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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 176-186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390786

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the liver function recovery of COVID-19 patients after discharge. Patients and Methods: A total of 253 discharged COVID-19 patients in Shenzhen city, China were selected. The clinical characteristics of these patients were assessed. A 2-month follow-up and laboratory hematology test were performed to examine the status of patients' liver function. Results: Patients combined with liver diseases, especially fatty liver, are more likely to progress to severe condition (P<0.05). Patients in severe condition and those with liver diseases have higher rates of liver injuries during hospitalization, characterized by a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P<0.01). The ALT, AST/ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and A/G levels showed significant differences in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, and P<0.001); and the outlier ratio of A/G, ALT, GGT and ALP of patients remained abnormal higher within 14 days after discharge (P<0.001). Liver injuries of COVID-19 patients may be related to the epidemiological characteristics, clinical indexes, basic diseases, symptoms, drug treatment during hospitalization and the complications. Indicators of liver function were correlated with cardiac function, renal function, thyroid function, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, immune index, leukocyte, erythrocyte, hemoglobin and platelet related indexes. The outlier ratio of TP, ALB and GLB remained extremely low throughout the follow-up period; the outlier ratio of ALT, AST and GGT decreased below 10% from a high level at 40 days after discharged. However, the outlier ratio of A/G, AST/ALT and ALP remained high during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Abnormal liver function might indicate worse recovery of COVID-19 patients. Changes in liver function should be emphasized during long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge; the necessity of employing appropriate interventions for liver function repair should be emphasized.


Assuntos
/complicações , Insuficiência Hepática/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 347-355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390803

RESUMO

Objectives: Research on recovering COVID-19 patients could be helpful for containing the pandemic and developing vaccines, but we still do not know much about the clinical features, recovery process, and antibody reactions during the recovery period. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological information, discharge summaries, and laboratory results of 324 patients. Results: In all, 15 (8.62%) patients experienced chest distress/breath shortness, where 8 of the 15 were severely ill. This means severely ill patients need an extended amount of time to recover after discharge; next, 20 (11.49%) patients experienced anxiety and 21 (12.07%) had headache/insomnia and a small fraction of them complained of anosmia/ageusia, indicating that these patients need treatment for mental and psychological health issues. Regarding the re-positive patients, their CT and laboratory test results showed no obvious evidence of illness progress or infectivity but a high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody expression. Conclusion: Recovered COVID-19 patients need psychological and physiological care and treatment, re-positivity can occur in any person, but juveniles, females, and patients with mild/moderate existing symptoms have higher rates of re-positivity, While there is no evidence that turning re-positive has an impact on their infectivity, but it still alerted us that we need differentiate them in the following managements.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageusia , /reabilitação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(4): 576-583, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900488

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe and long-lasting neurological disability. Presently, the lack of effective therapies for SCI is largely attributable to an incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. F-box and WD repeat domain-containing protein 7 (FBW7, also known as FBXW7) is a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, and plays essential roles in regulating different pathological and physiological processes. In this study, we attempted to explore the effects of FBW7 on SCI progression by the in vivo and in vitro experiments. SCI mice showed significantly reduced expression of FBW7 in spinal cord tissues. Promoting FBW7 expression via intrathecal injection of AAV9/FBW7 effectively improved locomotor function in SCI mice. Neuronal death in spinal cords of SCI mice was obviously ameliorated by FBW7 over-expression, along with greatly decreased expression of cleaved Caspase-3. In addition, microglial activation in spinal cord specimens was detected in SCI mice through increasing Iba-1 expression levels, which was, however, attenuated in SCI mice injected with AAV9/FBW7. Additionally, FBW7 over-expression dramatically restrained inflammatory response in spinal cord tissues of SCI mice, as evidenced by the down-regulated expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) through blocking the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. These anti-inflammatory effects of FBW7 were confirmed in LPS-stimulated mouse microglial BV2 cells. Finally, our in vitro studies showed that conditional medium (CM) collected from LPS-incubated BV2 cells markedly induced apoptosis in the isolated primary spinal neurons; However, this effect was overtly ameliorated by CM from LPS-exposed BV2 cells over-expressing FBW7. Thus, FBW7-regulated inflammation in microglial cells was involved in the amelioration of neuronal apoptosis during SCI development. Collectively, these findings illustrated that FBW7 expression was down-regulated in spinal cords of SCI mice, and promoting its expression could effectively mitigate SCI progression by repressing microglial inflammation and neuronal death.

