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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(26): 7772-7785, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several techniques of nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion have been described in the literature with different success rates. AIM: To systematically search the literature and conduct a meta-analysis comparing the success rates, insertion time and complications associated with different techniques of NGT insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients. METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Google Scholar databases were performed up to October 31, 2019. We included 17 randomized controlled trials with 2500 participants in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: As compared to the conventional method, successful insertion of the NGT on first attempt was higher with modified techniques such as the reverse Sellick's maneuver [relative risk (RR) 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62-2.31], use of a frozen NGT (RR 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.13), inserting the NGT with neck flexion and lateral neck pressure (RR 1.64; 95%CI: 1.10-2.45), endotracheal tube-assisted (RR 1.88; 95%CI: 1.52-2.32) and video-assisted placements (RR 1.60; 95%CI: 1.31-1.95). All the modified techniques also led to comparatively higher insertion success rates than the conventional technique. CONCLUSION: The use of modified techniques of NGT insertion such as the reverse Sellick's maneuver, neck flexion with lateral neck pressure, frozen NGT, endotracheal tube-guided or video-assisted methods result in a significantly better chance of successful tube insertion at first attempt as compared to the conventional technique. All modified techniques also significantly improve the overall chance of successful NGT placement as compared to the conventional method.

2.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 99(5): 527-535, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424795

RESUMO

This study explored the molecular mechanism behind the protective effects from low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on an in-vitro model of spinal cord injury (SCI). For this, PC12 cells were treated with different concentrations of LPS and the cell counting kit-8 assay was used to measure the toxicity of LPS to the cells. Next, we used immunofluorescence to measure nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in PC12 cells. PC12 cells were then treated with IGF-1 (PI3K agonist) and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor). An in-vitro model of SCI was then established via oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. Rates of apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry and the TUNEL assay. Low-dose LPS increased the expression levels of Nrf2, p-PI3K/PI3K, and p-AKT/AKT, and facilitated nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The activation of PI3K-AKT signaling by IGF-1 significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, whereas inhibition of PI3K-AKT signaling significantly decreased the expression of Nrf2. Low-dose LPS reduced the apoptotic ratio of PC12 cells, decreased the expression levels of caspase 3 and caspase 9, and increased the expression levels of HO-1, NQO1, and γ-GCS. Low-dose LPS also reduced the rate of apoptosis and oxidative stress by activating the PI3K-AKT-Nrf2 signaling pathway. Collectively, the results indicate that PI3K-AKT-Nrf2 signaling participates in the protective effects from low-dose LPS in an in-vitro PC12 cell model of SCI.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 5, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reperfusion ventricular arrhythmia (RA) associated with hypothermic ischaemic storage is increasingly recognized as a substantial contributor to adverse consequences after heart transplantation. Ischemia- or hypothermia-induced gap junction (GJ) remodelling is closely linked to RA. Reducing GJ remodelling contributes to RA attenuation and is important in heart transplantation. However, sevoflurane has an antiarrhythmic effect associated with the connexin 43 (Cx43) protein that has not yet been fully established. METHODS: Hearts were divided into two groups according to a random number table: all hearts were arrested by an infusion of histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution (4 °C) followed by (1) storage in HTK solution (4 °C) alone for 6 h (n = 8, Control group) or (2) storage in HTK solution supplemented with sevoflurane (2.5%) (4 °C) for 6 h (n = 8, Sevo-HTK group). First, the total Cx43 level and the phosphorylation of Cx43 at Ser368 (Cx43-pS368) were assessed by Western blotting, and the distribution of Cx43 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Second, programmed electrical stimulation (PES) and monophasic action potential (MAP) recording were used to analyse the MAP duration (MAPD), conduction velocity (CV) and transmural repolarization dispersion (TDR). In addition, haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining were individually used to investigate the degree of myocardial pathological damage and cell apoptosis. Finally, bipolar electrograms were used to record the graft re-beating time and monitor RA during reperfusion for 15 to 30 min. RESULTS: Sevo-HTK solution relatively increased the total Cx43 (P < 0.01) and Cx43-pS368 (P < 0.01) levels and prevented Cx43 redistribution (P < 0.05) and CV slowing (P < 0.001) but did not change TDR (P > 0.05). Additionally, the Cx43-pS368/total Cx43 ratio (P>0.05) was similar in the two groups. However, with Sevo-HTK solution, the graft re-beating times were shortened, myocardial pathological damage was ameliorated, and the number of apoptotic cells was markedly decreased. CONCLUSION: The reduction in hypothermia and ischaemia-induced reperfusion arrhythmias by the addition of sevoflurane to HTK solution may be related to the phosphorylation of Cx43 at serine 368.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Hipotermia/complicações , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Procaína/administração & dosagem , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Mol Plant ; 9(7): 1018-27, 2016 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109602

