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1.
Theriogenology ; 177: 11-21, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653792

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular level changes of oocyte cryopreservation and the subsequent warming process is essential for improving the oocyte cryopreservation technologies. Here, we collected the mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes from mice and vitrified. After thawing, single-cell whole-genome bisulphite sequencing (scWGBS) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) were used to investigate the molecular attributes of this process. Compared to the fresh oocytes, the vitrified oocytes had lower global methylation and gene expression levels, and 1426 genes up-regulated and 3321 genes down-regulated. The 1426 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the vitrified oocytes were mainly associated with the histone ubiquitination, while the 3321 down-regulated genes were mainly enriched in the mitochondrion organisation and ATP metabolism processes. The differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were mainly located in promoter, intron and exon region of genes, and the length of DMRs in the vitrified oocytes were also significantly lower than that of the fresh oocytes. Notably, there were no significant difference in the expression levels of DNA demethylases (Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3) and methyltransferases (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b) between two treatments of oocytes. However, Dnmt1 and kcnq1ot1, which are responsible for maintaining DNA methylation, were significantly down regulated in the vitrified oocytes. Gene regulatory network (GRN) analysis showed the Dnmt1 and kcnq1ot1 play a core role in regulating methylation and expression levels of downstream genes. Moreover, some genes associated with oocyte quality were significantly down-regulated in the vitrified oocytes. The present data provides a new perspective for understanding the impact of vitrification on oocytes.

2.
Cell Rep ; 36(11): 109690, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525358

RESUMO

Recombinant bacterial colonization plays an indispensable role in disease prevention, alleviation, and treatment. Successful application mainly depends on whether bacteria can efficiently spatiotemporally colonize the host gut. However, a primary limitation of existing methods is the lack of precise spatiotemporal regulation, resulting in uncontrolled methods that are less effective. Herein, we design upconversion microgels (UCMs) to convert near-infrared light (NIR) into blue light to activate recombinant light-responsive bacteria (Lresb) in vivo, where autocrine "functional cellular glues" made of adhesive proteins assist Lresb inefficiently colonizing the gut. The programmable engineering platform is further developed for the controlled and effective colonization of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in the gut. The colonizing bacteria effectively alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice. We anticipate that this approach could facilitate the clinical application of engineered microbial therapeutics to accurately and effectively regulate host health.

3.
Theriogenology ; 173: 144-155, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390905

RESUMO

The beneficial effect of glutathione (GSH) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine/porcine oocytes has been confirmed; however, the antioxidant effect of exogenous GSH supplementation on the IVM of ovine oocytes has not been determined. In this study, ovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified into three groups according to the layer number of cumulus cells (the Grade A group has more than five layers, the Grade B group has three to four layers and the Grade C group has less than three layers). After in vitro culture of COCs in the presence of exogenous GSH, the meiotic competence of ovine oocytes was assessed by analyzing nuclear maturation to metaphase II (MII) stage, cortical granules (CGs) dynamics, astacin like metalloendopeptidase (ASTL) distribution, histone methylation pattern, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial activities and genes expression. After in vitro fertilization (IVF), assessments of embryonic development were conducted to confirm the effects of exogenous GSH supplementation. The results showed that exogenous GSH not only enhanced the maturation rates of the Grade B and Grade C groups but also promoted CGs dynamics and ASTL distribution of the Grade A, B and C groups (p < 0.05). Exogenous GSH increased the mitochondrial activities of the Grade A, B and C groups and decreased the ROS production levels of oocytes (p < 0.05), regardless of the layer number of cumulus cells. Moreover, exogenous GSH promoted the expression levels of genes related with oocyte maturation, antioxidant activity and antiapoptotic effects in the Grade B and Grade C groups (p < 0.05). The expression levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 in the Grade B and Grade C groups were promoted after exogenous GSH supplementation (p < 0.05), consistent with the expression levels of genes related with histone methylation (p < 0.05). In addition, exogenous GSH strongly promoted the embryonic developmental competence of Grade B and Grade C groups (p < 0.05). Taken together, our findings provide foundational evidence for the free radical scavenging potential of exogenous GSH in the in vitro developmental competence of ovine oocytes, especially oocytes from COCs lacking cumulus cells. These findings, which demonstrated the potential for improving the quality of ovine oocytes during IVM, will contribute to researches on GSH applications and the efficiency of assisted reproductive technology for ovine breeding.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Animais , Células do Cúmulo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Oócitos , Gravidez , Ovinos
4.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(8): 1920-1930, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370452

