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1.
Nat Mater ; 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970964

RESUMO

Electron spins in van der Waals materials are playing a crucial role in recent advances in condensed-matter physics and spintronics. However, nuclear spins in van der Waals materials remain an unexplored quantum resource. Here we report optical polarization and coherent control of nuclear spins in a van der Waals material at room temperature. We use negatively charged boron vacancy ([Formula: see text]) spin defects in hexagonal boron nitride to polarize nearby nitrogen nuclear spins. We observe the Rabi frequency of nuclear spins at the excited-state level anti-crossing of [Formula: see text] defects to be 350 times larger than that of an isolated nucleus, and demonstrate fast coherent control of nuclear spins. Further, we detect strong electron-mediated nuclear-nuclear spin coupling that is five orders of magnitude larger than the direct nuclear-spin dipolar coupling, enabling multi-qubit operations. Our work opens new avenues for the manipulation of nuclear spins in van der Waals materials for quantum information science and technology.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3233, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680866

RESUMO

The recently discovered spin-active boron vacancy (V[Formula: see text]) defect center in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has high contrast optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at room-temperature, with a spin-triplet ground-state that shows promise as a quantum sensor. Here we report temperature-dependent ODMR spectroscopy to probe spin within the orbital excited-state. Our experiments determine the excited-state spin Hamiltonian, including a room-temperature zero-field splitting of 2.1 GHz and a g-factor similar to that of the ground-state. We confirm that the resonance is associated with spin rotation in the excited-state using pulsed ODMR measurements, and we observe Zeeman-mediated level anti-crossings in both the orbital ground- and excited-state. Our observation of a single set of excited-state spin-triplet resonance from 10 to 300 K is suggestive of symmetry-lowering of the defect system from D3h to C2v. Additionally, the excited-state ODMR has strong temperature dependence of both contrast and transverse anisotropy splitting, enabling promising avenues for quantum sensing.

3.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(2): 148-152, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903895

RESUMO

One of the fundamental predictions of quantum mechanics is the occurrence of random fluctuations in a vacuum caused by the zero-point energy. Remarkably, quantum electromagnetic fluctuations can induce a measurable force between neutral objects, known as the Casimir effect1, and it has been studied both theoretically2,3 and experimentally4-9. The Casimir effect can dominate the interaction between microstructures at small separations and is essential for micro- and nanotechnologies10,11. It has been utilized to realize nonlinear oscillation12, quantum trapping13, phonon transfer14,15 and dissipation dilution16. However, a non-reciprocal device based on quantum vacuum fluctuations remains an unexplored frontier. Here we report quantum-vacuum-mediated non-reciprocal energy transfer between two micromechanical oscillators. We parametrically modulate the Casimir interaction to realize a strong coupling between the two oscillators with different resonant frequencies. We engineer the system's spectrum such that it possesses an exceptional point17-20 in the parameter space and explore the asymmetric topological structure in its vicinity. By dynamically changing the parameters near the exceptional point and utilizing the non-adiabaticity of the process, we achieve non-reciprocal energy transfer between the two oscillators with high contrast. Our work demonstrates a scheme that employs quantum vacuum fluctuations to regulate energy transfer at the nanoscale and may enable functional Casimir devices in the future.

4.
Nano Lett ; 21(18): 7708-7714, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473524

RESUMO

The recently discovered spin defects in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), a layered van der Waals material, have great potential in quantum sensing. However, the photoluminescence and the contrast of the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of hBN spin defects are relatively low so far, which limits their sensitivity. Here we report a record-high ODMR contrast of 46% at room temperature and simultaneous enhancement of the photoluminescence of hBN spin defects by up to 17-fold by the surface plasmon of a gold film microwave waveguide. Our results are obtained with shallow boron vacancy spin defects in hBN nanosheets created by low-energy He+ ion implantation and a gold film microwave waveguide fabricated by photolithography. We also explore the effects of microwave and laser powers on the ODMR and improve the sensitivity of hBN spin defects for magnetic field detection. Our results support the promising potential of hBN spin defects for nanoscale quantum sensing.

