis.

13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(Suppl 5): 651, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variation is crucial in deciphering the mechanism and cure of complex disorders and cancers. The recent advancement of scDNA sequencing technology sheds light upon addressing intratumor heterogeneity, detecting rare subclones, and reconstructing tumor evolution lineages at single-cell resolution. Nevertheless, the current circular binary segmentation based approach proves to fail to efficiently and effectively identify copy number shifts on some exceptional trails. RESULTS: Here, we propose SCYN, a CNV segmentation method powered with dynamic programming. SCYN resolves the precise segmentation on in silico dataset. Then we verified SCYN manifested accurate copy number inferring on triple negative breast cancer scDNA data, with array comparative genomic hybridization results of purified bulk samples as ground truth validation. We tested SCYN on two datasets of the newly emerged 10x Genomics CNV solution. SCYN successfully recognizes gastric cancer cells from 1% and 10% spike-ins 10x datasets. Moreover, SCYN is about 150 times faster than state of the art tool when dealing with the datasets of approximately 2000 cells. CONCLUSIONS: SCYN robustly and efficiently detects segmentations and infers copy number profiles on single cell DNA sequencing data. It serves to reveal the tumor intra-heterogeneity. The source code of SCYN can be accessed in https://github.com/xikanfeng2/SCYN .


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Software , Algoritmos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Genômica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 32833-32841, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809106

RESUMO

In this study, a long-distance phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) with a flexible frequency response based on time division multiplexing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Distributed flexible frequency vibration sensing over long distance can be realized by reconfiguring the system layout in a time-division-multiplexed manner by re-routing the Rayleigh backscattered signals for segmented processing with extra erbium-doped fiber amplifiers added only instead of any other complex signal amplification or pulse modulation mechanisms. Through time-division-multiplexed reconfiguration, the tradeoff between sensing distance and vibration frequency response in Φ-OTDR system is largely relieved. Compared with the traditional system layout, the proposed system allows a flexible frequency response in each sensing fiber segment without any crosstalk among them. In experiments, distributed vibration sensing with a frequency response up to 4.5 kHz is achieved over a sensing distance of 60km by the proposed system, which is not possible in a conventional Φ-OTDR system. Furthermore, the frequency response flexibility of the proposed system is further verified by successfully identifying a vibration event with a frequency of up to 20 kHz at the end of a 52-km-long fiber.

15.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 34126-34134, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809210

RESUMO

High brightness Si nanocrystal white light-emitting diodes (WLED) based on differentially passivated silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are reported. The active layer was made by mixing freestanding SiNCs with hydrogen silsesquioxane, followed by annealing at moderately high temperatures, which finally led to a continuous spectral light emission covering red, green and blue regimes. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the active layer was 11.4%. The SiNC WLED was composed of a front electrode, electron transfer layer, front charge confinement layer, highly luminescent active layer, rear charge confinement layer, hole transfer layer, textured p-type Si substrate and aluminum rear electrode from top to bottom. The peak luminance of the SiNC WLED achieved was 2060 cd/m2. The turn-on voltage was 3.7 V. The chromaticity of the SiNC WLED indicated white light emission that could be adjusted by changing the annealing temperature of the active layer with color temperatures ranging from 3686 to 5291 K.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151938, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838913

RESUMO

Hazardous waste incineration (HWI) ash is also defined as hazardous waste and its disposal performance depends largely on the ash compositions as well as the potential environmental risk of heavy metals. In this work, HWI ashes of four sampling sites were collected in a 100 t/d hazardous waste incineration plant with rotary kiln over three consecutive days. The formation characteristics of ash samples including heavy metal partitioning were given, with further discussions on the melting disposal of HWI ash mixtures. Results showed significant differences in the ash compositions among the sampling sites. Caused by NaHCO3 injection as de-acidizing adsorbent, the sum of Na, S and Cl content in bag filter ash even exceeded 70%. Cu/Mn/Cr tended to transfer into the bottom ash due to low volatilities, while Zn/Pb/Cd/Se/As were more likely to be enriched in the ash particles. In particular, chemical adsorption at medium- to high- temperature range was dominant for As enrichment in the waste heat boiler ash. Despite the complexity and diversity of raw hazardous wastes, little difference was found in the melting temperature of bottom ash during the sampling period. However, it could vary by more than 200 °C for fly ash due to the fluctuation of alkali components in raw wastes. Moreover, slagging medium was encouraged in order to achieve rapid and complete melting of ash mixtures. The objective of this study is to gain knowledge on the HWI ash formation and inherent heavy metal partitioning behavior, expecting to provide guidelines on the deep harmless disposal of HWI ash in future.