4.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109329, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846528

RESUMO

Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQGRW) is produced from glutinous rice with the addition of the traditional fermentation starter Hong Qu (mainly Gutian Hong Qu and Wuyi Hong Qu) has been added. It is unpalatable and rejected by consumers because the bitter and umami tastes are too high. The objective of this study was to compare the dynamics of the microbial communities and amino acids especially those in the different traditional fermentation starters used during HQGRW fermentation, and elucidate the key microbes responsible for amino acids. Three widely-used types of Hong Qu starters were used which can make different bitterness and umami in our previous studies, namely, black Wuyi Hong Qu (WB), red Wuyi Hong Qu (WR), and Gutian Hong Qu (GT). The living dynamics of fungal and bacterial communities during the fermentation were determined by high-throughput sequencing and rRNA gene sequencing technology for the first time. The content of amino acids in the HQGRW were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that there were differences between fungal communities during the fermentation process in Wuyi Hong Qu and Gutian Hong Qu starters and between bacterial communities during the fermentation process in the three types of starters. The amino acid content of the samples showed an increasing trend in each group. The total amino acids, as well as the bitter, sweet, umami, astringent amino acids, in the GT Hong Qu group increased more slowly during fermentation, as comparerd to those in WB and WR groups. Furthermore, Meyerozyma, Saccharomyces, Bacillus, Rhizopus, Pediococcus, Monascus, and Halomonas were strongly positively correlated with the content of bitter and umami amino acids (|r| > 0.6 with FDR adjusted P < 0.05) by Spearman's correlation analysis. To conclude, these findings may contribute to a better understanding of the bitter and umami amino acid production mechanism during traditional fermentation and helpful in improving the taste of HQGRW.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11887, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681141

RESUMO

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients is receiving more attention. Herein we report a cohort study on the follow-up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. Twenty (10.99%) patients out of the 182 were detected to be SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive (re-positives), although none showed any clinical symptomatic recurrence, indicating that COVID-19 responds well to treatment. Patients aged under 18 years had higher re-positive rates than average, and none of the severely ill patients re-tested positive. There were no significant differences in sex between re-positives and non-re-positives. Notably, most of the re-positives turned negative in the following tests, and all of them carried antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. This indicates that they might not be infectious, although it is still important to perform regular SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing and follow-up for assessment of infectivity. The findings of this study provide information for improving the management of recovered patients, and for differentiating the follow-up of recovered patients with different risk levels.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Recidiva , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
6.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(1): 165-174, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352642

