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1.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110662, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600664

RESUMO

The rapid increase of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entering the food and feed markets, and the contamination of donor (micro)organisms of transgenic elements make it more challenging for the existing GMO detection. In this study, we developed a high-throughput and contamination-removal GMO detection approach named as GmoDetector. GmoDetector targeted 64 common transgenic elements and 76 GMO-specific events collected from 251 singular GM events, and combined with next generation sequencing (NGS) and target enrichment technology to detect various GMOs. As a result, GmoDetector was able to exclude the donor (micro)organism contamination, and detect the authorized and unauthorized GMOs (UGMOs) in any forms of food or feed, such as processed or unprocessed. The sensitivity of GmoDetector is as low as 0.1% (GMO content), which has met the GMO labeling threshold for all countries. Therefore, GmoDetector is a robust tool for accurate and efficient detection of the authorized and UGMOs.

2.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615771

RESUMO

Adiponectin (Ad), a 30 kDa molecule, is an anti-diabetic adipokine; although derived from adipose tissue, it performs numerous activities in various other tissues. It binds to its own receptors, namely adiponectin receptor 1(AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), and T-cadherin (CDH13). Ad plays several roles, especially as a regulator. It modulates lipid and glucose metabolism and promotes insulin sensitivity. This demonstrates that Ad has a robust correlation with fat metabolism. Furthermore, although Ad is not in direct contact with other tissues, including the skin, it can be delivered to them by diffusion or secretion via the endocrine system. Recently it has been reported that Ad can impact skin cell biology, underscoring its potential as a therapeutic biomarker of skin diseases. In the present review, we have discussed the association between skin cell biology and Ad. To elaborate further, we described the involvement of Ad in the biology of various types of cells in the skin, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and immune cells. Additionally, we postulated that Ad could be employed as a therapeutic target to maintain skin homeostasis.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 749979, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630429

RESUMO

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease. The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains controversial, although it is generally accepted that the inflammatory immune response plays a crucial role in this process. Mast cells (MCs) are multifunctional innate immune cells that accumulate in endometriotic lesions. However, the molecular mechanism by which estrogen modulates MCs in the development of endometriosis is not well understood. Here we report that estrogen can induce the expression of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) through estrogen receptor (ER)-α via the estrogen responsive element (ERE) in MCs. Such transcriptional regulation is necessary for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the production of mature interleukin (IL)-1ß in MCs. Targeted inhibition of NLRP3 significantly restrained lesion progression and fibrogenesis in a mouse model of endometriosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that MCs contribute to the development of endometriosis through NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediated by nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling pathway.

4.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111052, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620447

RESUMO

Drought occurrence seriously affects the productivity and quality of apple crop worldwide. Autophagy, a conserved process for the degradation and recycling of unwanted cellular components, is considered to positively regulate the tolerance of various abiotic stresses in plants. In the current study, we isolated two ATG5 homologs genes, namely, MdATG5a and MdATG5b, from apple, demonstrating their responsiveness to drought and oxidative stresses. In addition to having the same cellular localization in the nucleus and cytoplasm, both MdATG5a and MdATG5b could interact with MdATG12. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing MdATG5a exhibited an improved drought tolerance, as indicated by less drought-related damage and higher photosynthetic capacities compared to wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress. The overexpression of MdATG5a improved antioxidant defenses in apple when exposed to drought via elevating both antioxidant enzyme activities and the levels of beneficial antioxidants. Furthermore, under drought stress, the overexpression of MdATG5a promoted the mobilization of starch to accumulate greater levels of soluble sugars, contributing to osmotic adjustments and supporting carbon skeletons for proline synthesis. Such changes in physiological responses may be associated with increased autophagic activities in the transgenic plants upon exposure to drought. Our results demonstrate that MdATG5a-mediated autophagy enhances drought tolerance of apple plants via improving antioxidant defenses and metabolic adjustments.

