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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045866, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) on chronic refractory wounds.DesignRandomised controlled trial. SETTING: The outpatient wound care department of the Affiliated Jiangsu Shengze Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from August 2019 to June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and were randomised into control (n=30) and treatment (n=30) groups. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The control group was treated only with conventional wound dressing, whereas the treatment group received irradiation with HILT in addition to standard wound care, such as debridement, wound irrigation with normal saline solution and application of dressing and sterile gauze. Patient scores on the Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BWAT) and Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) were evaluated before and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: One patient was excluded from the control group, and a total of 59 subjects completed the trial. The BWAT scores significantly decreased in the treatment group compared with the control group at the end of 3-week treatment (difference=-3.6; 95% CI -6.3 to-0.8; p<0.01). Similarly, patients in treatment group showed a significant reduction of PUSH scores compared with the control group (difference=-5.3; 95% CI -8.1 to -2.6; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effects of HILT on chronic refractory wounds are significant and far more superior to those of conventional wound dressing. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; ChiCTR1900023157. URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=38866.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232513

RESUMO

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.

3.
J Biol Chem ; : 100943, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245782

RESUMO

Interleukins are cytokines with crucial functions in innate and adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes are only found in vertebrates, except for IL-16, which has been cloned in some arthropod species. However, the function of this gene in invertebrates is unknown. In the present study, an interleukin-16-like gene (EsIL-16) was identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. EsIL-16 was predicted to encode a precursor (proEsIL-16) that shares similarities with pro-IL-16 proteins from insects and vertebrates. We show that caspase-3 processes proEsIL-16 into an approximately 144 kDa N-terminal prodomain with nuclear import activity and an approximately 34 kDa mature peptide that might be secreted into the extracellular region. EsIL-16 mRNA could be detected in all analyzed tissues and was significantly upregulated after immune challenge both in vitro and in vivo. T7 phage display library screening suggested potential binding activity between EsIL-16 and integrin, which was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Interestingly, EsIL-16 promoted cell proliferation via integrin ß1 in primary cultured crab hemocytes and in Drosophila S2 cells. Furthermore, the interaction between EsIL-16 and integrin ß1 was necessary to efficiently protect the host from bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this study revealed integrin ß1 as a receptor for IL-16 and the function of this interaction in hemocyte proliferation in invertebrates for the first time. These results provide new insights into the regulation of innate immune responses in invertebrates and shed the light on the evolution of interleukins within the animal kingdom.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298504

RESUMO

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-December 31, 2020), 1 909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual co-infections were detected wsith 0.057% PCR positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of HA gene and NA gene of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry, and had a preference for avian receptor binding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the pandemic progresses, the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is becoming more apparent, and the potential for tocilizumab is increasing. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19 patients remain unclear. METHODS: To assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19 patients, we performed a retrospective case-control study. The study was conducted, including 95 patients treated with tocilizumab plus standard treatment and matched controls with 95 patients treated with standard treatment therapy by propensity score from February to April 2020. We searched some databases using the search terms for studies published from January 1, 2020, to June 1, 2021. RESULTS: Our case-control study found a lower mortality rate in the tocilizumab treatment group than in the standard treatment group (9.47% versus 16.84%, P = 0.134), but the results were not statistically significant. We also found that the mortality rate in tocilizumab treatment groups was significantly lower than in the standard treatment group in the stratified ICU analysis (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.44-0.61, P = 0.048 and OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.10-0.99, P = 0.044). We selected 49 studies (including 6568 cases and 11,660 controls) that met the inclusion criteria in the meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, we performed a meta-analysis that showed significantly decreased mortality after patients received tocilizumab (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95, P = 0.008). We also revealed significant associations within some subgroups. The sequential trial analysis showed a true-positive result. No significant associations were observed between tocilizumab and elevated secondary infection risk, discharge, adverse events, and mechanical ventilation in the overall analysis. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab significantly decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients with no increased discharge, secondary infection risk, adverse events, and mechanical ventilation in a meta-analysis. Our data suggest that clinicians should pay attention to tocilizumab therapy as an effective and safe treatment for COVID-19 patients.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2102462, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219285

