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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3195-3202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529895

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or plant symbiotic actinomycetes (PSA) play an important role in stimulating plant growth, antagonizing pathogens, tolerating stress, and controlling plant disease. However, whether there is a synergistic effect between AMF and PSA in promoting plant growth and controlling disease is worth exploring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF and PSA on growth-promotion and controlling disease on Solanaceae vegetables and to obtain effective AMF+PSA combinations. Under greenhouse pot conditions, chili (Capsicum annu-um, cultivar: Yangjiaojiao) and eggplant (Solanum melongena, cultivar: Heiguanchangqie) were inoculated with or without AMF Funneliformis mosseae (Fm), Glomus versiforme (Gv), PSA Streptomyces globosus H6-1, Streptomyces rochei S2-2, Streptomyces coralus D11-4 or/and pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea. There were a total of 48 treatments. The growth, disease and root symbiont development of plants were determined. The results showed that Fm and PSA could promote each other's colonization, while Gv and PSA inhibited each other. Compared with the control, AMF, PSA and AMF+PSA improved the photosynthetic performance, root activity, and growth of chili and eggplant. Under the condition of inoculation with pathogenic fungi, AMF and/or PSA treatment significantly increased growth and reduced the disease index of plants, with the effects of PSA being greater than that of AMF. Fm+H6-1 combination had the best effect on the growth-promotion and controlling disease of chili plants, with the controlling effect on gray mold reaching 69.1%. Fm+ D11-4 had the best effect on the growth promotion and controlling disease of eggplant, the controlling effect of which on gray mold reached 75.5%. Fm+H6-1 andFm+D11-4 were efficient combinations of chili and eggplant for promoting growth and controlling disease under the conditions of this experiment. Further tests in field are needed.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Capsicum/microbiologia , Micorrizas , Solanum melongena/microbiologia , Actinomyces , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Simbiose
2.
J Neurochem ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314916

RESUMO

Glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) plays a vital role in the induction of brain ischemic tolerance (BIT) by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism still needs to be further explained. The aim of this study was to investigate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) participates in regulating GLT-1 during the acquisition of BIT induced by IPC. Initially, cerebral IPC induced BIT and enhanced PPARγ and GLT-1 expression in the CA1 hippocampus in rats. The ratio of nuclear/cytoplasmic PPARγ was also increased. At the same time, the up-regulation of PPARγ expression in astrocytes in the CA1 hippocampus was revealed by double immunofluorescence for PPARγ and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Then, the mechanism by which PPARγ regulates GLT-1 was studied in rat cortical astrocyte-neuron cocultures. We found that IPC [45 min of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)] protected neuronal survival after lethal OGD (4 h of OGD), which usually leads to neuronal death. The activation of PPARγ occurred earlier than the up-regulation of GLT-1 in astrocytes after IPC, as determined by western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, the preadministration of the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 or PPARγ siRNA significantly attenuated GLT-1 up-regulation and the neuroprotective effects induced by IPC in vitro. Finally, the effect of the PPARγ antagonist on GLT-1 expression and BIT was verified in vivo. We observed that the preadministration of T0070907 by intracerebroventricular injection dose-dependently attenuated the up-regulation of GLT-1 and BIT induced by cerebral IPC in rats. In conclusion, PPARγ participates in regulating GLT-1 during the acquisition of BIT induced by IPC. OPEN SCIENCE BADGES: This article has received a badge for *Open Materials* because it provided all relevant information to reproduce the study in the manuscript. The complete Open Science Disclosure form for this article can be found at the end of the article. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found at https://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/. Open Science: This manuscript was awarded with the Open Materials Badge For more information see: https://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/.

3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(6): 2063-2071, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257780