RESUMO

Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been reported to inhibit cardiovascular dysfunction under sepsis-induced oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) is regarded as a key transcription factor regulating expression of endogenous antioxidative genes. To explore the preventive effects of BA against vascular hyporeactivity and the related antioxidative mechanism in sepsis, contraction and relaxation in aortas isolated from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged rats were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with brusatol (Bru, 0.4 mg/kg/2 days, i.p.), an inhibitor of Nrf2, and BA (10, 25, 50 mg/kg/day, i.g.) for 3 days and injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) at the 4th day. Rats were anesthetized and killed by cervical dislocation after they were treated with LPS for 4 h. Thoracic aortas were immediately dissected out to determine contraction and relaxation using the organ bath system. Pro-inflammatory factors interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and oxidative stress were measured in aortic tissues and plasma. mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidative enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in rat aortas was determined. Increases of IL-1ß, TNF-α, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde and the decrease of glutathione induced by LPS were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with different doses of BA in plasma and aortas (p < 0.05 versus LPS), all of which were blocked by Bru (p < 0.01). Inhibition of phenylephrine (PE)- and KCl-induced contractions and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilatation in aortas from LPS-challenged rats was dose-dependently reduced by BA (p < 0.05; percentage improvements by BA in PE-induced contraction were 55.38%, 96.41%, and 104.33%; those in KCl-induced contraction were 15.11%, 23.96%, and 22.96%; and those in ACh-induced vasodilatation were 16.08%, 42.99%, and 47.97%), all of which were reversed by Bru (p < 0.01). Improvements of SOD, GPx, and HO-1 mRNA expression conferred by BA in LPS-challenged rat aortas were inhibited by Bru (p < 0.01; 145.45% versus 17.42%, 160.69% versus 22.76%, and 166.88% versus 23.57%). These findings suggest that BA attenuates impairments of aortic contraction and relaxation in LPS-challenged rats by activating Nrf2-regulated antioxidative pathways.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(6): 448-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To reveal the effect of foods with different natures on cold or hot syndrome and gastrointestinal bacterial community structure in mice. METHODS: Forty-five 6-week-old male ICR Kunming mice of clean grade were divided into 5 groups, 9 per group, including the control (CK), hot nature herbs (HM), Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (RW), tea rice wine (TW), and cold nature herbs (CM) groups. Distilled water or corresponding herbs were administered to mice (0.01 mL/g body weight) in the 5 groups by gastric infusion respectively, once daily for 28 d. Appearance, behavior, and serum biochemical indicators, including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), noradrenaline (NE), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the hot nature index, as well as the gastrointestinal bacterial community structure were analyzed in all groups after treatment. RESULTS: After supplementation for 28 d, CM and TW mice showed different degrees of cold syndrome, and HM and RW mice showed different degrees of hot syndrome. Compared with the HM and RW mice, the TSH, NE, cAMP levels and hot nature indices in the CM and TW mice were significantly decreased and 5-HT and cGMP levels were significantly increased (P<0.05). There was no obvious change in appearance or behavior in CK mice. Results of clustering analysis showed that the gastrointestinal bacterial community structures were highly similar in TW and CM mice as well as in RW and HM mice, and that they were from the same branch, respectively, when the distance was 0.02. The key microbes associated with cold syndrome were Lachnospiraceae uncultured, Lactococcus, etc., and the key microbes associated with hot syndrome were S24-7 norank, Ruminococcaceae uncultured, etc. CONCLUSION: The interventions with different nature foods could change cold or hot syndrome in mice, leading to changes in gastrointestinal bacterial community structure.

8.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 548-550, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effects of azithromycin on renal damage induced by doxorubicin and albumin in mice. METHODS: Forty male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into blank control group (Ctrl group), renal damage model group (ADR+BSA group), azithromycin treated group (Azm group) and prednisone acetate positive control group (Pdn group) in accordance with random number table method. Mice in ADR+BSA, AZM and Pdn group were injected intravenously with 9.8 kg-1 doxorubicin five days a week, 10 kg-1 serum albumin was injected intraperitoneally, and normal saline was administered to the control group for 4 weeks to establish renal damage model. After that, AZM group was given daily. 62.5 kg-1 azithromycin was intragastrically administered. The Pdn group was given 12.5 kg-1 prednisone acetate daily, the other two groups were given the same amount of normal saline. After 6 weeks, the urine volume was collected and recorded for 24 hours to detected urine protein amount and endogenous creatinine clearance rate (Ccr). Serum biochemical indicators and serum immune factors were detected. RESULTS: Compared with the Ctrl group, the 24 h urine protein level of the ADR+BSA group was increased significantly (P<0.05), and the Ccr was decreased significantly (P<0.05). After the azithromycin treatment, the 24 h urine protein was decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the Ccr was increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with ADR+BSA group. CONCLUSION: Azithromycin has a protective effects on the renal damage induced by doxorubicin and albumin in mice.


Assuntos
Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Exp Ther Med ; 12(3): 1908-1914, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588109

RESUMO

Clinical studies have indicated that early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with fatal outcomes. Oxidative stress and brain edema are the characteristic pathological events in occurrence EBI following SAH. The present study aimed to examine the effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) against SAH-induced EBI, and to demonstrate whether the effect is associated with its potent free radical scavenging property. SAH was induced in rats using an endovascular perforation technique, and 24 h later the rats displayed diminished neurological scores and brain edema. Furthermore, elevated malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) and depleted levels of antioxidants were observed in the rat cerebral cortex tissue. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the upregulated mRNA expression of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and -9 in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 were significantly upregulated in SAH-induced rats. By constrast, treatment with DOPET significantly attenuated EBI by reducing brain edema, elevation of antioxidant status, inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation. In this context, DOPET may be a potent agent in the treatment of EBI following SAH, as a result of its free radical scavenging capacity.