RESUMO

Hybrid-perovskite-based optoelectronic devices are demonstrating unprecedented growth in performance, and defect passivation approaches are highly promising routes to further improve properties. Here, the effect of the molecular ion BF4 - , introduced via methylammonium tetrafluoroborate (MABF4 ) in a surface treatment for MAPbI3 perovskite, is reported. Optical spectroscopy characterization shows that the introduction of tetrafluoroborate leads to reduced non-radiative charge-carrier recombination with a reduction in first-order recombination rate from 6.5 × 106 to 2.5 × 105 s-1 in BF4 - -treated samples, and a consequent increase in photoluminescence quantum yield by an order of magnitude (from 0.5 to 10.4%). 19 F, 11 B, and 14 N solid-state NMR is used to elucidate the atomic-level mechanism of the BF4 - additive-induced improvements, revealing that the BF4 - acts as a scavenger of excess MAI by forming MAI-MABF4 cocrystals. This shifts the equilibrium of iodide concentration in the perovskite phase, thereby reducing the concentration of interstitial iodide defects that act as deep traps and non-radiative recombination centers. These collective results allow us to elucidate the microscopic mechanism of action of BF4 - .

7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 165: 239-250, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082330

RESUMO

Melatonin mediates multiple physiological processes in plants and is involved in many reactions related to the protection of plants from abiotic stress. In this paper, the effect of melatonin on the antioxidant capacity of rice under salt stress was studied. Melatonin alleviated the inhibition of salt stress on the growth of rice seedlings, mainly by increasing the dry weight and fresh weight of shoots and roots. Melatonin alleviated the membrane damage caused by salt stress, which was mainly manifested by the decrease of TBARS content and the decrease of leaf and root damage. During the whole salt stress period, rice after melatonin pretreatment showed lower ROS (H2O2, O2•-,OH-) accumulation. In the early stage (1-3 d) of stress, the rice after melatonin pretreatment showed a strong increase in antioxidant enzyme activity, while in the later stage (5,7 d), it showed a strong increase in antioxidant content. During the whole period of salt stress, melatonin had a weak regulatory effect on AsA-GSH cycle. Through the above regulation process, the decreasing effect of melatonin on ROS content of rice under salt stress did not decrease with prolonged stress time in a short time (1-7 d). In conclusion, melatonin improved the antioxidant capacity of rice under continuous salt stress, and rice showed variable antioxidant strategies after melatonin pretreatment.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Oryza , Antioxidantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Cancer Lett ; 517: 14-23, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098062

RESUMO

The Bcl-2 homolog Bcl-xL is emerging as a key factor in tumorigenesis due to its prominent pro-survival and cell death-independent functions. However, the regulation of Bcl-xL by microenvironment and its implication in cancer therapy of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that Bcl-xL expression was positively associated with protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in CRC. Activation of PAR2 stabilized Bcl-xL protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, whereas E3 ligase RING finger protein 152 (RNF152) accelerated the ubiquitination and degradation of Bcl-xL. RNF152 silencing by specific siRNAs rescued the expression of Bcl-xL in PAR2-deficient cells. Moreover, RNF152 physically interacted with Bcl-xL, which was disturbed by PAR2 activation. Further studies with serial mutation of Bcl-xL revealed that phosphorylation of Bcl-xL at S145 reduced its binding affinity for RNF152 and stabilized Bcl-xL. Importantly, inhibition of PAR2 signaling by its gene silencing or specific chemical inhibitors increased apoptosis induced by different EGFR-targeted therapies. In patient-derived xenograft model, inhibition of PAR2 increased the response of CRC to different EGFR-targeted therapies. These results indicate that PAR2 stabilizes Bcl-xL by altering RNF152 signaling and that PAR2 inhibition sensitizes CRC to EGFR-targeted therapies in vivo.

9.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) remains unclear. Recent evidence showed that driving pressure was closely related to PPCs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an individualized PEEP guided by minimum driving pressure during abdominal surgery would reduce the incidence of PPCs. METHODS: This single-centered, randomized controlled trial included a total of 148 patients scheduled for open upper abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an individualized PEEP guided by minimum driving pressure or an empiric fixed PEEP of 6 cm H2O. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically significant PPCs within the first 7 days after surgery, using a χ2 test. Secondary outcomes were the severity of PPCs, the area of atelectasis, and pleural effusion. Other outcomes, such as the incidence of different types of PPCs (including hypoxemia, atelectasis, pleural effusion, dyspnea, pneumonia, pneumothorax, and acute respiratory distress syndrome), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality were also explored. RESULTS: The median value of PEEP in the individualized group was 10 cm H2O. The incidence of clinically significant PPCs was significantly lower in the individualized PEEP group compared with that in the fixed PEEP group (26 of 67 [38.8%] vs 42 of 67 [62.7%], relative risk = 0.619, 95% confidence intervals, 0.435-0.881; P = .006). The overall severity of PPCs and the area of atelectasis were also significantly diminished in the individualized PEEP group. Higher respiratory compliance during surgery and improved intra- and postoperative oxygenation was observed in the individualized group. No significant differences were found in other outcomes between the 2 groups, such as ICU admission rate or 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The application of individualized PEEP based on minimum driving pressure may effectively decrease the severity of atelectasis, improve oxygenation, and reduce the incidence of clinically significant PPCs after open upper abdominal surgery.

