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1.
Toxicology ; 432: 152392, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014472

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA) constitutes an important industrial chemical agent and well-known neurotoxin. However, the mechanism underlying AA-mediated neurotoxicity is extremely complicated and controversial. In this study, we found that activation of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and its subsequent downstream inflammatory responses plays an important role in AA-induced neurotoxicity mechanisms. In vitro experiments revealed that AA (2.5 mM) induced BV2 microglial cytotoxicity and triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation along with downstream proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß and interleukin-18 expression. Treatment with inhibitor or NLRP3 siRNA efficiently protected BV2 microglial cells against AA-induced cytotoxicity and reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its mediated inflammatory reaction. Similarly, AA exposure (50 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days caused significant activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and neuroinflammation in C57BL/6 mice, whereas inhibiting these effects through specific NLRP3 inflammasome blocker MCC950 (5 mg/kg) intervention or NLRP3 knock-out significantly ameliorated AA-induced ataxia, cerebellar Purkinje cells degeneration, and apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that antagonism of NLRP3 could also up-regulate the Nrf2 signalling pathway and related antioxidant genes. In conclusion, our findings indicate that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is involved in AA-induced neurotoxicity, whereas MCC950 treatment or NLRP3 knock-out could effectively protect against AA-induced neurotoxic injury through the inhibition of neuroinflammation and activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Therefore, the NLRP3 inflammasome might serve as a promising therapeutic target, with drugs designed to specifically inhibit this pathway potentially providing new avenues for preventing or ameliorating AA poisoning.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017342

RESUMO

Through reaction of beryllium dimers with carbon monoxide, a carbonyl complex BeBeCO is formed in solid neon. Upon visible light excitation, the BeBeCO complex rearranges to a BeCOBe isomer, which further isomerizes to a low-energy BeOBeC species under UV-visible light excitation. These species are identified on the basis of infrared absorption spectroscopy with isotopic substitutions and quantum chemical studies. The BeOBeC molecule is characterized to be a multiple radical species having an electronic quintet ground state featuring an unusual quartet carbyne unit with three unpaired electrons on the carbon center. Bonding analysis indicates that the strong Pauli repulsion between carbon 2s lone pair electrons and the σ electrons of the BeOBe fragment significantly weakens the Be-C bonding and destabilizes the triplet state of the BeOBeC radical with a doublet carbyne unit. The three-center π-bonding of BeOBe is also found to play a role in stabilizing the quartet carbyne.

3.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059523

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia is a strong risk factor for chronic complications of diabetes. Hyperglycemic conditions foster not only the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but also the consumption of antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and promoting the occurrence and progression of complications. During our continuous search for antioxidant constituents from the pericarp of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem, we isolated two previously unreported apotirucallane-type triterpenoids, toonasinensin A (1) and toonasinensin B (2), together with five known apotirucallane-type triterpenoids (3-7) and two known cycloartane-type triterpenoids (8-9) from the pericarp. Compounds 8-9 were obtained from T. sinensis for the first time. Their structures were characterized based on interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, HR-ESI-MS) and comparison to previous reports. Compounds (2, 4, 6, 7, and 9) were able to inhibit proliferation against rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) cultured under high-glucose conditions within a concentration of 80 µM. Compounds (2, 6, and 7) were tested for antioxidant activity attributable to superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and ROS in vitro, and the results showed that compounds (2, 6, and 7) could significantly increase the levels of SOD and reduce the levels of MDA and ROS. The current studies showed that apotirucallane-type triterpenoids (2, 6, and 7) might have the antioxidant effects against diabetic nephropathy.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(530)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051225