5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 339, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497264

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has placed a global public burden on health authorities. Although the virological characteristics and pathogenesis of COVID-19 has been largely clarified, there is currently no specific therapeutic measure. In severe cases, acute SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to immune disorders and damage to both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Having roles in immune regulation and regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serving as a therapeutic option may regulate the over-activated inflammatory response and promote recovery of lung damage. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of MSC-therapy clinical trials has been conducted. The findings indicate that MSC treatment not only significantly reduces lung damage, but also improves patient recovery with safety and good immune tolerance. Herein, we summarize the recent progress in MSC therapy for COVID-19 and highlight the challenges in the field.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Pulmão/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Lesão Pulmonar/imunologia , Lesão Pulmonar/virologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia
6.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 184, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alteration of the gut microbiota may contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive constituent of green tea, is known to be beneficial in IBD alleviation. However, it is unclear whether the gut microbiota exerts an effect when EGCG attenuates IBD. RESULTS: We first explored the effect of oral or rectal EGCG delivery on the DSS-induced murine colitis. Our results revealed that anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity were enhanced by oral, but not rectal, EGCG. We observed a distinct EGCG-mediated alteration in the gut microbiome by increasing Akkermansia abundance and butyrate production. Next, we demonstrated that the EGCG pre-supplementation induced similar beneficial outcomes to oral EGCG administration. Prophylactic EGCG attenuated colitis and significantly enriched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs production in DSS-induced mice. To validate these discoveries, we performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) to inoculate DSS-treated mice. Microbiota from EGCG-dosed mice alleviated the colitis over microbiota from control mice and SFF shown by superiorly anti-inflammatory effect and colonic barrier integrity, and also enriched bacteria such as Akkermansia and SCFAs. Collectively, the attenuation of colitis by oral EGCG suggests an intimate involvement of SCFAs-producing bacteria Akkermansia, and SCFAs, which was further demonstrated by prophylaxis and FMT. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first data indicating that oral EGCG ameliorated the colonic inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Our findings provide novel insights into EGCG-mediated remission of IBD and EGCG as a potential modulator for gut microbiota to prevent and treat IBD. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá
7.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 6421025, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484654

RESUMO

The objective of the research study is to investigate the use of three-dimensional ultrasonic measurement technology, to determine the size of gestational sac and embryo volume, and to use the ratio of gestational sac volume to embryo volume in IoT-based prediction of pregnancy outcome. The abnormal and normal pregnancy identifiers are there, which assists in prediction of pregnancy outcomes: whether the pregnancy is normal or may suffer pregnancy loss during first trimester. For the observational study, 500 singleton pregnant women who made an appointment for delivery in Qiqihar Hospital from January 2015 to June 2019 were considered. The 500 pregnant women received transvaginal ultrasound at 6+0 ∼ 8+0 weeks of gestational age to measure gestational sac volume (GSV), yolk sac volume (YSV), and germ volume (GV). According to pregnancy outcome, they were divided into fine group (n = 435) and abortion group (n = 65). Among the 500 cases, 435 had normal delivery and 65 had abortions. According to the results of gestational age (GA) analysis, the pregnancy success rates at 6 (n = 268), 7 (n = 184), and 8 weeks (n = 48) were 85.8%, 87.5%, and 91.7%, respectively. Comparison of pregnancy failure rate among the three groups shows statistically significant difference. The morphology of germ, yolk sac, and gestational sac cannot be used as a predictor of pregnancy outcome in various degrees. The results of multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis show the following: the ratio of germ volume (GV) to gestational sac volume (GSV) (P=0.008) has an impact on the prediction of spontaneous abortion prognosis, showing statistically significant difference; yolk sac volume (YSV), germ volume (GV), and gestational sac volume (GSV) have no effect on the prediction of spontaneous abortion prognosis (P > 0.05). The ratio of GSV to germ volume has a strong prognostic value for pregnancy results. To a certain extent, the ratio of gestational sac volume to germ volume can predict spontaneous pregnancy abortion at 6th week of gestation, providing a theoretical basis for clinical ultrasound pregnancy examination indicators.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11992-12001, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498855