10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD009477, 2016 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is estimated to affect about half the world's population and is considered as the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Eradication of H. pylori infection accelerates ulcer healing and prevents relapse, reducing incidence of H. pylori-related gastric diseases. Numerous studies have provided evidence that the oral cavity could be a potential reservoir for H. pylori. The presence of oralH. pylori might affect the efficiency of eradication therapy and act as a causal force for its recurrence. Conversely, other investigators have indicated that the colonization and growth of H. pylori differs between the oral cavity and the stomach. Considering the open debate on the topic, it's necessary to clarify whether periodontal therapy is an effective adjunctive treatment for gastric H. pylori infection. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of periodontal therapy plus eradication therapy versus eradication therapy alone for gastric H. pylori infection. The secondary objective is to compare the non-recurrence rate at long-term follow up in different treatment groups. SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1980 to August 2015), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to August 2015). We also searched both ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP portal in October 2015. We handsearched the reference lists of included studies to identify relevant trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs comparing periodontal therapy plus eradication treatment with eradication treatment alone, regardless of language of publication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers selected the trials that met the inclusion criteria and extracted the details of each study independently. The data were pooled using both fixed-effect and random-effects models and results calculated as odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on an intention-to-treat analysis. However, because there was little difference in the results from these two models, we only reported the results from the fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven small RCTs involving 691 participants aged 17 to 78 years in our meta analyses. The primary result showed that periodontal therapy combined with H. pylori eradication treatment increased the eradication rate of gastric H. pylori compared with eradication treatment alone (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.14; P < 0.0001) in people with H. pylori infection. In addition, periodontal therapy also had benefits on long-term gastric H. pylori eradication. After eradication of H. pylori, the non-recurrence rate of gastric H. pylori infection increased in participants treated with periodontal therapy compared with those who received eradication therapy alone (OR 3.60; 95% CI 2.11 to 6.15; P < 0.00001). According to the GRADE approach, the overall quality of the evidence was 'moderate' for eradication rate of gastric H.pylori and 'low' for non-recurrence rate of gastric H. pylori. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, periodontal therapy could increase the efficiency of H. pylori eradication and the non-recurrence rate of gastricH. pylori. In view of the limited number and quality of included studies, it will be necessary to conduct more well-designed, multicenter, and large-scale RCTs to determine the effects of periodontal therapy in eradicating gastric H. pylori and suppressing the recurrence of this bacterium in the stomach.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Helicobacter pylori , Periodontite/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
11.
Neurochem Int ; 89: 92-100, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26275594

RESUMO

Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential for many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential post-ischemic neuroprotective effects of allicin and its underlying mechanisms. Using a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we found that intraperitoneal treatment with 50 mg/kg allicin significantly reduced brain infarct volume, attenuated cerebral edema and decreased the neurological deficit score. Allicin treatment also diminished TUNEL positive cells and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 after MCAO. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 6 h after injury. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro protective effects of allicin against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in primary cultured cortical neurons. Allicin (50 µM) increased neuronal viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death after OGD. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 4 h after injury. Furthermore, allicin significantly increased the expression of sphingosine kinases 2 (Sphk2) both in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with the Sphk2 inhibitor ABC294640 partially reversed the protective effects of allicin against MCAO and OGD injury, indicating that an Sphk2-mediated mechanism was involved in allicin-induced protection in our models. The combination of findings suggests that post-injury administration of allicin has potential as a neuroprotective strategy for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/enzimologia , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Encefálica/enzimologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfínicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/enzimologia , Esquema de Medicação , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(8): 6298-307, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25430015

RESUMO

This paper presents the purification of eutrophic water using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and ozonation (O3) at a continuous flow of 0.8 m(3) h(-1) on a pilot scale. The maximum removal rate of chlorophyll a using O3 alone and the HC/O3 combination was 62.3 and 78.8%, respectively, under optimal conditions, where the ozone utilization efficiency was 64.5 and 94.8% and total energy consumption was 8.89 and 8.25 kWh m(-3), respectively. Thus, the removal rate of chlorophyll a and the ozone utilization efficiency were improved by 26.5% and 46.9%, respectively, by using the combined technique. Meanwhile, total energy consumption was reduced by 7.2%. Turbidity linearly decreased with chlorophyll a removal rate, but no linear relationship exists between the removal of COD or UV254 and chlorophyll a. As expected, the suction-cavitation-assisted O3 exhibited higher energy efficiency than the extrusion-cavitation-assisted O3 and O3 alone methods.