5.
Biomed Opt Express ; 11(1): 461-479, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010528

RESUMO

Fluorescence nanoscopy has become an indispensable tool for studying organelle structures, protein dynamics, and interactions in biological sciences. Single-molecule localization microscopy can now routinely achieve 10-50 nm resolution through fluorescently labeled specimens in lateral optical sections. However, visualizing structures organized along the axial direction demands scanning and imaging each of the lateral imaging planes with fine intervals throughout the whole cell. This iterative process suffers from photobleaching of tagged probes, is susceptible to alignment artifacts and also limits the imaging speed. Here, we focused on the axial plane super-resolution imaging which integrated the single-objective light-sheet illumination and axial plane optical imaging with single-molecule localization technique to resolve nanoscale cellular architectures along the axial (or depth) dimension without scanning. We demonstrated that this method is compatible with DNA points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT) and exchange-PAINT by virtue of its light-sheet illumination, allowing multiplexed super-resolution imaging throughout the depth of whole cells. We further demonstrated this proposed system by resolving the axial distributions of intracellular organelles such as microtubules, mitochondria, and nuclear pore complexes in both COS-7 cells and glioblastoma patient-derived tumor cells.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(2): 89-93, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932762

RESUMO

Torque sensors such as the torsion balance enabled the first determination of the gravitational constant by Henri Cavendish1 and the discovery of Coulomb's law. Torque sensors are also widely used in studying small-scale magnetism2,3, the Casimir effect4 and other applications5. Great effort has been made to improve the torque detection sensitivity by nanofabrication and cryogenic cooling. Until now, the most sensitive torque sensor has achieved a remarkable sensitivity of 2.9 × 10-24 N m Hz-1/2 at millikelvin temperatures in a dilution refrigerator6. Here, we show a torque sensor reaching sensitivity of (4.2 ± 1.2) × 10-27 N m Hz-1/2 at room temperature. It is created by an optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum. Our system does not require complex nanofabrication. Moreover, we drive a nanoparticle to rotate at a record high speed beyond 5 GHz (300 billion r.p.m.). Our calculations show that this system will be able to detect the long sought after vacuum friction7-10 near a surface under realistic conditions. The optically levitated nanorotor will also have applications in studying nanoscale magnetism2,3 and the quantum geometric phase11.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8565-8571, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581774

RESUMO

High-temperature thermal photonics presents unique challenges for engineers as the database of materials that can withstand extreme environments are limited. In particular, ceramics with high temperature stability that can support coupled light-matter excitations, that is, polaritons, open new avenues for engineering radiative heat transfer. Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is an emerging ceramic 2D material that possesses low-loss polaritons in two spectrally distinct mid-infrared frequency bands. The hyperbolic nature of these frequency bands leads to a large local density of states (LDOS). In 2D form, these polaritonic states are dark modes, bound to the material. In cylindrical form, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) create subwavelength particles capable of coupling these dark modes to radiative ones. In this study, we leverage the high-frequency optical phonons present in BNNTs to create strong mid-IR thermal antenna emitters at high temperatures (938 K). Through direct measurement of thermal emission of a disordered system of BNNTs, we confirm their radiative polaritonic modes and show that the antenna behavior can be observed even in a disordered system. These are among the highest-frequency optical phonon polaritons that exist and could be used as high-temperature mid-IR thermal nanoantenna sources.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(3): 033603, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085795

RESUMO

Levitated optomechanics has great potential in precision measurements, thermodynamics, macroscopic quantum mechanics, and quantum sensing. Here we synthesize and optically levitate silica nanodumbbells in high vacuum. With a linearly polarized laser, we observe the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nanodumbbell. This levitated nanodumbbell torsion balance is a novel analog of the Cavendish torsion balance, and provides rare opportunities to observe the Casimir torque and probe the quantum nature of gravity as proposed recently. With a circularly polarized laser, we drive a 170-nm-diameter nanodumbbell to rotate beyond 1 GHz, which is the fastest nanomechanical rotor realized to date. Smaller silica nanodumbbells can sustain higher rotation frequencies. Such ultrafast rotation may be used to study material properties and probe vacuum friction.