RESUMO

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is assimilated by the most abundant but sluggish enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we show that acetylation of lysine residues of the Rubisco large subunit (RbcL), including Lys201 and Lys334 in the active sites, may be an important mechanism in the regulation of Rubisco activities. It is well known that Lys201 reacts with CO2 for carbamylation, a prerequisite for both carboxylase and oxygenase activities of Rubisco, and Lys334 contacts with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). The acetylation level of RbcL in plants is lower during the day and higher at night, inversely correlating with the Rubisco carboxylation activity. A search of the chloroplast proteome database did not reveal a canonical acetyltransferase; instead, we found that a plant-derived metabolite, 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (AMC), can non-enzymatically acetylate both native Rubisco and synthesized RbcL peptides spanning Lys334 or Lys201. Furthermore, lysine residues were modified by synthesized 4-methylumbelliferone esters with different electro- and stereo-substitutes, resulting in varied Rubisco activities. 1-Chloroethyl 4-methylcoumarin-7-yl carbonate (ClMC) could transfer the chloroethyl carbamate group to lysine residues of RbcL and completely inactivate Rubisco, whereas bis(4-methylcoumarin-7-yl) carbonate (BMC) improved Rubisco activity through increasing the level of Lys201 carbamylation. Our findings indicate that RbcL acetylation negatively regulates Rubisco activity, and metabolic derivatives can be designed to dissect and improve CO2 fixation efficiency of plants through lysine modification.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Acetilação , Anabaena/genética , Anabaena/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Synechocystis/genética , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 8(11): 15106-11, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The available evidence suggests that simvastatin plays a beneficial role in lung injury. In addition, statins have been shown to inhibit the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin on iNOS expression based on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic rat model. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (control group, sepsis group and simvastatin group). A rat model of sepsis was established with LPS. The simvastatin group was pre-treated with simvastatin, whereas the control and sepsis groups were treated with saline before LPS treatment. LPS was injected into the rats in the simvastatin and sepsis groups, while as a negative control, the control group received saline alone. The oxygenation index, expression levels of iNOS and IL-6, and pathological integral of lung injury were analyzed to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on septic rats. RESULTS: Compared with the septic group, significant decreases in the oxygenation index and expression level of iNOS were observed in the simvastatin group. Furthermore, simvastatin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in iNOS levels and the pathological integral of lung injury score in septic rats. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin can relieve acute lung injury induced by sepsis in rats. Decreasing iNOS levels may contribute to the protective role of simvastatin in lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/enzimologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/complicações
6.
Int J Neurosci ; 124(8): 585-92, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24205811

RESUMO

We have shown earlier that administration of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly contributed to recovery of motor function after traumatic spinal cord injury in the adult female rat. Using the same standardized animal model, we have now designed a set of experiments to test the hypothesis that LPS preconditioning attenuates stress-related apoptotic processes early after spinal cord trauma. The lower thoracic spinal cord injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats was caused by a 10 g weight rod drop from 25 mm on the dural surface of the exposed spinal cord at T10. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups: Sham injury, control (received normal saline alone), and LPS preconditioning (0.2 mg/kg, ip; 72 h prior to the injury). The animals were euthanized at 72 h postinjury. Neuropathologic changes were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. SCI-induced apoptosis were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were examined with immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. Compared with the control group, LPS preconditioning group showed significant improvement in the SCI-induced morphology changes. Furthermore, LPS preconditioning reduced the expressions of apoptotic markers caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax, upregulated the expression of antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 in the samples of spinal cord. Low-dose LPS attenuated the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the proliferation of glial cells in the site of injury. LPS preconditioning has neuroprotective effects against TSCI in rats due to its antiapoptosis properties as shown by the inhibition of caspase pathway and the upregulation of antiapoptotic protein.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23855123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To be acquainted with genetic characteristics and variation of mumps virus strains circulating in Hunan province. METHODS: Mumps virus (MV) strains were isolated using Vero/ SLAM cells. The small hydrophobic protein (SH) genes of MV isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were analysed phylogenetically between the isolated strains and other reference mumps strains. RESULTS: 4 mumps virus strains were isolated from 16 specimens collected in 2011 from different regions of Hunan province. The genotype of isolated strains were supposed to be F type. CONCLUSION: Genotype F is the main genotype of circulating strains in Hunan province in 2011 and there is no variation between genotype.