Assuntos
Eutrofização/fisiologia , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila A , Hidrodinâmica , Projetos Piloto
13.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e64637, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23755132

RESUMO

High-voltage spindles (HVSs) have been reported to appear spontaneously and widely in the cortical-basal ganglia networks of rats. Our previous study showed that dopamine depletion can significantly increase the power and coherence of HVSs in the globus pallidus (GP) and motor cortex of freely moving rats. However, it is unclear whether dopamine regulates HVS activity by acting on dopamine D1-like receptors or D2-like receptors. We employed local-field potential and electrocorticogram methods to simultaneously record the oscillatory activities in the GP and primary motor cortex (M1) in freely moving rats following systemic administration of dopamine receptor antagonists or saline. The results showed that the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists, raclopride and haloperidol, significantly increased the number and duration of HVSs, and the relative power associated with HVS activity in the GP and M1 cortex. Coherence values for HVS activity between the GP and M1 cortex area were also significantly increased by dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists. On the contrary, the selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, had no significant effect on the number, duration, or relative power of HVSs, or HVS-related coherence between M1 and GP. In conclusion, dopamine D2-like receptors, but not D1-like receptors, were involved in HVS regulation. This supports the important role of dopamine D2-like receptors in the regulation of HVSs. An siRNA knock-down experiment on the striatum confirmed our conclusion.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2 , Globo Pálido/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Animais , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Globo Pálido/efeitos dos fármacos , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Córtex Motor/efeitos dos fármacos , Racloprida/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo
14.
Protein Pept Lett ; 20(8): 926-31, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23360367

RESUMO

Apelin was identified as natural ligand for APJ, a G protein-coupled receptor. APJ is expressed in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion. This study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of intrathecally (i.t.) administered apelin-13 on nociceptive response in formalin test and tail-flick test. In formalin test, i.t. injection of apelin-13 (0.3-3 nmol/mouse) had no effect on the nociceptive response in either acute phase (0-10 min) or interphase (10-20 min), but significantly produced hyperalgesic effect in late phase (20-30 min) at the dose of 3 nmol/mouse. The APJ receptor antagonist apelin-13(F13A) and GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide, but not opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, significantly blocked the hyperalgesia caused by apelin-13 in late phase, indicating that i.t. apelin-13- induced hyperalgesia was mediated by APJ and GABAA receptor, rather than opioid receptor. However, in tail-flick test, i.t. injected apelin-13 (1 and 3 nmol/mouse) induced a significant antinociceptive effect, which was significantly antagonized by apelin-13(F13A) and naloxone, suggesting APJ and opioid receptor were involved in the antinociception of spinal apelin-13.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Receptores de Apelina , Injeções Espinhais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Naloxona/farmacologia , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Dor/metabolismo , Medição da Dor , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/uso terapêutico , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 33(9): 3261-5, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23243890