RESUMO

Advances in synthetic biology have allowed photosynthetic cyanobacteria as promising "green cell factories" for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. However, a limited of genetic switches developed in cyanobacteria restrict the complex and orthogonal metabolic regulation. In addition, suitable and controllable switches sensing and responding to specific inducers would allow for the separation of cellular growth and expression of exogenous genes or pathways that cause metabolic burden or toxicity. Here in this study, we developed a genetic switch repressed by NanR and induced by N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in a fast-growing cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 along with its highly homologous strain S. elongatus PCC 7942. First, nanR from Escherichia coli and a previously optimized cognate promoter PJ23119H10 were introduced into Syn2973 to control the expression of the reporter gene lacZ encoding ß-galactosidase, achieving induction with negligible leakage. Second, the switch was systemically optimized to reach ∼738-fold induction by fine-tuning the expression level of NanR and introducing additional transporter of Neu5Ac. Finally, the orthogonality between the NanR/Neu5Ac switch and theophylline-responsive riboregulator was investigated, achieving a coordinated regulation or binary regulation toward the target gene. Our work here provided a new switch for transcriptional control and orthogonal regulation strategies in cyanobacteria, which would promote the metabolic regulation for the cyanobacterial chassis in the future.

5.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105102, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298124

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates show high genetic and pathogenic diversity. The mechanisms underlying different virulence of PRRSV isolates are still not fully clarified. Two highly homologous PRRSV isolates (XJ17-5 and JSTZ1712-12) with distinct virulence were identified in our previous study. To evaluate the association between host responses and different virulence, here we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) infected with these two isolates. RNA-Seq results showed that there are 1932 differential expression genes (DEGs) between two PRRSV infected groups containing 1067 upregulation and 865 downregulation genes. Compared with the avirulent JSTZ1712-12 infected group, GO analysis identified significant enrichment gene sets not only associated with virus infection but also innate immune response in the virulent XJ17-5 infected group. In addition, KEGG analysis indicated significantly enriched genes associated with NOD-like and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathways in XJ17-5 vs JSTZ1712-12 group. Furthermore, XJ17-5 isolate induced significantly higher levels of innate immune response associated genes (IL-1ß, CXCL2, S100A8, OAS2, MX1, IFITM3, ISG15 and IFI6) than JSTZ1712-12 isolate, which were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Given that these two isolates share similar replication efficiency in vivo and in vitro, our results indicated that distinct virulence of PRRSV isolates is associated with different host innate immune responses.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos Alveolares , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Suínos , Transcriptoma , Virulência
6.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 74, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044890

RESUMO

Due to the substantial genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), commercial PRRS vaccines fail to provide sufficient cross protection. Previous studies have confirmed the existence of PRRSV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs are rarely induced by either natural infection or vaccination. In this study, we designed and synthesized a consensus sequence of PRRSV2 ORF2-6 genes (ORF2-6-CON) encoding all envelope proteins based on 30 representative Chinese PRRSV isolates. The ORF2-6-CON sequence shared > 90% nucleotide identities to all four lineages of PRRSV2 isolates in China. A chimeric virus (rJS-ORF2-6-CON) containing the ORF2-6-CON was generated using the avirulent HP-PRRSV2 JSTZ1712-12 infectious clone as a backbone. The rJS-ORF2-6-CON has similar replication efficiency as the backbone virus in vitro. Furthermore, pig inoculation and challenge studies showed that rJS-ORF2-6-CON is not pathogenic to piglets and confers better cross protection against the virulent NADC30-like isolate than a commercial HP-PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Noticeably, the rJS-ORF2-6-CON strain could induce bnAbs while the MLV strain only induced homologous nAbs. In addition, the lineages of VDJ repertoires potentially associated with distinct nAbs were also characterized. Overall, our results demonstrate that rJS-ORF2-6-CON is a promising candidate for the development of a PRRS genetic engineered vaccine conferring cross protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/genética , Sequência Consenso , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Virulência
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2290: 229-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009594

RESUMO

Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are not only model organisms for studying photosynthesis and biological cycling of carbon in biosphere but also potential "green microbial factories" to produce renewable fuels and chemicals, due to their capability to utilizing solar energy and CO2. Therefore, strategies for gene regulation and carbon flux redirection are important for both fundamental research and metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria. To address the challenges, regulatory tools based on artificial small RNAs have been developed with satisfactory effects for single or multiple gene(s) regulation in various cyanobacterial species. When combined with the promoters of varying gradient strength and the inducible switches developed in recent years, it is now feasible to realize precise gene regulation in photosynthetic cyanobacteria for producing fuels and chemicals. Here in this chapter, we provide a detailed introduction of the design principles and constructing methods of the artificial sRNA tools to achieve accurate inducible regulation of cyanobacterial gene(s).