RESUMO

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical condition that can lead to brain encephalopathy, particularly when concurrent with acidosis due to infection, ischemia, and hypoxia. The prevailing view is that acidosis increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to bilirubin and exacerbates its neurotoxicity. In this study, we found that the concentration of the cell death marker, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is elevated in infants with both hyperbilirubinemia and acidosis and showed stronger correlation with the severity of acidosis rather than increased bilirubin concentration. In mouse neonatal neurons, bilirubin exhibits limited toxicity but robustly potentiates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), resulting in increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, spike firings, and cell death. Furthermore, neonatal conditioning with concurrent hyperbilirubinemia and hypoxia-induced acidosis promoted long-term impairments in learning and memory and complex sensorimotor functions in vivo, which are largely attenuated in ASIC1a null mice. These findings suggest that targeting acidosis and ASICs may attenuate neonatal hyperbilirubinemia complications.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor shape is strongly associated with some tumor's genomic subtypes and patient outcomes. Our purpose is to find the relationship between risk stratification and the shape of GISTs. METHODS: A total of 101 patients with primary GISTs were confirmed by pathology and immunohistochemistry and underwent enhanced CT examination. All lesions' pathologic sizes were 1 to 10 cm. Points A and B were the extremities of the longest diameter (LD) of the tumor and points C and D the extremities of the small axis, which was the longest diameter perpendicular to AB. The four angles of the quadrangle ABCD were measured and each angle named by its summit (A, B, C, D). For regular lesions, we took angles A and B as big angle (BiA) and small angle (SmA). For irregular lesions, we compared A/B ratio and D/C ratio and selected the larger ratio for analysis. The chi-square test, t test, ROC analysis, and hierarchical or binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The BiA/SmA ratio was an independent predictor for risk level of GISTs (p = 0.019). With threshold of BiA at 90.5°, BiA/SmA ratio at 1.35 and LD at 6.15 cm, the sensitivities for high-risk GISTs were 82.4%, 85.3%, and 83.8%, respectively; the specificities were 87.1%, 71%, and 77.4%, respectively; and the AUCs were 0.852, 0.818, and 0.844, respectively. LD could not effectively distinguish between intermediate-risk and high-risk GISTs, but BiA could (p < 0.05). Shape and Ki-67 were independent predictors of the mitotic value (p = 0.036 and p < 0.001, respectively), and the accuracy was 87.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Quantifying tumor shape has better predictive efficacy than LD in predicting the risk level and mitotic value of GISTs, especially for high-risk grading and mitotic value > 5/50HPF. KEY POINTS: • The BiA/SmA ratio was an independent predictor affecting the risk level of GISTs. LD could not effectively distinguish between intermediate-risk and high-risk GISTs, but BiA could. • Shape and Ki-67 were independent predictors of the mitotic value. • The method for quantifying the tumor shape has better predictive efficacy than LD in predicting the risk level and mitotic value of GISTs.

6.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 468-477, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902266

RESUMO

C-Met plays a crucial role in the development and progression of neoplastic disease. Type II c-Met inhibitors recognise the inactive DFG-out conformation of the kinase, result in better anti-tumour effects due to synergistic effect against the other kinases. According to our previous works, an (E)-N'-benzylidene group was selected as the initial fragment. Two series of (E)-N'-benzylidene hydrazides were designed by fragment growth method. The inhibitory activities were in vitro investigated against c-Met and VEGFR-2. Compound 10b exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against the c-Met inhibitor (IC50 = 0.37 nM). Compound 11b exhibited multi-target c-Met kinase inhibitory activity as a potential type II c-Met inhibitor (IC50 = 3.41 nM against c-Met; 25.34 nM against VEGFR-2). The two compounds also demonstrate the feasibility of fragment-based virtual screening method for drug discovery.

7.
Biosci Rep ; 40(1)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919492

RESUMO

Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is a common human heart disease that causes death. No effective biomarkers for ICM could be found in existing databases, which is detrimental to the in-depth study of this disease. In the present study, ICM susceptibility biomarkers were identified using a proposed strategy based on RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data of ICM and normal samples. Significantly differentially expressed competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) triplets were constructed using permutation tests and differentially expressed mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs. Candidate ICM susceptible genes were screened out as differentially expressed genes in significantly differentially expressed ceRNA triplets enriched in ICM-related functional classes. Finally, eight ICM susceptibility genes and their significantly correlated lncRNAs with high classification accuracy were identified as ICM susceptibility biomarkers. These biomarkers would contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of ICM. The proposed strategy could be extended to other complex diseases without disease biomarkers in public databases.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109827, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986408