RESUMO

To investigate the impacts of mining and spilling activities on domestic fowl raising, ten muscovy duck (Cairna moschata) samples were collected in 2010 from farms in different villages located at the banks of the river originated from an Au/Cu mine. Concentrations of Cu, Hg and As in muscle, liver and blood of the muscovy duck samples were determined. According to relative national standards of China, the health safety of heavy metals in muscovy duck was evaluated. The results indicated that content of Cu was higher than those of Hg and As in the same tissue of the duck. The average content (17.20 mg x kg(-1)) of Cu in liver of the duck was higher than those in other tissues, but the concentrations of Hg and As had no significant difference among three tissues of the duck. There was no significant spatial distribution pattern of Cu, Hg and As in three tissues of the duck samples collected from the farms in different villages located at the banks of the river, indicating no significant impacts of mining and spilling activities on the ducks samples. The contents of Cu, Hg and As in the tissues of the duck samples fell in normal level ranges, and the ducks didn't show abnormal physical symptoms. According to the tolerance limits of heavy metals in foods of China, Cu in livers of the duck samples exceeded the standard by 100%, and the highest value of Cu in the liver was 1.74 times higher than its maximum allowable concentration in foods. Moreover, Hg contents in some muscle, blood and liver tissues of the duck samples were relatively high.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Cobre , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ouro , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23156735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes in the mRNA expression of adiponectin (Adp), adiponectin receptors(AdpR), and leptin in different adipose tissues of Wannanhua pigs at different stages of development, and their sexual dimorphism. METHODS: Five Wannanhua boars and five Wannanhua gilts were sampled at birth, 30, 45, 90, and 180 days of age respectively. The delta delta Ct relative quantification real-time PCR was used to detect the transcription levels of Adp, AdpR1, AdpR2, and leptin mRNAs in subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues, and beta-actin were used as internal standards. RESULTS: The expression level of Adp, AdpR1, AdpR2, and leptin mRNA in SC and PR adipose tissue were changed with age significantly (P < 0.01). In general, Adp mRNA expression in SC adipose tissue was significantly lower than that in PR adipose tissue (P < 0.05), while AdpR1, AdpR2, and leptin mRNA expression in SC adipose tissue were significantly higher than those in PR adipose tissue (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Although the sexual dimorphism were found in apart genes or apart days of age, Adp, AdpR1, AdpR2, and leptin mRNA expression both in SC adipose tissue and PR adipose tissue had no significant differences between Wannanhua gilts and boars in general. Significant positive correlation was found between Adp and AdpR1, AdpR2 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and significant negative correlation was found between Adp and leptin (P < 0.05) in SC adipose tissue and PR adipose tissue respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of Adp, AdpR1, AdpR2, and leptin mRNA in adipose tissue of Wannanhua pigs followed specific developmental patterns and tissue specificity. Adp correlated with its receptors.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Suínos
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (9): CD008714, 2012 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22972125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorambucil has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis as it possesses immunosuppressive properties. But it is unknown whether it benefits or harms these patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and any harmful effects of chlorambucil for primary biliary cirrhosis patients. SEARCH METHODS: Eligible trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (March 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1946 to March 2012), EMBASE (1974 to March 2012), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to March 2012), The Chinese Biomedical Database (1976 to March 2012), The Chinese Medical Current Contents (1994 to March 2012), The China Hospital Knowledge Database (1994 to March 2012), and a database of ongoing trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) (accessed 6 March 2012). The reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles were also read through, and pharmaceutical companies known to produce chlorambucil were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, year of publication, and publication status, comparing chlorambucil at any dose versus placebo, no intervention, another active drug, or one dose of chlorambucil with another dose. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to assess continuous data with mean differences (MD), and dichotomous outcomes with relative risk (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). As we only identified one trial, Fisher's exact tests were employed. MAIN RESULTS: Only one randomised trial was identified and included in the review. The bias risk in the trial was high. The trial compared chlorambucil versus no intervention in 24 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Fisher's exact test did not show a significant reduction of mortality when comparing chlorambucil with no treatment (0/13 (0%) versus (2/11 (18.2%); P = 0.20). There was no significant difference regarding adverse events for chlorambucil compared with no treatment, but all patients receiving chlorambucil experienced adverse events (13/13 (100%) versus (3/11 (27%); P = 0.1). According to the authors of the trial, chlorambucil led to a significant improvement in mean serum levels of bilirubin (P < 0.05), albumin (P < 0.05), immunoglobulin M (P < 0.01), serum aspartate aminotransferase activity (P < 0.01), and hepatic inflammatory infiltrates (P < 0.01). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not sufficient evidence to support or reject the use of chlorambucil for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Chlorambucil may show benefit in some unvalidated surrogate outcome measures (for example, serum bilirubin and immunoglobulin M levels). Chlorambucil is, however, connected with a number of adverse events. Bone marrow suppression should be noted in particular. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to assess the benefits and harms of chlorambucil in this indication.


Assuntos
Clorambucila/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 31(5): 1220-6, 2010 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20623855

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of rainfall on agricultural nonpoint source pollution, watershed scale experiments were conducted to study the characteristics of nutrients in surface runoff under different rainfall intensities from farmlands in gentle slope hilly areas around Taihu Lake. Rainfall intensity significantly affected N and P concentrations in runoff. Rainfall intensity was positively related to TP, PO4(3-) -P and NH4+ -N event mean concentrations(EMC). However, this study have found the EMC of TN and NO3- -N to be positively related to rainfall intensity under light rain and negatively related to rainfall intensity under heavy rain. TN and TP site mean amounts (SMA) in runoff were positively related to rainfall intensity and were 1.91, 311.83, 127.65, 731.69 g/hm2 and 0.04, 7.77, 2.99, 32.02 g/hm2 with rainfall applied under light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and rainstorm respectively. N in runoff was mainly NO3- -N and NH4+ -N and was primarily in dissolved form from Meilin soils. Dissolved P (DP) was the dominant form of TP under light rain, but particulate P (PP) mass loss increased with the increase of rainfall intensity and to be the dominant form when the rainfall intensity reaches rainstorm. Single relationships were used to describe the dependence of TN and TP mass losses in runoff on rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, average rainfall intensity and rainfall duration respectively. The results showed a significant positive correlation between TN mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01) and also TP mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01).