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in plant growth enhancement, tolerance to heavy metal toxicity, and rehabilitation of contaminated ecosystems. An experiment was carried out with Phragmites communis and Pennisetum alopecuroides inoculated with or without Funneliformis mosseae (Fm), or Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) under the simulated wetland system with Cd polluted water (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg·L-1). The results showed that Cd addition significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization. AMF increased plant height, dry mass, leaf chlorophyll, N and Cd contents in shoot and root of P. communis and P. alopecuroides, enhanced Cd enrichment capability by roots, and decreased Cd transfer coefficient. Under Cd 5 mg·L-1 treatment, all of the indices in Fm + P. communis combination treatment were higher than those of other treatments, with 60.6% of AMF colonization, and the entry points and vesicles per mm root length were 2.3 and 3.7, respectively. Under the inoculation treatment, dry mass of shoot and root was improved by 69.1%, and 75.0%, nitrogen contents in shoot and root were increased by 38.7% and 27.8%, and the chlorophyll content and plant height were increased by 3.8% and 11.1%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between Cd concentration in wetland system and Cd content in shoot and root. Under Cd 20 mg·L-1 treatment, Fm + P. communis combination had the maximum Cd contents of 182.4 mg·kg-1 and 663.3 mg·kg-1 in shoot and root, respectively, the lowest Cd transfer coefficient (0.27), and the highest enrichment coefficient (0.55). In conclusion, Fm + P. communis was the best combination for absorbing Cd in polluted water.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Glomeromycota , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(12): 1435-1440, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that endogenous T cells play an important role in the prolonged survival time of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Our objectives were to investigate the features of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires in HGG patients and to elucidate any potential therapeutic value. METHODS: During November 2011 and December 2018, tumor tissues and blood samples of 35 patients with HGG who underwent surgery at Beijing Tiantan Hospital or Beijing Shijitan Hospital were selected after surgery. After isolating DNA from samples, multiple rounds of PCR were performed to establish a DNA immune repertoire (IR). Then, the sequences and frequencies of the complementarity-determining 3 (CDR3) region in TCR beta chain (TRB) were identified by high-throughput sequencing and IR analysis. A survival follow-up was conducted monthly thereafter until December 2018. Finally, the t test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare statistical differences between two sets of data. RESULTS: The Shannon diversity index (SHDI) of TRB sequences of HGG patients was significantly lower than that of healthy individuals (7.34 vs. 8.45, P = 0.001). The SHDI of TRB sequences of glioblastoma (GBM) patients with more than 16 months survival time was much higher than that of GBM patients with shorter survival times in both tumor tissues (3.48 ±â€Š0.31 vs. 6.21 ±â€Š0.33, t = -5.49, P = 0.002) and blood cells (6.02 ±â€Š0.66 vs. 7.44 ±â€Š0.32, t = -2.20, P = 0.036). In addition, patients achieved a distinctly higher proportion compared to that of healthy individuals in the proportion of TRBV9 and TRBV5 functional regions (9.83% vs. 6.83%, P = 0.001). Surgical tissue from patients who survived more than 16 months yielded a much higher proportion of TRBV4 and TRBV9 regions (7.14% vs. 3.28%, t = 3.18, P = 0.019). In surgical tissues from two GBM patients who survived for longer than 46 months, we found a potentially therapeutic TCR sequence. CONCLUSIONS: HGG patients have less species diversity of TCR repertoires compared with that of healthy individuals. TRBV9 regions in TCRs may be protective factors for long-term survival of GBM patients.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(7): 1314-1320, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090286

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the commonly used bulk medicinal materials, which has significant effect on cardiovascular disease, and are heavy demanded in Asia, Europe, North America, Russia and Africa. Consequently, increasing the yield and quality of S. miltiorrhiza has become a major concern worldwide. With the current wild resources of S. miltiorrhiza gradually decreasing, cultivated products occupy most of the markets. However, the cultivation area is widely distributed and the cultivation techniques is different, which lead to the quality and yield of S. miltiorrhiza in consistent. This paper combined visiting survey with document analysis to carry out the cultivation situation of S. miltiorrhiza in main cultivation areas of Shandong, Henan, Sichuan, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. There exist big differences of the ecological environment, mode of cultivation, fertilization, pest control, harvesting processing among the producing areas. We should carry on the ecological suitability zoning analysis and suitable cultivation of each area study to form a pattern of high quality and high yield for the sustainable development of S. miltiorrhiza cultivation.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(3): 667-671, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) without specific causes in young clinical outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of 1249 young clinical outpatients who underwent an unenhanced head MRI examination between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016, were included in the study. The chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the prevalence and characteristics of WMH by sex, age, and history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of WMH among clinical patients with neurologic symptoms was also compared with that among participants without neurologic symptoms. Logistic regression was used to identify the patient characteristics that were the best predictors of WMH. RESULTS. The overall prevalence of WMH was 25.94% (324/1249). Most patients with WMH (85.49% [277/324]) had mild WMH, mainly in frontal and parietal subcortical white matter. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of WMH by sex (p > 0.05), but the prevalence of WMH was higher among older patients (p < 0.001) and patients with a history of CVD (p < 0.001). Compared with participants without neurologic symptoms, clinical patients with dizziness (p = 0.029) and light-headedness (p = 0.001) were more likely to have WMH, which was attributed to older age and CVD. Logistic regression analysis showed that age and CVD were the best predictors of WMH. CONCLUSION. WMH is frequently found in young clinical patients. Most WMH is the mild type and mainly located in frontal and parietal subcortical white matter. Older age and CVD are risk factors for WMH.