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of their cancer death. Establishing an accurate BC prognosis is very difficult because of its heterogeneity. Elevated TFF1 levels in serum were associated with development of BC, TFF1 expression was upregulated in BC compared to the healthy breast tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of TFF1 in BCs, and to assess whether serum TFF1 could be used in formulating a prognosis for BC patients. In silico analyses were carried out to determine the expression of TFF1 mRNA in different types of BC and the association between TFF1 expression and survival of BC patients. Expression of TFF1 protein was checked in 52 paraffin-embedded tissues of BCs by immunochemistry, and serum concentration of TFF1 in 70 BC patients and 32 healthy controls was measured by ELISA. Functional activities of TFF1 in BC cells were determined by CCK-8 assay, colony formation, BrdU-DNA synthesis, and assays for migration and invasion. Results showed that expression of TFF1 mRNA was correlated with expression of biomarkers of luminal cancers including ESR1, GATA3, FOXA1, MYB and XBP1. In addition, patients with ER+BC had higher expression of TFF1 than those with ER- (p < 0.05). There was also lower expression of TFF1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) than in non-TNBC (p < 0.05), which corresponds with the level of serum TFF1 in TNBC patients, compared with non-TNBC patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, expression of TFF1 was associated with tumor size (p = 0.002), nodal status (p < 0.001), histological grade (p < 0.001), ER status (p = 0.012), PR status (p < 0.001) and HER2 (p < 0.001), while serum TFF1 was only statistically different among BC with ER+, PR + and HER2+ (p = 0.04139, 0.0018, 0.0004). Elevated TFF1 expression correlated with increased overall survival of BC patients (p = 0.00068). Finally, TFF1 was found to inhibit the cell growth, colony formation, migration and invasion of BC cells in vitro. All these results suggest that expression of TFF1 was related to ER status of BC and that expression of TFF1 was lower in TNBC than in non-TNBC. TFF1 was found to inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells in vitro. Expression of TFF1 was associated with clinical characters of patients with BC. Serum TFF1 could be used to predict prognosis of patients with BC, especially non-TNBC.

9.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982318

RESUMO

Six pigs underwent implantation of a portal vein infusion port by transjugular access. The technical success rate was 100% (n = 6), with no surgical complications or deaths. At 1 month after implantation, the catheter tip had moved from the splenic vein to the main portal vein, while the catheter protruded into the right ventricle through the right atrium in all cases. Hence, the infusion port system has not been used in clinical practice due to its obvious displacement after implantation. However, this study provides a new idea for future exploration of portal vein infusion pathways.

10.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943201

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common female death-causing cancer worldwide. A network-based integration method was proposed to identify potential breast cancer genes. First, genes were prioritized using a gene prioritization algorithm by the strategy of disease risks transferred between genes in a network with weighted vertexes and edges. Our prioritization algorithm was effectives and robust for top-ranked seed gene number and higher area under the curve values compared to ToppGene and ToppNet. Then, 20 potential breast cancer genes were identified as common genes of the top 50 candidate genes for their robustness in multiple prioritizations. These genes could accurately classify tumor and normal samples of all and paired sample sets and three independent datasets. Of potential breast cancer genes, 18 were verified by literature and 2 were novel genes that need further study. This study would contribute to the understanding of the genetic architecture for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of serum hemoglobin (HB) level with disease activity and structural damage in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A total of 890 RA patients and 890 normal subjects were enrolled in the case-control study. A HB threshold of< 110 g/L (women) and < 120 g/L (men) was used to determine anemia. All the patients were divided into three groups: non-anemia group (HB ≥ 120 g/L (male) or 110 g/L (female)), mild anemia group ((90 g/L < HB < lower limit of normal), and medium to severe anemia group (HB ≤ 90 g/L). Serum HB level and anemia prevalence between RA patients and normal subjects were compared. Associations of HB level with disease activity, structural damage, and function of joint in different groups were also investigated. RESULTS: The average of HB level in RA was (109.08 ± 17.96)g/l, which was lower than that in controls (136.75 ± 14.57)g/l (P < 0.001). Anemia was observed in 47% of the RA patients, while prevalence of anemia in control group was only 4.4%. In RA group, percentages of non-anemia, mild anemia, and medium to severe anemia were 47%, 38%, and 15%. Compared with non-anemia RA patients, RA patients with anemia had higher disease activity, severer structural damage and worse function of joint (P < 0.001). With the increase of anemia, the disease activity, structural damage, and dysfunction of joints increased significantly (P < 0.05-0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that HB level was negatively correlated with disease activity parameters, degree of joint destruction, and function (P < 0.05-0.001). Logistic regression indicated that serum HB level was protective factors for disease activity and structural damage in RA (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HB level was significantly related to disease activity and structural damage in RA patients.Key Points• Inflammatory anemia was popular (about a half) in patients with RA.• HB level was related to disease activity and structural damage in RA patients.