RESUMO

Food allergies (FAs) are a crucial public health problem and a severe food safety issue, resulting in an urgent need for an accurate method to detect all of the hidden allergens that exist in food systems. Current methods for detecting allergens typically utilize ELISA, PCR, or LC-MS, which are suitable for the confirmatory analysis of allergens from ingredients rather than unintended contaminants. In this study, we demonstrate a hybridization probe cluster-targeted next-generation sequencing (HPC-NGS) platform for high-throughput screening of potential allergens in food systems. The HPC-NGS successfully captured target DNA fragments and identified 19 allergenic ingredients in a complex food system. Additionally, the HPC-NGS provided expected allergenic species matching rates of 94.24-100% in single food materials and 99.87-99.98% in processed food products. Thus, HPC-NGS enables the accurate characterization of allergenic ingredients and unintended allergenic contaminants in foods. Our results provide new perspectives on the use of HPC-NGS in the accuracy of high-throughput detection technologies for allergens imposed by the complex matrix effect.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise de Alimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
9.
Environ Int ; 157: 106866, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525388

RESUMO

The exposome overhauls conventional environmental health impact research paradigms and provides a novel methodological framework that comprehensively addresses the complex, highly dynamic interplays of exogenous exposures, endogenous exposures, and modifiable factors in humans. Holistic assessments of the adverse health effects and systematic elucidation of the mechanisms underlying environmental exposures are major scientific challenges with widespread societal implications. However, to date, few studies have comprehensively and simultaneously measured airborne pollutant exposures and explored the associated biomarkers in susceptible healthy elderly subjects, potentially resulting in the suboptimal assessment and management of health risks. To demonstrate the exposome paradigm, we describe the rationale and design of a comprehensive biomarker and biomonitoring panel study to systematically explore the association between individual airborne exposure and adverse health outcomes. We used a combination of personal monitoring for airborne pollutants, extensive human biomonitoring, advanced omics analysis, confounding information, and statistical methods. We established an exploratory panel study of Biomarkers of Air Pollutant Exposure in Chinese people aged 60-69 years (China BAPE), which included 76 healthy residents from a representative community in Jinan City, Shandong Province. During the period between September 2018 and January 2019, we conducted prospective longitudinal monitoring with a 3-day assessment every month. This project: (1) leveraged advanced tools for personal airborne exposure monitoring (external exposures); (2) comprehensively characterized biological samples for exogenous and endogenous compounds (e.g., targeted and untargeted monitoring) and multi-omics scale measurements to explore potential biomarkers and putative toxicity pathways; and (3) systematically evaluated the relationships between personal exposure to air pollutants, and novel biomarkers of exposures and effects using exposome-wide association study approaches. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of air pollution exposures and identify potential adverse clinical outcomes that can facilitate the development of effective prevention and targeted intervention techniques.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(10): 1015-1024, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) pollution events continue to occur frequently in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: The authors conducted a case-crossover study aimed at exploring the association between heavy PM2.5 pollution events and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases were observed by Beijing Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning Information Center from 2013 to 2017. Air pollution data were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. Distinct definitions were used to identify heavy and extremely heavy fine particulate pollution events. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The hospital admission burdens for cardiovascular disease were also estimated. RESULTS: A total of 2,202,244 hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases and 222 days of extremely heavy PM2.5 pollution events (PM2.5 concentration ≥150 µg/m3) were observed. The ORs associated with extremely heavy PM2.5 pollution events lasting for 3 days or more for total cardiovascular disease, angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and heart failure were 1.085 (95% CI: 1.077-1.093), 1.112 (95% CI: 1.095-1.130), 1.068 (95% CI: 1.037-1.100), 1.071 (95% CI: 1.053-1.090), and 1.060 (95% CI: 1.021-1.101), respectively. The numbers and days of cardiovascular disease hospital admission annually related to extremely heavy PM2.5 pollution events lasting for 1 day or more were 3,311 (95% CI: 2,969-3,655) and 37,020 (95% CI: 33,196-40,866), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy and extremely heavy PM2.5 pollution events resulted in substantial increased hospital admission risk for cardiovascular disease. With higher PM2.5 concentration and longer duration of heavy PM2.5 pollution events, a greater risk of cardiovascular hospital admission was observed.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368036