10.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052028

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Restorations with knife-edge margins are more prone to margin chipping during the manufacturing process. Three-dimensional gel deposition shows potential for fabricating zirconia restorations with good margin quality, but studies on its performance in fabricating knife-edged crowns are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the 3-dimensional trueness, surface morphology, and margin quality of self-glazed zirconia and soft-milled zirconia crowns with knife-edge margins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An abutment with a knife-edge finish line design was prepared and scanned with a laboratory scanner. Anatomic contour crowns were designed and fabricated by 3-dimensional gel deposition and soft milling (n=5). The crowns were digitalized, and the scan data were superimposed on the computer-aided design (CAD) data for 3-dimensional deviation analysis. Surface morphology and margin quality were characterized with microscopic examination. RESULTS: The self-glazed zirconia crowns showed a smooth and glossy appearance. The soft-milled crowns showed traces left by the removal of support bars and numerous micropits of various sizes. In internal areas, no significant difference was found in root mean square values between the 2 groups (P>.05). For the external surface, self-glazed zirconia showed statistically lower root mean square values than the soft-milled crowns (P<.05). When observed at ×5 magnification, all the self-glazed zirconia crowns showed smooth edges with no defects, whereas small or large margin defects were found in the soft-milled crowns. When characterized at ×200 magnification, minor margin flaws were observed in the self-glazed zirconia crowns. More and larger margin defects were found in the soft-milled crowns. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional gel deposition forms a smoother and more homogeneous surface than soft milling. Knife-edged self-glazed zirconia crowns have good dimensional accuracy and margin quality.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 601: 70-77, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058553

RESUMO

In this work, we introduced a fullerene acceptor (PC71BM) into the binary photo-active layer based on a polymer donor (PM6) and a non-fullerene small molecular acceptor (BTP-BO-4Cl), and as a consequence, the ternary organic solar cells realized a high-power conversion efficiency of 17.39% compared to 16.65% in binary solar cells. The performance enhancement was found to be due to the optimized morphology and hence balanced hole and electron mobilities, which is responsible for the suppressed charge recombination and hence high photocurrent in solar cells. In addition, PC71BM shows the complementary absorption with PM6 and BTP-BO-4Cl, which can broaden the absorption range of the photo-active layer and hence more photons from the sunlight can be utilized. Besides, PC71BM shows the cascade energy level alignment between PM6 and BTP-BO-4Cl, which is helpful for charge transfer from donor to acceptor. All these merits explain the high performance in ternary solar cells, and also demonstrate that ternary photovoltaics adopting non-fullerene acceptor with the fullerene acceptor as small amount of additive is an efficient strategy to gain high performing organic solar cells.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112286, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237693

RESUMO

Higher selenium status has been shown to improve the clinical outcome of infections caused by a range of evolutionally diverse viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host-cell selenoproteins remains elusive. The present study investigated the influence of SARS-CoV-2 on expression of selenoprotein mRNAs in Vero cells. SARS-CoV-2 triggered an inflammatory response as evidenced by increased IL-6 expression. Of the 25 selenoproteins, SARS-CoV-2 significantly suppressed mRNA expression of ferroptosis-associated GPX4, DNA synthesis-related TXNRD3 and endoplasmic reticulum-resident SELENOF, SELENOK, SELENOM and SELENOS. Computational analysis has predicted an antisense interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and TXNRD3 mRNA, which is translated with high efficiency in the lung. Here, we confirmed the predicted SARS-CoV-2/TXNRD3 antisense interaction in vitro using DNA oligonucleotides, providing a plausible mechanism for the observed mRNA knockdown. Inhibition of TXNRD decreases DNA synthesis which is thereby likely to increase the ribonucleotide pool for RNA synthesis and, accordingly, RNA virus production. The present findings provide evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 replication on the expression of a specific set of selenoprotein mRNAs, which merits further investigation in the light of established evidence for correlations between dietary selenium status and the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
DNA/biossíntese , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Selenoproteínas/genética , Células Vero
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112278, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019943