7.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(2): 336-342, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008494

RESUMO

Drug metabolism is significantly affected under hypoxia environment with changes of pharmacokinetics, expression and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Studies have shown that hypoxia increases the release of a series of inflammatory cytokines which can modulate drug metabolism. Besides, both hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and microRNA-mediated pathways play a role in regulating drug metabolism. This article reviewed the impact and single-factor modulating mechanisms of drug metabolism under hypoxia, and put forward the speculation and prospects of multi-factor modulating mechanisms.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Humanos , Hipóxia
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5990, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979945

RESUMO

As major environment factors, drought or high salinity affect crop growth, development and yield. Transgenic approach is an effective way to improve abiotic stress tolerance of crops. In this study, we comparatively analyzed gene structures, genome location, and the evolution of syntaxin proteins containing late embryogenesis abundant (LEA2) domain. GmSYP24 was identified as a dehydration-responsive gene. Our study showed that the GmSYP24 protein was located on the cell membrane. The overexpression of GmSYP24 (GmSYP24ox) in soybean and heteroexpression of GmSYP24 (GmSYP24hx) in Arabidopsis exhibited insensitivity to osmotic/drought and high salinity. However, wild type soybean, Arabidopsis, and the mutant of GmSYP24 homologous gene of Arabidopsis were sensitive to the stresses. Under the abiotic stresses, transgenic soybean plants had greater water content and higher activities of POD, SOD compared with non-transgenic controls. And the leaf stomatal density and opening were reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis. The sensitivity to ABA was decreased during seed germination of GmSYP24ox and GmSYP24hx. GmSYP24hx induced up-regulation of ABA-responsive genes. GmSYP24ox alters the expression of some aquaporins under osmotic/drought, salt, or ABA treatment. These results demonstrated that GmSYP24 played an important role in osmotic/drought or salt tolerance in ABA signal pathway.

9.
Brain Res Bull ; 147: 1-13, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731111

RESUMO

The previous studies have shown that glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) participates in cerebral ischemic injury in rats. However, the mechanism involved remains to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to investigate whether p38 MAPK was involved in regulating GLT-1 in the process. At first, it was observed that global brain ischemia for 8 min led to obvious delayed neuronal death, GLT-1 down-regulation and p-p38 MAPK up-regulation in CA1 hippocampus in rats. Then, whether p-p38 MAPK was involved in regulating GLT-1 during cerebral ischemic injury was studied in vitro. Astrocyte-neuron co-cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) were used to mimic brain ischemia. It was observed that lethal OGD (4-h OGD) decreased GLT-1 expression and increased p-p38 MAPK expression in astrocytes. The p-p38 MAPK protein rised from 0 min to 48 h that is the end time of the observation, and the peak value was at 12 h, which was 12.45 times of the control group. Moreover, pre-administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or its siRNA dose-dependently increased GLT-1 expression, and meanwhile alleviated the neuronal death induced by lethal OGD. The above results indicated that p38 MAPK signaling pathway participated in regulating GLT-1 during OGD injury in vitro. Finally, back to in vivo experiment, it was found that pre-administration of SB203580 by intracerebroventricular injection dose-dependently reversed the down-regulation of GLT-1 expression and attenuated the delayed neuronal death normally induced by global brain ischemia in CA1 hippocampus in rats. Taken together, it can be concluded that the mechanism of GLT-1 mediating cerebral ischemic injury depends on the activation of p38 MAPK.

10.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(3): 281-289, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675649

RESUMO

The accumulation of glutamate (Glu) in the synaptic cleft during cerebral ischemia triggers the death of neurons, causing mental or physical handicap. However, the mechanisms of the alteration in Glu homeostasis and the imbalance between the release and clearance of Glu in ischemia are not yet completely understood. Additionally, the role of Glu transporters in regulating Glu concentration in the synaptic cleft is controversial. This review aims to provide readers with an in-depth understanding of Glu transporters in the early or later stages of ischemic events, or in mild or severe cerebral ischemia via alteration of Glu transporter expression, reversal of Glu transporters function, and trafficking between membrane and cytoplasm, to further clarify whether the Glu transporters are neuroprotective or neurodegenerative during cerebral ischemia. We provide the insights for deeper understanding of the mechanism of Glu transporters regulation after different periods and severities of cerebral ischemia.