RESUMO

Objective: The critical values in health checkup play a key role in preventing chronic diseases and different types of cancer. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence, association relation, and dynamic evolution of critical values in health checkups at a large physical examination center in China. Methods: Herein, we chose 33,639 samples of physical examiners from January 2017 to December 2019. After strict exclusion processes, combined with the critical values in health checkup reporting data, 4,721 participants with at least one critical value were included. We first defined a critical value list for laboratory test, imaging, cervical cancer screening, electrocardiogram, and health checkup informed on site, and then performed a cross-sectional study to analyze the distribution and significance of critical values of 4,721 participants from different views and the association relation of 628 participants with more than one critical value and a retrospective cohort study to analyze the incidence and dynamic evolution of critical values based on 2,813 participants attending the physical examination from 2017 to 2019. Results: A total of 4,721 participants were included in the retrospective study. The prevalence of 10 critical values from 33,639 participants was over 0.6%. The critical values of obesity, hypertension, Glucose_T, Liver_T, Kidney_T, Lipid_T, Urine_T, and Head_CT were significantly increased in men (P < 0.05), whereas the results were the opposite for the Blood_T and Thyroid_US (P < 0.01). The prevalence trend of critical values increased along with age, where the prevalence of men was higher than that of women under 60 years old (P < 0.01), while the prevalence of women increased by four times and exceeded the prevalence of men above 70 years old. Association relation analysis identified 16 and 6 effective rules for men and women, respectively, where the critical values of Urine_T and Glucose_T played the central roles. Furthermore, a retrospective dynamic evolution analysis found that the incidence of new critical values was about 10%, the incidence of persistent critical values was about 50%, and that most of the effective evolution paths tended to no critical values for men and women. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective to explore the population health status using the critical value reporting data in a physical examination center, which can assist in decision-making by health management at the population level and in the prevention and treatment of various types of cancer and chronic diseases at the individual level.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110530, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399508

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Spirulina platensis crude polysaccharides may ameliorate the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and gut dysbiosis. The results showed Spirulina platensis crude polysaccharides could improve body weight, serum/liver lipid and carbohydrate indexes, and liver antioxidant parameters in high-sucrose and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which were accompanied by regulated liver mRNA expressions involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder. In addition, SPLP intervention significantly decreased cecal level of propionic acid in HFD-fed rats. Notably, the SPLP could alter the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria at phylum levels. Based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, serum/liver lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found significantly positively correlated with genera Romboutsia, Allobaculum, Blautia, Phascolarctobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Turicibacter, Erysipelotrichaceae_unclassified, Olsenella, Escherichia/Shigella, Coprobacillus, Lachnospiracea incertae, and Lactobacillus, but strongly negatively correlated with genera Atopostipes, Flavonifractor, Porphyromonadaceae_unclassified, Barnesiella, Oscillibacter, Paraprevotella, Jeotgalicoccus, Corynebacterium, Alloprevotella and Bacteroides. It was concluded that oral administration of SPLP could remarkably ameliorate the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder and significantly modulate the intestinal microbiota in HFD-fed rats.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Polissacarídeos , Ratos , Spirulina , Sacarose
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445290

RESUMO

Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. The development of F1 hybrids in celery is highly dependent on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) because emasculation is difficult. In this study, we first report a celery CMS, which was found in a high-generation inbred line population of the Chinese celery "tanzhixiangqin". Comparative analysis, following sequencing and assembly of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences for this celery CMS line and its maintainer line, revealed that there are 21 unique regions in the celery CMS line and these unique regions contain 15 ORFs. Among these ORFs, only orf768a is a chimeric gene, consisting of 1497 bp sequences of the cox1 gene and 810 bp unidentified sequences located in the unique region, and the predicted protein product of orf768a possesses 11 transmembrane domains. In summary, the results of this study indicate that orf768a is likely to be a strong candidate gene for CMS induction in celery. In addition, orf768a can be a co-segregate marker, which can be used to screen CMS in celery.