RESUMO

Bergamottin (BGM) is a major furanocoumarin constituent of grapefruit and is reported to have inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 enzymes. This study investigated the chemical interactions between BGM and the enzyme CYP2C9. BGM exhibited time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9. Co-incubation with diclofenac, a reversible inhibitor of CYP2C9, attenuated the time-dependent enzyme inhibition. Exhaustive dialysis did not restore enzyme activity post-inhibition. Glutathione (GSH) and catalase/superoxide dismutase failed to reverse BGM-induced CYP2C9 inactivation. A GSH trapping study suggested that BGM was metabolized to an epoxide and/or γ-ketoenal that may have been responsible for the enzyme inactivation. In conclusion, BGM can be characterized as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2C9 acting via the formation of an epoxide and/or γ-ketoenal.

14.
Food Chem ; 359: 129926, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951607

RESUMO

Selectively hydrolyzed soy protein (SHSP) has the potential to improve the quality of steamed bread. To clarify its underlying mechanism, the influence of SHSP on dough properties and components was investigated and compared with that of soy protein isolate (SPI). The results showed that SHSP addition resulted in steamed bread with higher loaf volume, lower hardness, and higher viscoelasticity. In contrast, SPI addition had the opposite effect. Nevertheless, both soy proteins decreased melting enthalpy and increased starch particle exposure due to competition for water. By analyzing molecular weight distribution and the secondary structure, we determined that the GMP content of fermented dough decreased by 10.04% following 1% SPI addition; however, it was enhanced by 7.90% following 1% SHSP addition. Moreover, the content of ß-turns decreased with SHSP addition. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation of soy proteins as a nutritious and technofunctional dough improver.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Proteínas de Soja/química , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Dureza , Hidrólise , Amido/química , Vapor , Termodinâmica , Viscosidade
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112286, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023458

RESUMO

Higher selenium status has been shown to improve the clinical outcome of infections caused by a range of evolutionally diverse viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host-cell selenoproteins remains elusive. The present study investigated the influence of SARS-CoV-2 on expression of selenoprotein mRNAs in Vero cells. SARS-CoV-2 triggered an inflammatory response as evidenced by increased IL-6 expression. Of the 25 selenoproteins, SARS-CoV-2 significantly suppressed mRNA expression of ferroptosis-associated GPX4, DNA synthesis-related TXNRD3 and endoplasmic reticulum-resident SELENOF, SELENOK, SELENOM and SELENOS. Computational analysis has predicted an antisense interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and TXNRD3 mRNA, which is translated with high efficiency in the lung. Here, we confirmed the predicted SARS-CoV-2/TXNRD3 antisense interaction in vitro using DNA oligonucleotides, providing a plausible mechanism for the observed mRNA knockdown. Inhibition of TXNRD decreases DNA synthesis which is thereby likely to increase the ribonucleotide pool for RNA synthesis and, accordingly, RNA virus production. The present findings provide evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 replication on the expression of a specific set of selenoprotein mRNAs, which merits further investigation in the light of established evidence for correlations between dietary selenium status and the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
DNA/biossíntese , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Selenoproteínas/genética , Células Vero
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021793

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of single anterior and single posterior approach of debridement, interbody fusion, and fixation for the treatment of mono-segment lumbar spine tuberculosis (TB) patients. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with mono-segment lumbar TB who underwent debridement, interbody fusion, and fixation through either single anterior (Group A) or single posterior approach (Group B) from January 2007 to January 2017 were enrolled in this study. The duration of the operation, blood loss, complication rate, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), Frankel scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), kyphosis angle, correction rate, correction loss, and time taken for bone graft fusion were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The average period of follow-up was 34.3 ± 9.5 months (24-56 months). No significant differences were observed between patients in Group A and patients in Group B in terms of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), duration of illness and preoperative evaluative indices (P > 0.05). The mean operation time and blood loss was significantly higher in Group A (P = 0.000), along with a slightly higher rate of complications compared with Group B (P = 0.848). The VAS, ODI and Frankel scale scores showed significant improvement in both groups (P = 0.000), along with the ESR, CRP and kyphosis indices (P = 0.000), which were similar in both groups at the final follow-up. CONCLUSION: Both single anterior and single posterior approaches of debridement, interbody fusion and fixation are effective for mono-segment lumbar TB patients, although the single posterior approach is of a shorter duration and results in less blood loss.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043337