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/síntese química , Biocombustíveis , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , RNA/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos
8.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(5): 2692-2703, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848059

RESUMO

Labelling of Type IV pili (TFP) can greatly improve our understanding of the pivotal roles of TFP in a variety of bacterial activities including motility, surface sensing and DNA-uptake etc. Here we show a simple and switchable pili-labelling method by plasmid-based inducible replacement of PilA without genetic modification in bacterial genome employed by complicated methods. Using this method, we characterized pili morphology and twitching motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in details. More importantly, we demonstrate its application in studying the replenishment dynamics of pilin pool of P. aeruginosa.

9.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867421998774, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory deficits have been reported in bipolar disorder, but this finding is controversial. This study investigated whether olfactory deficit can serve as a specific marker for bipolar disorder by comparing olfactory function in different mood episodes of bipolar disorder. We also compared olfactory function in bipolar disorder and other mental disorders - namely, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. METHODS: The study consisted of two experiments. Experiment 1 enrolled 175 bipolar disorder patients (70 depressed subgroup, 70 manic subgroup and 35 euthymic subgroup) and 47 controls. Experiment 2 enrolled the participants from Experiment 1, along with 85 major depressive disorder and 90 schizophrenia patients. The Sniffin' Sticks test was used to evaluate odour identification ability and odour threshold (as a measure of odour sensitivity). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to assess depressive symptoms in all subjects and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder patients, respectively. We also used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale to assess clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. RESULTS: All three bipolar disorder patient subgroups (depressed, manic and euthymic subgroup) showed reduced odour identification ability compared to controls; however, only patients in the acute phase of a mood episode (depressed, and manic subgroup) showed impaired odour sensitivity. Clinical symptoms were negatively correlated with odour sensitivity but not odour identification ability. Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder patients showed less odour identification and sensitivity impairment than schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSION: Odour sensitivity is a potential dopaminergic marker for distinguishing between bipolar disorder patients in acute phase vs remission, while odour identification is a trait but a nonspecific marker of bipolar disorder.

10.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 17, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478578

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) on the premature ovarian failure (POF) of rats. After cyclophosphamide treatments, the POF rats were divided into the following groups: normal control group (NC), low-dose group (LD), medium-dose group (MD) and high-dose group (HD) of rhLF. After drug administrations, the ovarian indexes and hormonal levels were detected. After follicle number count, the proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed with the expressions of genes related with oogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis detected, followed by the calculation of oxidative stress and protein expressions. After 4-hydroperoxy cyclophosphamide (4-HC) treatments, the effect of rhLF on the proliferation, ROS production and gene expressions of primary rat granulosa cells (GCs) cultured in vitro were detected. After mating, the fertilities of POF rats were recorded. The result showed that the rhLF administrations up-regulated the ovarian index with the number of developing follicles increased and the decreases of hormonal levels conferred. The Ki-67 intensities of the MD and HD groups were up-regulated with the Tunnel intensities decreased. The rhLF treatments significantly promoted the expression of oogenesis, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis related genes. The expression of Bax and Caspase 3 were decreased with the expression of Bcl-2 up-regulated after rhLF administrations. The in vitro treatments of rhLF effectively conferred the toxicity of 4-HC on primary rat GCs. The fertility assessment showed the rhLF treatments up-regulated the offspring's' folliculogenesis, which confirmed the ameliorative role of rhLF on the POF damages via the inhibition of ROS production in GCs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 45, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspartic proteases (APs) are a class of aspartic peptidases belonging to nine proteolytic enzyme families whose members are widely distributed in biological organisms. APs play essential functions during plant development and environmental adaptation. However, there are few reports about APs in fast-growing moso bamboo. RESULT: In this study, we identified a total of 129 AP proteins (PhAPs) encoded by the moso bamboo genome. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that these 129 PhAPs could be divided into three categories (categories A, B and C). The PhAP gene family in moso bamboo may have undergone gene expansion, especially the members of categories A and B, although homologs of some members in category C have been lost. The chromosomal location of PhAPs suggested that segmental and tandem duplication events were critical for PhAP gene expansion. Promoter analysis revealed that PhAPs in moso bamboo may be involved in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Furthermore, PhAPs showed tissue-specific expression patterns and may play important roles in rapid growth, including programmed cell death, cell division and elongation, by integrating environmental signals such as light and gibberellin signals. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive analysis of the AP gene family in moso bamboo suggests that PhAPs have experienced gene expansion that is distinct from that in rice and may play an important role in moso bamboo organ development and rapid growth. Our results provide a direction and lay a foundation for further analysis of plant AP genes to clarify their function during rapid growth.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1615-1624, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931644