12.
Phytother Res ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908073

RESUMO

Prunus cerasoides (PC) products contain relatively high levels of flavones and isoflavones and may be potential sources of phytoestrogens for postmenopausal symptom relief. We assessed the PC extract (PCE) and its representative constituents in vitro with assays for estrogen receptor alpha binding, estrogen response element transcriptional activity, cell proliferation, and gene expression changes for pS2 in MCF-7 cells. PCE and its compounds showed strong estrogen receptor binding affinities and estrogen response element induction. A previously undescribed compound (designated as compound 18), now identified as being gentisic acid, 5-O-ß-D-(6'-O-trans-4-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside, also showed potent estrogenic properties and induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. PCE was evaluated for its in vivo uterotrophic effects in immature female rats as well as for its lipid lowering effects in estrogen-deprived animals. For ovariectomized rats and aged female mice, PCE-treated groups had lower plasma triglyceride levels compared with control and, for the same comparison, had reduced serum levels of liver stress/damage markers. Our results point to strong estrogenic activities and beneficial metabolic effects for PCE, with properties that put PC and its extracts as promising sources of phytoestrogens for symptom relief in menopausal and postmenopausal cases.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 415, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964874

RESUMO

Supramolecular assemblies have gained tremendous attention due to their ability to catalyze reactions with the efficiencies of natural enzymes. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we identify the origin of the catalysis by the supramolecular capsule Ga4L612- on the reductive elimination reaction from gold complexes and assess their similarity to natural enzymes. By comparing the free energies of the reactants and transition states for the catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions, we determine that an encapsulated water molecule generates electric fields that contributes the most to the reduction in the activation free energy. Although this is unlike the biomimetic scenario of catalysis through direct host-guest interactions, the electric fields from the nanocage also supports the transition state to complete the reductive elimination reaction with greater catalytic efficiency. However it is also shown that the nanocage poorly organizes the interfacial water, which in turn creates electric fields that misalign with the breaking bonds of the substrate, thus identifying new opportunities for catalytic design improvements in nanocage assemblies.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989795

RESUMO

Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) has been reported to prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, two in vitro models, Aß-treated SH-SY5Y cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells transfected with APPsw (SH-SY5Y-APPsw cells), were employed to investigate the neuroprotective of STS. The results revealed that pretreatment with STS (1, 10 and 100 µmol/L) for 24 hours could protect against Aß (10 µmol/L)-induced cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner in the SH-SY5Y cells. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate decreased the concentrations of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, NO and iNOS, while increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the SH-SY5Y cells. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate decreased the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, Western blot results revealed that the expressions of neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme were up-regulated in the SH-SY5Y cells after STS treatment. Furthermore, ELISA and Western blot results showed that STS could decrease the levels of Aß. ELISA and qPCR results indicated that STS could increase α-secretase (ADAM10) activity and decrease ß-secretase (BACE1) activity. In conclusion, STS could protect against Aß-induced cell damage by modulating Aß degration and generation. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate could be a promising candidate for AD treatment.

15.
Cell Prolif ; 53(1): e12706, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Withaferin A (WA) is a bioactive compound with a remarkable anti-cancer effect derived from Withania somnifera, commonly known as ashwagandha. However, the anti-cancer mechanisms of WA in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability assays and xenografted nude mice were used to evaluate the effects of WA, along with flow cytometry to detect apoptosis and cell cycle of GBM. RNA-seq analysis, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, qRT-PCR and siRNA gene silencing were carried out to determine the signalling pathways affected by WA. RESULTS: Withaferin A significantly inhibited the growth of GBM in vitro and in vivo and triggered the intrinsic apoptosis of GBM cells by up-regulating expression of Bim and Bad. WA arrested GBM cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle through dephosphorylating Thr161 of CDK1 by activating p53-independent p21 up-regulation. Knockdown of p21 restored cell cycle progression and cell viability by down-regulating the expression of Bad rather than Bim. We demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by WA through the ATF4-ATF3-CHOP axis, initiated apoptosis and G2/M arrest in GBM cells. CONCLUSION: We revealed a novel pathway that elucidated WA activation of apoptosis and G2/M arrest in GBM cells through the ATF4-ATF3-CHOP axis. This discovery is important for optimization of WA-based regimens for prevention and/or treatment of GBM.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(4): 651-654, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840151

RESUMO

The direct amination of cyanohydrins with amines via a catalytic cyano-borrowing reaction was developed. The transformation features broad substrate scope, excellent functional group compatibility, and very mild and simple operations. Moreover, a titanium catalyst supported by quinine and (S)-BINOL ligands enabled an asymmetric cyano-borrowing reaction with moderate to high enantioselectivity.