Assuntos
Apium/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Apium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apium/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Herança Extracromossômica/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pólen/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149445, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of ambient air particulate matter (PM2.5)-associated health and economic burdens of cardiovascular disease are crucial for air pollution control and disease prevention strategies. Quantified evidence remains inadequate. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the PM2.5 associated risk in cardiovascular hospital admission as well as attributable health burdens and economic costs. METHODS: A total of 2,202,244 hospital admission records of cardiovascular disease and six common clinical subtypes in Beijing were included. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to estimate the associations and the concentration-response curve. Then, the annual average additional hospital admissions, days of hospital stay, and hospital expenditures were evaluated from 2013 to 2017 and compared between 2017 and 2013. RESULTS: The results showed that each 10 µg/m3 increase in previous-day PM2.5 concentration was associated with a risk increase of 0.44% (95%CI: 0.40%, 0.47%) for cardiovascular disease, 0.66% (95%CI: 0.58%, 0.73%) for angina pectoris, 0.53% (95%CI: 0.39%, 0.66%) for chronic ischemic heart disease, 0.48% (95%CI: 0.34%, 0.63%) for myocardial infarction, 0.44% (95%CI: 0.29%, 0.60%) for hypertensive heart disease and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.27%, 0.52%) for ischemic stroke. There were 1938 PM2.5 attributed additional hospital admissions, resulting in 21,668 additional days in hospital, along with 5527.12 and 1947.04 ten-thousand of additional total hospital cost and self-afforded cost, respectively. Compared with 2013, the above-mentioned four burdens decreased by 18.17%, 28.80%, 18.90% and 13.72% in 2017, respectively. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with substantial burdens of cardiovascular hospital admission and economic expenditures. The results highlight the necessity of continuous PM2.5 control from the perspective of healthy and sustainable city development in urban China.

15.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2007699, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363250

RESUMO

Pattern technology plays an important role in the generation of microstructures with different functionalities and morphologies. In this report, a straightforward and versatile strategy is presented for spatially regulating the growth of a microstructure on a surface by the photodimerization of maleimide (MI). Upon exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, photodimerization of MI in a film comprising furan-grafted polymer and bismaleimide (BMI) produces a chemical gradient, which can drive the diffusion of BMI from the unexposed to the exposed region and from the bottom to the surface, resulting in the growth of micropatterns. Sequential crosslinking induced by the Diels-Alder reaction between MI and furan maintains the stability of pattern shape. Theoretical modeling with reaction-diffusion equations reveal that as photodimerization moves the system far from thermodynamic equilibrium, the formation of a chemical potential gradient requires the redistribution of matter, resulting in the formation of topographies. Directional molecular motion induced by UV light can generate complex morphology, and produce materials with unique optical functions, such as charming-ordered gratings. This straightforward method of fabricating micropatterns by photodimerization-induced diffusion is successfully applied to patterned curved surfaces, microfluidic channels and encapsulation of integrated light emitting diode chips.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117858, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388554

RESUMO

Evidence on the relationship between particulate matter air pollution and urinary system disease (UD) is scarce. This study aims to evaluate the associations between short-term exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 and risk of daily UD inpatient hospital admissions through the emergency room (ER-admissions) in Beijing. We obtained 41,203 weekday UD ER-admissions for secondary and tertiary hospitals in all 16 districts in Beijing during 2013-2018 from the Beijing Municipal Health Commission Information Center and obtained district-level air pollution concentrations based on 35 fixed monitoring stations in Beijing. We conducted a two-stage time-series analysis, with district-specific generalized linear models for each of Beijing's 16 districts, followed by random effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled risk estimates. We evaluated lagged and cumulative associations up to 30 days. In single-pollutant models, for both PM2.5 and PM10, cumulative exposure averaged over the day of admission and the previous 10 days (lag 0-10 days) showed the strongest association, with per interquartile range increases of PM2.5 or PM10 concentrations associated with a 7.5 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 %-12.2 %) or 6.0 % (95 % CI: 1.1 %-11.2 %) increased risk of daily UD hospital admissions, respectively. The risk estimates were robust to adjustment for co-pollutants and to a variety of sensitivity analyses. However, due to the strong correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, we were unable to disentangle the respective relationships between these two exposures and UD risk. In this study, we found that short-term exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 are risk factors for UD morbidity and that cumulative exposure to PM pollution over a period of one to two weeks (i.e., 11 days) could be more important for UD risk than transient exposure during each of the respective single days.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(29): 11171-11179, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260212