RESUMO

To date, four species of porcine circoviruses (PCVs), including PCV1-4, have been reported to exist in the clinical cases. Fast and effective differential detection is critical to monitor the infection and co-infection status of PCVs for adopting reliable control strategies. However, currently available methods cannot simultaneously differentiate the four species of PCV strains. In this study, a quadruplex real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan probes was developed for differential detection of PCV1-4. The new quadruplex real-time PCR assay exhibited satisfied specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. In addition, the new assay was applied to the detection of 120 clinical samples collected from 2016 to 2020 in Jiangsu province of China and compared with previously reported PCV1-4 singleplex conventional PCR assays. Based on the clinical performance, the results from the quadruplex real-time PCR and conventional PCR assays showed 100% agreement. A total of 47 samples were detected as PCV positive by the quadruplex real-time PCR assay, including 1, 2, 1 samples were co-infected with PCV1 and PCV4, PCV2 and PCV3, PCV2 and PCV4, respectively. Full-length ORF2 sequencing and phylogenetic analysis supported the real-time PCR results that 5, 34, 8 and 4 of the 51 PCV sequences were PCV1, PCV2, PCV3 and PCV4, respectively. This study provides a promising alternative tool for rapid differential detection of PCVs and confirms the coexistence of all species of PCV1-4 strains in Jiangsu province in recent years.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 143153, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158518

RESUMO

Canopy litter is an important component of coarse woody debris (CWD), which affects nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. For marcescent plant species (characterized by dead branches and leaves remaining in the canopy for several years before abscission), nutrient resorption from senescing leaves is an important nutrient conservation strategy. However, investigating the ecological function of canopy litter is challenging due to its limited accessibility and also the heterogeneous canopy microclimate in terms of light transmission, temperature and moisture. We studied the spatiotemporal distribution of canopy litter mass and seasonal dynamics of leaf nutrients and nutrient resorption during senescence in the canopy along a chronosequence of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook] plantations in southeast China. The dry mass weight of dead branches and dead leaves in the canopy significantly increased with stand stage (14.6, 14.2, and 17.4 t ha-1 for young, middle-aged, and mature stands respectively), accounting for high proportions of total aboveground litter of 85.7%, 79.1% and 80.0%, respectively, along with annual litterfall production (2.44, 3.75, and 4.34 t ha-1, respectively). The canopy height distribution of dead branches and leaves also increased with stand age, ranging from 0 to 4 m in young stands, 3-8 m in middle-aged stands, to 4-10 m in mature stands. The seasonal pattern of canopy litter mass was the inverse of litterfall production: canopy litter mass peaked, while litterfall production was lowest in winter. Mean N, P, K, and Mg nutrient resorption efficiencies across stands at each stage were 53.8-58.9%, 64.0-68.9%, 85.0-90.2%, and 46.5-56.6%, respectively, while Ca was not retranslocated from senescing leaves. In summary, Chinese fir plantations retain large amounts of dead branches and leaves in the canopy from which at least ~50% of the nutrients N, P, K and Mg are recycled, representing an important nutrient conservation strategy that has evolved to adapt to nutrient-limited habitats. Canopy litter therefore plays an important role in these forest plantation ecosystems and should be protected instead of being removed from the canopy to the forest floor.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Folhas de Planta/química , Ovinos , Solo , Árvores
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 102-111, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360570