17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841478

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A 7.9 kb deletion which contains a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor leads to determinate growth and dwarf phenotype in cucumber. Plant architecture is a composite character which are mainly defined by shoot branching, internode elongation and shoot determinacy. Ideal architecture tends to increase the yield of plants, just like the case of "Green Revolution" increased by the application of semi-dwarf cereal crop varieties in 1960s. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable cultivated worldwide, and suitable architecture varieties were selected for different production systems. In this study, we obtained a novel dwarf mutant with strikingly shortened plant height and determinate growth habit. By bulked segregant analysis and map-based cloning, we delimited the dw2 locus to a 56.4 kb region which contain five genes. Among all the variations between WT and dw2 within the 56.4 kb region, a 7.9 kb deletion which resulted in complete deletion of CsaV3_5G035790 in dw2 was co-segregated with the dwarf phenotype. Haplotype analysis and gene expression analysis suggest that CsaV3_5G035790 encoding a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (CsSMR1) be the candidate gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype in dw2. RNA-seq analysis shows that several kinesin-like proteins, cyclins and reported organ size regulators are expressed differentially between WT and dw2, which may account for the reduced organ size in dwarf plants. Additionally, the down-regulation of CsSTM and CsWOX9 in dw2 resulted in premature termination of shoot apical meristem development, which eventually reduces the internode number and plant height. Identification and characterization of the CsSMR1 provide a new insight into cucumber architecture modification to be applied to mechanized production system.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752408

RESUMO

The k-winners-take-all (k-WTA) problem refers to the selection of k winners with the first k largest inputs over a group of n neurons, where each neuron has an input. In existing k-WTA neural network models, the positive integer k is explicitly given in the corresponding mathematical models. In this article, we consider another case where the number k in the k-WTA problem is implicitly specified by the initial states of the neurons. Based on the constraint conversion for a classical optimization problem formulation of the k-WTA, via modifying the traditional gradient descent, we propose an initialization-based k-WTA neural network model with only n neurons for n-dimensional inputs, and the dynamics of the neural network model is described by parameterized gradient descent. Theoretical results show that the state vector of the proposed k-WTA neural network model globally asymptotically converges to the theoretical k-WTA solution under mild conditions. Simulative examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and indicate that its convergence can be accelerated by readily setting two design parameters.

19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 42: 101202, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825152

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to quantify the association between chronic musculoskeletal pain and all-cause mortality, and to investigate the extent to which this association is mediated by physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and opioid use. Methods: For this population-based cohort study, we used data from UK Biobank, UK between baseline visit (2006-2010) to 18th December 2020. We assessed the associations between chronic musculoskeletal pain and all-cause mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model. We performed causal mediation analyses to examine the proportion of the association between chronic musculoskeletal pain and all-cause mortality. Findings: Of the 384,367 included participants, a total of 187,269 participants reported chronic musculoskeletal pain. Higher number of pain sites was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to having no pain (e.g., four sites vs no site of pain, Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.35 to 1.57). The multiple mediator analyses showed that the mediating proportions of all four mediators ranged from 53.4% to 122.6%: among participants with two or more pain sites, the effect estimate reduced substantially, for example, HR reduced from 1.25 (95% CI: 1.21 to 1.30; two pain sites) to 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.11; two pain sites). Interpretation: We found that higher number of pain sites was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to having no pain, and at least half of the association of chronic musculoskeletal pain with increased all-cause mortality may be accounted for by four mediators. Funding: Twins Research Australia.

20.
Org Lett ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783249

RESUMO

We report a PhB(OH)2-promoted electrochemical sulfuration-formyloxylation reaction of styrenes employing commercially available thiophenols/thiols as thiolating agents. Specifically, metal catalysts and external chemical oxidants are not needed in the reaction for the formation of ß-formyloxy sulfides, and these sulfides can be further converted to (E)-vinyl sulfones via the Selectfluor-mediated oxidation-olefination. Notably, on the basis of this electrochemical oxidation strategy, ß-hydroxy sulfide, ß-formyloxy sulfoxide, ß-formyloxy sulfone, and (E)-vinyl sulfoxide can also be easily prepared.

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