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chuva , Solo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise
19.
Brain Res Bull ; 83(5): 266-71, 2010 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20615455

RESUMO

Oxidative injury has been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gypenosides (GPs), the saponins extract derived from the Gynostemma pentaphyllum, has various bioactivities. In this study, GPs was investigated for its neuroprotective effects on the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced oxidative injury of dopaminergic neurons in primary nigral culture. It was found that GPs pretreatment, cotreatment or posttreatment significantly and dose-dependently attenuated MPP(+)-induced oxidative damage, reduction of dopamine uptake, loss of tyrosine hydrolase (TH)-immunopositive neurons and degeneration of TH-immunopositive neurites. However, the preventive effect of GPs was more potential than its therapeutical effect. Most importantly, the neuroprotective effect of GPs may be attributed to GPs-induced strengthened antioxidation as manifested by significantly increased glutathione content and enhanced activity of glutathione peroxidase, catalyze and superoxide dismutase in nigral culture. The neuroprotective effects of GPs are specific for dopaminergic neurons and it may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD.


Assuntos
1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gynostemma/química , Neurônios/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Substância Negra/citologia
20.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 71(4): 211-38, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24688145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new class of hypoglycemic drugs, including exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, lixisenatide, and taspoglutide. Insulin glargine is a standard agent used to supplement basal insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and safety profiles of GLP-1 receptor agonists versus insulin glargine in type 2 diabetic patients who have not achieved treatment goals with oral hypoglycemic agents. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the database of ongoing trials were searched from inception through April 2010. Additional data were sought from relevant Web sites, the American Diabetes Association, reference lists of included trials and related (systematic) reviews, and industry. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected if they were ≥3 months in duration, compared GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin glargine in patients with T2DM, and included ≥1 of the following outcomes: mortality, complications of T2DM, glycemie control, weight, lipids, blood pressure, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. Quasirandomized controlled trials were excluded. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed on the basis of the following aspects: randomization procedure, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data (intent-to-treat [ITT] analysis), selective outcome reporting, and publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 410 citations were retrieved; 5 multicenter RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. They were all open-label designs with an insulin glargine arm, predefined outcomes reported, and ITT analysis. One trial had an unclear randomization procedure and allocation concealment. Publication bias was not able to be determined. No data wete found with regard to mortality or diabetes-associated complications, and few data were found on quality of life. The results of the metaanalysis suggest that insulin glargine was significantly better in reducing the fasting blood glucose (mean difference [MD] [95% CI], 1.31 [1.04 to 1.58]; P < 0.001), but exhibits greater incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia (risk ratio [RR] [95% CI], 0.40 [0.23 to 0.71]; P = 0.002) and influenza (RR [95% CI], 0.56 [0.32 to 0.98]; P = 0.04). GLP-1 receptor agonists are more conducive to reducing weight (MD [95% CI], -3.96 [-5.14 to -2.77]; P < 0.001), postprandial blood glucose (after breakfast, P < 0.001; after dinner, P < 0.001), and LDL-C (MD [95% CI], -0.18 [-0.28 to -0.08]; P < 0.001), but have significantly more gastrointestinal adverse effects (eg, nausea/ vomiting, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between GLP-1 receptor agonists and insulin glargine in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (MD [95% CI], -0.03 [-0.13 to 0.08]) and the overall incidence of hypoglycemia (RR [95% CI], 0.69 [0.42 to 1.14]). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with insulin glargine, GLP-1 receptor agonists did not have a significant difference in regard to reducing HbA1c levels and they were significantly associated with decreased weight but increased gastrointestinal adverse events. It remains unclear whether GLP-1 receptor agonists influence mortality or diabetes-associated complications in patients with T2DM. More trials with longer follow-up are needed to determine the exact long-term efficacy and safety profiles of this new class of hypoglycemic drugs.

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