11.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(3): 1521-1528, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592287

RESUMO

Glutamate excitotoxicity is responsible for neuronal death in acute neurological disorders, including stroke, trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are the main cells for the removal of glutamate in the synaptic cleft and may affect the tolerance of neurons to the glutamate excitotoxicity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the tolerance of rat cortical neurons to glutamate excitotoxicity in the presence and absence of astrocytes. Rat cortical neurons in the presence or absence of astrocytes were exposed to different concentrations of glutamate (10­2,000 µM) and 10 µM glycine for different incubation periods. After 24 h, the Cell Counting kit­8 (CCK­8) assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity to neurons in the presence or absence of astrocytes. According to the results, in the absence of astrocytes, glutamate induced a concentration­dependent decrease of neuronal survival rate compared with the control rat cortical neurons, and the neurotoxic half­maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 15, 30 and 60 min was 364.5, 258.5 and 138.3 µM, respectively. Furthermore, in the presence of astrocytes, glutamate induced a concentration­dependent decrease of neuronal survival rate compared with the control rat cortical neurons, and the neurotoxic IC50 at 15, 30 and 60 min was 1,935, 932.8 and 789.3 µM, respectively. However, astrocytic toxicity was not observed when the rat cortical astrocytes alone were exposed to different concentrations of glutamate (500, 1,000 and 2,000 µM) for 6, 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, the glutamate­induced neurotoxic IC50 values at 15, 30 and 60 min were respectively higher in the presence of astrocytes as compared with those in the absence of astrocytes, suggesting that astrocytes can protect against rat cortical neuronal acute damage induced by glutamate.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/administração & dosagem , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/toxicidade , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452416

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive impairment of learning, memory, and cognitive deficits. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in learning, memory, and cognition. The homeostasis and reutilization of glutamate are dependent on astrocytic uptake by glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and the subsequent glutamate-glutamine cycle. Increasing evidence showed impairments in GLT-1 expression and uptake activity and glutamate-glutamine cycle in AD. Ceftriaxone (Cef) has been reported to upregulate the expression and uptake of GLT-1. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore whether Cef can improve cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice in early stage of AD by upregulating GLT-1 expression, and then promoting the glutamate-glutamine cycle. It was shown that Cef treatment significantly alleviated the cognitive deficits measured by Morris water maze test and upregulated GLT-1 protein expression in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Particularly, the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and the protein expression of system N glutamine transporter 1 (SN1), which are the key factors involved in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, were significantly upregulated as well after the Cef treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of GLT-1 uptake activity by dihydrokainic acid, an inhibitor of GLT-1, blocked the Cef-induced improvement on the cognitive deficits, GS activity, and SN1 expression. The above results suggested that Cef could improve cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice in early stage of AD by upregulating the GLT-1 expression, GS activity, and SN1 expression, which would lead to stimulating the glutamate-glutamine cycle.

13.
Brain Res ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445027

RESUMO

Our previous studies have demonstrated that limb ischemic preconditioning (LIP) induced brain ischemic tolerance and up-regulated the expression of p38 MAPK and ERK in the hippocampal CA1 region in rats. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of adenosine in brain protection and up-regulation of p38 MAPK and ERK induced by LIP. It was found that adenosine A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX dose-dependently inhibited the protective effect of LIP. The up-regulation of p38 MAPK and ERK induced by LIP could be blocked by DPCPX. Furthermore, we observed the effect of adenosine on the brain ischemia. The results showed that pre-administration of adenosine could partly mimic the neuroprotective effect on the brain, up-regulate the expression of p38 MAPK and ERK. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that adenosine participated in brain protection and up-regulation of the expression of p38 MAPK and ERK during the induction of brain ischemic tolerance after LIP.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(37): 4254-4262, 2018 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310258

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of VSL#3 on tumor formation, and fecal and intestinal mucosal microbiota in azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) induced mice model. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were administered AOM/DSS to develop the ulcerative colitis (UC) carcinogenesis model. Mice were treated with 5-ASA (75 mg/kg/d), VSL#3 (1.5 × 109 CFU/d), or 5-ASA combined with VSL#3 by gavage from the day of AOM injection for three months (five days/week). The tumor load was compared in each group, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were evaluated in colon tissue. The stool and intestinal mucosa samples were collected to analyze the differences in the intestinal microbiota by 16s rDNA sequencing method. RESULTS: VSL#3 significantly reduced the tumor load in AOM/DSS-induced mice model and decreased the level of TNF-α and IL-6 in colon tissue. The model group had a lower level of Lactobacillus and higher level of Oscillibacter and Lachnoclostridium in fecal microbiota than the control group. After the intervention with 5-ASA and VSL#3, Bacillus and Lactococcus were increased, while Lachnoclostridium and Oscillibacter were reduced. 5-ASA combined with VSL#3 increased the Lactobacillus and decreased the Oscillibacter. The intestinal mucosal microbiota analysis showed a lower level of Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 and higher level of Alloprevotella in the model group as compared to the control group. After supplementation with VSL#3, Bifidobacterium was increased. 5-ASA combined with VSL#3 increased the level of both Lachnoclostridium and Bifidobacterium. CONCLUSION: VSL#3 can prevent UC-associated carcinogenesis in mice, reduce the colonic mucosal inflammation levels, and rebalance the fecal and mucosal intestinal microbiota.