9.
Opt Lett ; 43(15): 3778-3781, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067678

RESUMO

Atom-like defects in two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have recently emerged as a promising platform for quantum information science. Here, we investigate single-photon emissions from atomic defects in boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical modulation of the quantum emission from BNNTs with a near-infrared laser. This one-dimensional system displays a bright single-photon emission, as well as high stability at room temperature, and is an excellent candidate for optomechanics. The fast optical modulation of a single-photon emission shows multiple electronic levels of the system and has potential applications in optical signal processing.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(8): 080602, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542995

RESUMO

Nonequilibrium processes of small systems such as molecular machines are ubiquitous in biology, chemistry, and physics but are often challenging to comprehend. In the past two decades, several exact thermodynamic relations of nonequilibrium processes, collectively known as fluctuation theorems, have been discovered and provided critical insights. These fluctuation theorems are generalizations of the second law and can be unified by a differential fluctuation theorem. Here we perform the first experimental test of the differential fluctuation theorem using an optically levitated nanosphere in both underdamped and overdamped regimes and in both spatial and velocity spaces. We also test several theorems that can be obtained from it directly, including a generalized Jarzynski equality that is valid for arbitrary initial states, and the Hummer-Szabo relation. Our study experimentally verifies these fundamental theorems and initiates the experimental study of stochastic energetics with the instantaneous velocity measurement.

11.
Opt Lett ; 42(5): 915-918, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248330

RESUMO

Photonic graphene, a honeycomb lattice of evanescently coupled waveguides, has provided a superior platform for investigating a host of fundamental phenomena such as unconventional edge states, synthetic magnetic fields, photonic Landau levels, Floquet topological insulators, and pseudospin effects. Here, we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically, topological vortex degeneracy lifting and Aharonov-Bohm-like interference from local deformation in a photonic honeycomb lattice. When a single valley is excited, lattice deformation leads to the generation of a vortex pair due to the lifting of degeneracy associated with pseudospin states. In the case of double-valley excitation, we observe the Aharonov-Bohm-like interference merely due to the deformation of the graphene lattice, which gives rise to an artificial gauge field. Our results may provide insight into the understanding of similar phenomena in other graphene-like materials and structures.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(5): 053001, 2017 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211726

RESUMO

We crystallize up to 15 ^{40}Ca^{+} ions in a ring with a microfabricated silicon surface Paul trap. Delocalization of the Doppler laser-cooled ions shows that the translational symmetry of the ion ring is preserved at millikelvin temperatures. By characterizing the collective motion of the ion crystals, we identify homogeneous electric fields as the dominant symmetry-breaking mechanism at this energy scale. With increasing ion numbers, such detrimental effects are reduced. We predict that, with only a ten-ion ring, uncompensated homogeneous fields will not break the translational symmetry of the rotational ground state. This experiment opens a door towards studying quantum many-body physics with translational symmetry at the single-particle level.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(12): 123604, 2016 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689273

RESUMO

An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentum of photons and the torsional vibration of a nonspherical nanoparticle whose polarizability is a tensor. The torsional vibration frequency can be 1 order of magnitude higher than its center-of-mass motion frequency, which is promising for ground state cooling. We propose a simple yet novel scheme to achieve ground state cooling of its torsional vibration with a linearly polarized Gaussian cavity mode. A levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum will also be an ultrasensitive nanoscale torsion balance with a torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10^{-29} N m/sqrt[Hz] under realistic conditions.

14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12250, 2016 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27432560

RESUMO

Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

15.
Sci Rep ; 4: 7253, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434770

RESUMO

We present axial plane optical microscopy (APOM) that can, in contrast to conventional microscopy, directly image a sample's cross-section parallel to the optical axis of an objective lens without scanning. APOM combined with conventional microscopy simultaneously provides two orthogonal images of a 3D sample. More importantly, APOM uses only a single lens near the sample to achieve selective-plane illumination microscopy, as we demonstrated by three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent pollens and brain slices. This technique allows fast, high-contrast, and convenient 3D imaging of structures that are hundreds of microns beneath the surfaces of large biological tissues.