17.
J Virol ; 94(3)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723026

RESUMO

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-defining cancer with abnormal angiogenesis. The high incidence of KS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected AIDS patients has been ascribed to an interaction between HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and KSHV, focusing on secretory proteins. The HIV-1 secreted protein HIV Tat has been found to synergize with KSHV lytic proteins to induce angiogenesis. However, the impact and underlying mechanisms of HIV Tat in KSHV-infected endothelial cells undergoing viral lytic reactivation remain unclear. Here, we identified LINC00313 as a novel KSHV reactivation-activated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that interacts with HIV Tat. We found that LINC00313 overexpression inhibits cell migration, invasion, and tube formation, and this suppressive effect was relieved by HIV Tat. In addition, LINC00313 bound to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex components, and this interaction was disrupted by HIV Tat, suggesting that LINC00313 may mediate transcription repression through recruitment of PRC2 and that HIV Tat alleviates repression through disruption of this association. This notion was further supported by bioinformatics analysis of transcriptome profiles in LINC00313 overexpression combined with HIV Tat treatment. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that LINC00313 overexpression negatively regulates cell movement and migration pathways, and enrichment of these pathways was absent in the presence of HIV Tat. Collectively, our results illustrate that an angiogenic repressive lncRNA, LINC00313, which is upregulated during KSHV reactivation, interacts with HIV Tat to promote endothelial cell motility. These results demonstrate that an lncRNA serves as a novel connector in HIV-KSHV interactions.IMPORTANCE KS is a prevalent tumor associated with infections with two distinct viruses, KSHV and HIV. Since KSHV and HIV infect distinct cell types, the virus-virus interaction associated with KS formation has focused on secretory factors. HIV Tat is a well-known RNA binding protein secreted by HIV. Here, we revealed LINC00313, an lncRNA upregulated during KSHV lytic reactivation, as a novel HIV Tat-interacting lncRNA that potentially mediates HIV-KSHV interactions. We found that LINC00313 can repress endothelial cell angiogenesis-related properties potentially by interacting with chromatin remodeling complex PRC2 and downregulation of cell migration-regulating genes. An interaction between HIV Tat and LINC00313 contributed to the dissociation of PRC2 from LINC00313 and the disinhibition of LINC00313-induced repression of cell motility. Given that lncRNAs are emerging as key players in tissue physiology and disease progression, including cancer, the mechanism identified in this study may help decipher the mechanisms underlying KS pathogenesis induced by HIV and KSHV coinfection.

18.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 534-539, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804841

RESUMO

The inertness of the graphene basal plane has notably limited its viable chemical modification pathways. We report direct azidation and subsequent click chemistry of the graphene basal plane through the electrochemical oxidation of an aqueous sodium azide solution at the graphene surface. An ∼20% nitrogen-to-carbon ratio is achieved for monolayer graphene under ambient conditions and neutral pH, and the degree of functionalization is tunable through the applied voltage. The functionalized azide groups enable both copper-catalyzed and copper-free alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry, as well as subsequent bioconjugation, and fluorescence microscopy indicates uniform functionalization across the graphene surface. Notably, we find that as the azidation, cycloaddition, and bioconjugation processes substantially shift the graphene doping level, high electrical conductivity and carrier mobility are maintained throughout the different functionalization states. By integrating the electrochemical azidation scheme with electrochemical exfoliation, we further demonstrate one-step bulk production of azidated graphene flakes from graphite. We thus open a new door to the facile preparation of diverse graphene derivatives under ambient conditions.

19.
Brain Res ; 1726: 146488, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586625

RESUMO

Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of disability with limited therapeutic options. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) has recently been shown to be a promising noninvasive therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke patients. Here, we investigated the protective effects of cTBS following acute infarction using a photothrombotic stroke (PTS) model in the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with cTBS resulted in a reduction in the volume of the infarct region and significantly increased vascular diameter and blood flow velocity in peri-infarct region, as well as decreased the numbers of calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Moreover, the number of CD16/32 positive microglia was decreased, whereas the number of CD206 positive microglia was increased. In addition, performance in a water maze task was significantly improved. These results indicated that cTBS protected against PPC infarct region, leading to an improvement in spatial cognitive function, possibly as a result of changes to cerebral microvascular function and inflammatory responses.

20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 235-244, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760818

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is the family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that has emerged as a highly selective with low toxic cancer therapy target. A multistage virtual screening method combined by SVM, protein-ligand interaction fingerprints (PLIF) pharmacophore and docking was utilised for screening the CDK2 inhibitors. The evaluation of the validation set indicated that this method can be used to screen large chemical databases because it has a high hit-rate and enrichment factor (80.1% and 332.83 respectively). Six compounds were screened out from NCI, Enamine and Pubchem database. After molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation, two compounds had great potential as novel CDK2 inhibitors and they also showed selective inhibition against CDK2 in the kinase activity assay.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/análise , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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