Assuntos
Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Caxumba/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Int J Neurosci ; 123(4): 240-7, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215850

RESUMO

The previous studies suggested that low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides neuroprotection against subsequent challenge with ischemic/reperfusion injury in the brain. But there were few reports about the neuroprotective effects of low-dose LPS against spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we evaluated the effect of low-dose LPS preconditioning on neuroapoptosis status after traumatic SCI (TSCI), using a standardized contusion model (NYU, New York University, impactor). SCI-induced rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation, control (receiving only normal saline) and LPS preconditioning (0.2 mg/kg, ip; 72 hours before injury). Neurologic function was assessed by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) score at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after TSCI. Rats were sacrificed at 72 hours postinjury. Histological changes were studied using Nissl staining. Apoptotic neural cells were assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and caspase-3 were detected with immunohistochemistry and Western blot. LPS preconditioning reduced neuron apoptosis, improved neurologic outcome and actived Nrf2 expression. Moreover, Histological changes and the number of apoptotic cells were correlated with Nrf2 expression after the rats suffered the SCI. Our results suggest that LPS preconditioning exerted a neuroprotective effect against TSCI in rats, and activation of Nrf2 was believed to be one of the contributing mechanisms.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Feminino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
9.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 35(9): 1464-8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23451504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacokinetics of long-circulating beta-elemene liposomes. METHODS: Gas chromatography was established to determine the concentration of beta-elemene in plasma of rats. RESULTS: The alpha, T(1/2beta), K12 and AUC of long-circulating beta-elemene liposomes groups were higher compared with those of the conventional liposomes,and the T(1/2alpha), Vc, CL, K10 of the latter were lower. CONCLUSION: Long-circulating beta-elemene liposomes can prolong the duration of beta-elemene in the body and improve the efficacy of drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Lipossomos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Área Sob a Curva , Química Farmacêutica , Cromatografia Gasosa , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosfatidilcolinas/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidilcolinas/farmacocinética , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Sesquiterpenos/química , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 91(2): 100-2, 2011 Jan 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21418991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of recombinant human interleukin 11 (rhIL-11) on hematological malignancy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: A total of 48 patients with hematological malignancy from January 2006 to June 2010 were alternately enrolled into a prospective randomized study. And they were assigned into the control and rhIL-11 injection groups. Later the investigators compared two groups with regards to hematopoietic reconstitution, graft versus host disease (GVHD) classification, clinical recurrence rate and disease-free survival. RESULTS: With the therapy of rhIL-11, the absolute neutrophil counts recovering to 0.5 × 10(9)/L and platelet recovering to 20 × 10(9)/L were (15.1 ± 1.6) and (18.2 ± 3.3) days respectively. And they were significantly lower than those in control group [(16.1 ± 1.6) vs (22.4 ± 5.5) days, P = 0.032, 0.003]. The incidence of acute GVHD was surprisingly low in the study group (26.1% vs 50.0%, P = 0.048). There was no significant difference in chronic GVHD (36.8% vs 38.9%, P = 0.899) or relapse rate (5.1% vs 7.7%, P = 0.662) between two groups during a median follow-up period of 11.7 months. A trend of improved 3-year-disease-free survival was observed in the study group (65.4% vs 50.9%, P = 0.637). CONCLUSION: The application of rhIL-11 after allo-HSCT may accelerate both neutrophil and platelet engraftment and lower the occurrence of acute GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-11/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo
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