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human diarrheal diseases and has been designated as one of highly resistant pathogens by the World Health Organization. The C. jejuni capsular polysaccharides feature broad existence of uncommon 6dHepp residues and have proven to be potential antigens to develop innovative antibacterial glycoconjugation vaccines. To address the lack of synthetic methods for rare 6dHepp architectures of importance, we herein describe a novel and efficient approach for the preparation of uncommon d-/l-6dHepp fluorides that have power as glycosylating agents. The synthesis is achieved by a C1-to-C5 switch strategy relying on radical decarboxylative fluorination of uronic acids arising from readily available allyl d-C-glycosides. To further showcase the application of this protocol, a structurally unique hexasaccharide composed of →3)-ß-d-6didoHepp-(1→4)-ß-d-GlcpNAc-(1→ units, corresponding to the capsular polysaccharide of C. jejuni strain CG8486 has been assembled for the first time. The assembly is characterized by highly efficient construction of the synthetically challenging ß-(1,2-cis)-d-ido-heptopyranoside by inversion of the C2 configuration of ß-(1,2-trans)-d-gulo-heptopyranoside, which is conveniently obtained by anchimerically assisted stereoselective glycosylation of the orthogonally protected 6dgulHepp fluoride. Ready accessibility of 6dHepp fluorides and the resulting glycans could serve as a rational starting point for the further development of synthetic vaccines fighting Campylobacter infection.

18.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 713-717, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the value of airway pH monitoring in determining the association between chronic cough and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in children. METHODS: A total of 274 children with chronic cough who were treated from January 2016 to December 2019 were enrolled. The DX-pH detection system was used to conduct 24-hour airway pH monitoring. The association between chronic cough and LPR was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 274 children, there were 168 boys and 106 girls, with a median age of 62.8 months and a median airway pH value of 7.3. Of all the 274 children, 99 (36.1%) had LPR, and the incidence rate of LPR was 36.9% (62/168) in boys and 34.9% (37/106) in girls (P=0.737). The comparison of the incidence rate of LPR among children aged < 1 year, 1-6 years, and > 6 years showed that the younger children had a significantly higher incidence rate of LPR than the older ones (P=0.003). There was no significant difference in the incidence of LPR between the two groups with chronic cough of unknown etiology and definite etiology. The incidence of chronic cough was positively correlated with that of LPR (rs=0.861, P < 0.01). Among the 99 children with positive RYAN index, 65 (66%) suffered from simple LPR. CONCLUSIONS: LPR is highly associated with the development of chronic cough, and airway pH monitoring may be a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of LPR.


Assuntos
Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(60): 7370-7373, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259253

RESUMO

A multi-potential step method is proposed for constructing flexible PPy/Rh film electrodes. The obtained PPy/Rh films exhibit excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalytic performance and can be used as flexible electrodes that maintain their initial catalytic performance after bending. Characterization shows that the active sites of the catalyst are due to electron transfer between Rh and PPy.

20.
Environ Int ; 156: 106742, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224997

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to assess population vulnerability to heat-related health risks and its relationship with urbanization levels to provide essential information for the future development and policy-making for climate change adaptation. We constructed a heat vulnerability index (HVI), quantified the population heat vulnerability in each county across China by a principal component analysis (PCA) of multiple factors, and assessed urbanization levels in each county using multisource data. Then, the HVI was validated using the heat-attributable fraction (heat-AF) of nonaccidental mortality based on death monitoring data and meteorological data from 95 counties across China. The results showed that our HVI was significantly positively associated with the heat AF of nonaccidental mortality. A negative correlation was observed between the urbanization level and the HVI. The HVI was generally higher in less urbanized western China and lower in the more urbanized eastern regions. The baseline mortality occupies the top position in the importance ranking of the heat-vulnerability indicators at all three urbanization levels, but the other indicators, including the aging rate, agricultural population rate, education, ethnic structure, economic status, air conditioner ownership rate, and number of hospitals, ranked differently among different urbanization levels. This finding indicates that to reduce population heat vulnerability, the most important approach is to improve the health status of the whole population and reduce baseline mortality; additionally, regional-specific measures and emphasis should be adjusted reasonably along with the process of urbanization according to the characteristics and key factors of local heat vulnerability.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Urbanização , Agricultura , China/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática
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