RESUMO

Modified live vaccines (MLVs) have been utilized to combat porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which raises a serious concern about the MLV-derived PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates. During the routine investigation of PRRSV in China, four lung samples collected from unvaccinated diseased pigs from 2016 to 2020 were detected as PRRSV positive. The PRRSVs shared high ORF5 identities to CH-1R, JXA1-R, TJM-F92 and RespPRRS MLV vaccines, respectively. The viruses were isolated in Marc-145 cells and denominated as SD1612-1, JS1703-21, JSTZ1907-714 and JSYC20-05-1. Genome comparison confirmed that these isolates share the highest genomic homologies to CH-1R (97.96%), JXA1-R (99.64%), TJM-F92 (99.00%) and RespPRRS MLV (99.57%) than any other known isolates. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that SD1612-1 and CH-1R, JS1703-21 and JXA1-R, JSTZ1907-714 and TJM-F92, JSYC20-05-1 and RespPRRS MLV were grouped in the same branches. In addition, amino acids unique to corresponding vaccine attenuations were also identified in our isolates. Noticeably, amino-acids potentially associated with the virulence revision from MLV strains to parental virulent viruses were also identified in the MLV-derived isolates. Our results confirm that the four types of MLV-derived isolates are circulating and evolving in Chinese swine herds for years, which highlights the necessity for the fair use of PRRS MLVs.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , China , Genômica , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 2126-2138, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169577

RESUMO

Development of "liquid sunshine" could be a key technology to deal with the issue of fossil fuel depletion. ß-caryophyllene is a terpene compound with high energy density and has attracted attention for its potential application as a jet fuel. The high temperature and high light-tolerant photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (hereafter Synechococcus 2973), whose doubling time is as short as 1.5 h, has great potential for synthesizing ß-caryophyllene using sunlight and CO2. In this study, a production of ~121.22 µg/L ß-caryophyllene was achieved at 96 h via a combined strategy of pathway construction, key enzyme optimization and precursor supply enhancement. In addition, a final production of ~212.37 µg/L at 96 h was realized in a high-density cultivation. To our knowledge, this is the highest production reported for ß-caryophyllene using cyanobacterial chassis and our study provide important basis for high-density fuel synthesis in cyanobacteria.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Dióxido de Carbono , Synechococcus , Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Luz , Fotossíntese , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Synechococcus/efeitos da radiação
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 451, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HD-Zip transcription factors are unique to plants and play an essential role in plant growth, development and stress responses. The HD-Zip transcription factor family consists of a highly conserved homeodomain (HD) and a leucine zipper domain (LZ) domain. Although the HD-Zip gene family has been extensively studied in many plant species, a systematic study of the Eucalyptus HD-Zip family has not been reported until today. Here, we systematically identified 40 HD-Zip genes in Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis). Besides, we comprehensively analyzed the HD-Zips of Eucalyptus by studying the homology, conserved protein regions, gene structure, 3D structure of the protein, location of the genes on the chromosomes and the expression level of the genes in different tissues. RESULTS: The HD-Zip family in Eucalyptus has four subfamilies, which is consistent with other plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. Moreover, genes that are in the same group tend to have similar exon-intron structures, motifs, and protein structures. Under salt stress and temperature stress, the Eucalyptus HD-Zip transcription factors show a differential expression pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal the response of HD-Zip transcription factors under salt and temperature stresses, laying a foundation for future analysis of Eucalyptus HD-Zip transcription factors.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Termotolerância/genética , China , Genoma de Planta
17.
J Ovarian Res ; 13(1): 108, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933578

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bioactive peptides (BAPT) from animal sources on the development of mouse preantral follicles in vitro. Preantral follicles were isolated and randomly divided into the following groups: an untreated group (control) and three groups supplemented with 20, 40 and 60 µg/mL BAPT, respectively. After establishing the in vitro follicle culture, the gene expression levels and hormone levels were quantified. After in vitro maturation, the developmental rates, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production levels and mitochondrial distributions of MII oocytes were investigated, followed by the analyses of embryonic developmental rates after in vitro fertilization.The results showed that BAPT promoted the growth of mouse preantral follicles. Notably, after 14 d of in vitro culture, the levels of 17 ß-estradiol and progesterone were up-regulated with BAPT treatments. Moreover, the expression levels of Oct4, Bmp15, GDF9, FOXO3, Zp3, FOXL2, Inhibin alpha, SOD2, Catalase, GPx and Bcl-2 in the developing follicles were significantly up-regulated after BAPT treatments (P < 0.05), while BAPT significantly inhibited the expression levels of BAX (P < 0.05). Following BAPT treatments, the ROS production levels of MII oocytes were decreased while the mitochondrial distributions were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, increased maturation rates, fertilization and embryonic developmental rates were found in these BAPT-treated groups (P < 0.05).These results demonstrated that BAPT significantly improved the development of preantral follicles in vitro by reducing ROS-dependent cellular damages and by enhancing mitochondrial distributions, thereby promoting the further applications of animal-derived BAPT in biomedical research.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
18.
Cryobiology ; 97: 153-158, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858005