Assuntos
Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Lentes , Microscopia/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353883

RESUMO

Brownian motion of slender particles near a boundary is ubiquitous in biological systems and in nanomaterial assembly, but the complex hydrodynamic interaction in those systems is still poorly understood. Here, we report experimental and computational studies of the Brownian motion of silicon nanowires tethered on a substrate. An optical interference method enabled direct observation of microscopic rotations of the slender bodies in three dimensions with high angular and temporal resolutions. This quantitative observation revealed anisotropic and angle-dependent hydrodynamic wall effects: rotational diffusivity in inclined and azimuth directions follows different power laws as a function of the length, ∼ L(-2.5) and ∼ L(-3), respectively, and is more hindered for smaller inclined angles. In parallel, we developed an implicit simulation technique that takes the complex wire-wall hydrodynamic interactions into account efficiently, the result of which agreed well with the experimentally observed angle-dependent diffusion. The demonstrated techniques provide a platform for studying the microrheology of soft condensed matters, such as colloidal and biological systems near interfaces, and exploring the optimal self-assembly conditions of nanostructures.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Modelos Estatísticos , Nanofios/química , Nanofios/ultraestrutura , Simulação por Computador , Difusão , Movimento (Física)
17.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4316, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989825

RESUMO

Directing acoustic waves along curved paths is critical for applications such as ultrasound imaging, surgery and acoustic cloaking. Metamaterials can direct waves by spatially varying the material properties through which the wave propagates. However, this approach is not always feasible, particularly for acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate the generation of acoustic bottle beams in homogeneous space without using metamaterials. Instead, the sound energy flows through a three-dimensional curved shell in air leaving a close-to-zero pressure region in the middle, exhibiting the capability of circumventing obstacles. By designing the initial phase, we develop a general recipe for creating self-bending wave packets, which can set acoustic beams propagating along arbitrary prescribed convex trajectories. The measured acoustic pulling force experienced by a rigid ball placed inside such a beam confirms the pressure field of the bottle. The demonstrated acoustic bottle and self-bending beams have potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging, therapeutic ultrasound, as well as acoustic levitations and isolations.

18.
Opt Express ; 22(9): 11140-51, 2014 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24921812

RESUMO

Oblique plane imaging, using remote focusing with a tilted mirror, enables direct two-dimensional (2D) imaging of any inclined plane of interest in three-dimensional (3D) specimens. It can image real-time dynamics of a living sample that changes rapidly or evolves its structure along arbitrary orientations. It also allows direct observations of any tilted target plane in an object of which orientational information is inaccessible during sample preparation. In this work, we study the optical resolution of this innovative wide-field imaging method. Using the vectorial diffraction theory, we formulate the vectorial point spread function (PSF) of direct oblique plane imaging. The anisotropic lateral resolving power caused by light clipping from the tilted mirror is theoretically analyzed for all oblique angles. We show that the 2D PSF in oblique plane imaging is conceptually different from the inclined 2D slice of the 3D PSF in conventional lateral imaging. Vectorial optical transfer function (OTF) of oblique plane imaging is also calculated by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to study effects of oblique angles on frequency responses.

19.
Science ; 343(6178): 1493-6, 2014 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24675957

RESUMO

Measurement of the instantaneous velocity of Brownian motion of suspended particles in liquid probes the microscopic foundations of statistical mechanics in soft condensed matter. However, instantaneous velocity has eluded experimental observation for more than a century since Einstein's prediction of the small length and time scales involved. We report shot-noise-limited, high-bandwidth measurements of Brownian motion of micrometer-sized beads suspended in water and acetone by an optical tweezer. We observe the hydrodynamic instantaneous velocity of Brownian motion in a liquid, which follows a modified energy equipartition theorem that accounts for the kinetic energy of the fluid displaced by the moving bead. We also observe an anticorrelated thermal force, which is conventionally assumed to be uncorrelated.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23496441

RESUMO

The Brownian motion of a microscopic particle in a fluid is one of the cornerstones of statistical physics and the paradigm of a random process. One of the most powerful tools to quantify it was provided by Langevin, who explicitly accounted for a short-time correlated "thermal" force. The Langevin picture predicts ballistic motion, ~t(2) at short-time scales, and diffusive motion ~t at long-time scales, where x is the displacement of the particle during time t, and the average is taken over the thermal distribution of initial conditions. The Langevin equation also predicts a superdiffusive regime, where ~t(3), under the condition that the initial velocity is fixed rather than distributed thermally. We analyze the motion of an optically trapped particle in air and indeed find t(3) dispersion. This observation is a direct proof of the existence of the random, rapidly varying force imagined by Langevin.


Assuntos
Difusão , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Soluções/química , Simulação por Computador
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