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an emerging tool to understand the potential implications of nanotechnology, particularly for agriculture. Although molybdenum (Mo) is a known plant micronutrient, little is known of its metabolic perturbations. Here, corn and wheat seedlings were exposed to MoO3 nanoparticles (NPs) and the corresponding bioavailable Mo6+ ion at moderate and excessive levels through root exposures. Physiologically, corn was more sensitive to Mo, which accumulated up to 3.63 times more Mo than wheat. In contrast, metabolomics indicated 21 dysregulated metabolites in corn leaves and 53 in wheat leaves. Five more metabolomic pathways were perturbed in wheat leaves compared to corn leaves. In addition to the overall metabolomics analysis, we also analyzed individual metabolite classes (e.g., amino acids, organic acids, etc.), yielding additional dysregulated metabolites in plant tissues: 7 for corn and 7 for wheat. Most of these were amino acids as well as some sugars. Additional significantly dysregulated metabolites (e.g., asparagine, fructose, reduced glutathione, mannose) were identified in both corn and wheat, due to Mo NP exposure, by employing individual metabolite group analysis. Targeted metabolite analysis of individual groups is thus important for finding additional significant metabolites. We demonstrate the value of metabolomics to study early stage plant responses to NP exposure.

18.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(1): 124-134, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of TCGA-TCIA (The Cancer Genome Atlas and The Cancer Imaging Archive)-based CT radiomics for noninvasive prediction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status in gastric cancer (GC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of 133 patients with pathologically confirmed GC (94 in the training cohort and 39 in the validation cohort) who were identified from the TCGA-TCIA public data repository and two hospitals were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Two-dimensional and 3D radiomics features were extracted to construct corresponding radiomics signatures. Then, 2D and 3D nomograms were built by combining radiomics signatures and clinical information on the basis of multivariable analysis. Their performance and clinical practicability were determined, validated, and compared with respect to discrimination, calibration, reclassification, and time spent on tumor segmentation. RESULTS. Both 2D and 3D nomograms were robust and showed good calibration. The AUCs of the 2D and 3D nomograms showed no significant difference in the training cohort (0.919 vs 0.945, respectively; p = .41) or validation cohort (0.939 vs 0.955, respectively; p = .71). The net reclassification index showed that the 3D nomogram revealed no significant improvement in risk reclassification when compared with the 2D nomogram in the training cohort (net reclassification index, 0.68%; p = .14) and the validation cohort (net reclassification index, 6.06%; p = .08). Of note, the time spent on 3D segmentation (median, 907 seconds) was higher than that spent on 2D segmentation (median, 129 seconds). CONCLUSION. The 2D and 3D radiomics nomograms might have the potential to be used as effective tools for prediction of EBV in GC. When time spent on segmentation is considered, the 2D nomogram is more highly recommended for clinical application.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 367-375, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930628

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT), an important antioxidant existing in plants and animals, has been widely reported to participate in the process of plants coping with stress. In this study, we demonstrated the mechanism of MT enhancing photosynthesis in rice under salt stress. The results showed that MT treatment increased relative water content, sucrose and starch content of rice under salt stress. This was mainly owing to the fact that MT enhanced the net photosynthetic rate and enhanced the absorption and transmission of light energy. The effect of MT on photosynthesis of rice under salt stress conditions was mainly due to the regulation of three processes: maintaining low ROS status by improving the total antioxidant capacity, promoting the xanthophyll cycle and increasing the xanthophyll pool size to dissipate excess light energy, increasing the activities of key photosynthetic enzymes. Taken together, these results provide a mechanism for MT to improve the photosynthetic capacity of rice under salt stress.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Oryza , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Salino , Plântula
20.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808892

RESUMO

We added microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs) into the homemade antifreeze fluid to take advantage of the latent heat of phase change materials, and explored the possibility of solving the cold start problem of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) with variable specific heat capacity antifreeze. The physical and chemical properties of the MPCMs and their suspensions were tested, and a PEMFC platform for cold start with a thermal management system was established to compare the exothermic performance of MPCS and commercial antifreeze fluid. According to the output voltage, temperature and polarization curves before and after cold start, the MPCMs has a stronger heat transfer capacity than the commercial antifreeze fluid, and the addition of MPCMs can transform the latent heat generated during the phase transition into apparent specific heat capacity, leading to a better solution to the problem of PEMFC cold start.

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