RESUMO

This present study investigated the effect of bioactive peptide (BAPT) (BAPT) on the quality of ram semen during cryopreservation. Ram ejaculates were extended with Tris buffer supplemented with no antioxidants (as control group), 20 µg/mL BAPT (as BAPT20 group), 40 µg/mL BAPT (as BAPT40 group) and 60 µg/mL BAPT (as BAPT60 group). After cryopreservation, sperm quality including motility, vitality, the percentage of hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST)-positive spermatozoa and the percentage of intact acrosomes was assessed. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde (MDA) in seminal plasma and spermatozoa were analyzed, followed by the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in seminal plasma. After in vitro fertilization, the embryonic cleavage rates and development rates of different groups were analyzed to compare the developmental abilities of spermatozoa. The results showed that the post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher in the BAPT60 group compared to those in the BAPT20, BAPT40 and control groups (P < 0.05). The percentage of live sperms significantly increased from 48.12 ± 2.35% for the BAPT20 group, 55.43 ± 2.16% for the BAPT40 group to 57.53 ± 3.15% for the BAPT60 group. The percentage of HOST-positive spermatozoa was significantly higher in the BAPT60 group than those in BAPT20, BAPT40 and control groups (P < 0.05). The MDA levels in seminal plasma and spermatozoa were significantly reduced with BAPT supplement (P < 0.05). Additionally, the SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels in the BAPT experimental groups were significantly higher than those of the control group, which further indicated that BAPT significantly inhibit the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the cryopreservation of ram semen. Furthermore, the embryonic cleavage rates and development rates of the BAPT40 and BAPT60 groups were significantly increased in comparison with the BAPT20 and control groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BAPT improved the ram sperm quality via inhibiting the ROS production during cryopreservation, and could be applied as a promising supplement for ram semen cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Masculino , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Análise do Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695034

RESUMO

Background: "Early-onset schizophrenia" (EOS) is defined as disease with onset before the age of 18 years. This subset of schizophrenia exhibits worse cognitive function and carries a worse prognosis than adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS). Olfactory impairment has been found in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. However, most research has focused on olfactory impairment in patients with AOS: olfactory function in EOS is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the olfactory identification ability in EOS, and its relationship with negative symptoms. Methods: We compared olfactory function between two independent samples: 40 patients with EOS and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs); as well as 40 patients with AOS and 40 age- and sex-matched HCs. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was administered. Results: The EOS group and AOS group exhibited worse olfactory identification ability than HCs; impairment correlated significantly with negative symptoms. Olfactory identification was worse in patients suffering EOS compared with those suffering AOS. Conclusion: Olfactory identification impairment may be a trait marker of schizophrenia.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581867

RESUMO

Anhedonia, the loss or decline of the ability to enjoy pleasure, is an important clinical characteristic of schizophrenia. Schizotypal traits refer to the appearance of subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia across normal people. Still, few studies have investigated chemosensory anhedonia in schizophrenia patients and schizotypy individuals. Seventy-one schizophrenia patients (SCZ), 162 schizotypy individuals (SCT) as selected by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and 182 healthy controls (HC) participated in our study. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to measure the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. All participants completed the Chemosensory Pleasure Scale (CPS), which was used to assess participants' smell and taste hedonic capacities. We found that the three groups differed in chemosensory anhedonia. The SCZ group presented more severe chemosensory anhedonia than the SCT group, and the SCT group presented more severe chemosensory anhedonia than the HC group. We also found that chemosensory hedonic capacity was negatively correlated with negative schizotypal traits in the SCT group. Our results suggested that chemosensory anhedonia is an important characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

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