15.
Neuroscience ; 392: 180-189, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278249

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the value of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in assessing microstructural changes associated with cognitive impairment in chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). At 7 months, six TBI rats and six control rats underwent Morris water maze (MWM) tests, followed by DKI examinations. DKI parameters were measured in bilateral cortex, hippocampus, and callosum. Brain immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of neuron [neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)], astroglia [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)], microglia [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)], and myelin [myelin basic protein (MBP)] was performed in the same area as DKI parameter. The DKI parameters, IHC results, and MWM results were compared between TBI and control groups. Correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between DKI parameters and IHC and MWM results. TBI group had worse performance in MWM test. DKI showed higher mean diffusion (MD) in all ipsilateral regions of interest (ROIs), and lower mean kurtosis (MK) in ipsilateral cortex and callosum in TBI group (P < 0.05). TBI group also showed lower IHC staining of NeuN, and higher staining of Iba-1 and MBP in all ipsilateral ROIs (P < 0.05). Further correlational study showed a positive relationship between MK and NeuN, MD and MBP in ipsilateral cortex, and a negative relationship between MK and Iba-1, MBP in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus (P < 0.05). The MK in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus were also correlated with MWM test results (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that DKI could be used to assess the microstructural changes associated with cognitive impairment in chronic TBI.

16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 144(11): 2149-2159, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171333

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To better understand the gene mutational status and heterogeneity between primary and metastatic CRC (mCRC) using a sensitive sequencing method. METHODS: The mutational status of EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB2, BRAF, KIT, and PDGFRA was analyzed in 65 patients, with 147 samples of primary and paired live or lung metastatic CRC, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Fifteen cases (15/22, 68.2%) of lung mCRC and thirteen cases (13/20, 65%) of liver mCRC harboured the same mutation profiles of KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF in the primary lesions. To all detected genes, 11 cases (11/22, 50%) of lung mCRC and 11 cases (11/20, 55%) of liver mCRC showed different mutational genes in the primary tumours. KRAS and BRAF mutations were more frequent in lung metastatic lesions (p = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). The gene mutations in KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA in the lung metastatic sites were more frequent than those in the liver metastatic sites (86.7 vs. 44%, respectively, p = 0.000). Some new mutations were not covered in the qPCR ranges but were detected by NGS. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that the discordance of gene mutational status between paired primary and metastatic tumours is rather high when detected by NGS. Evaluating the mutational status of both the primary and metastatic tumours should be considered in clinical mutation testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 131(18): 2216-2225, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203797

RESUMO

Objective: A comprehensive review of the network regulation of exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurodegenerative diseases was done, centering on the mechanism of the formation of exosomes and miRNAs and the sorting mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, with the aim to provide a theoretical basis in the search of biomarkers and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Data Sources: The comprehensive search used online literature databases including NCBI PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar. Study Selection: The study selection was based on the following keywords: exosomes, miRNAs, central nervous system (CNS), and neurodegenerative diseases. The time limit for literature retrieval was from the year 2000 to 2018, with language restriction in English. Relevant articles were carefully reviewed, with no exclusions applied to study design and publication type. Results: Exosomes are the smallest nanoscale membranous microvesicles secreted by cells and contain important miRNAs, among other rich contents. In the CNS, exosomes can transport amyloid ß-protein, α-synuclein, Huntington-associated protein 1, and superoxide dismutase I to other cells. These events relieve the abnormal accumulation of proteins and aggravating neurological diseases. In some neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, miRNAs are pathologically altered as an inexorable course, suggesting that miRNAs may contribute neurodegeneration. Exosomes and miRNAs form a network to regulate the homeostasis of the CNS, both synergistically and individually. Conclusion: The network of exosomes and miRNAs that regulates CNS homeostasis is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 281, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158854

RESUMO

Sulbactam is an atypical ß-lactam medication and reported to be neuroprotective by up-regulating glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in rats. The present study was undertaken to study the role of p38 MAPK signal pathway in sulbactam induced up-regulation of GLT-1 expression in astrocytes and anti-ischemic effect. Neuron-astrocyte co-cultures and astrocyte cultures from neonatal Wistar rats were used. Cerebral ischemia was mimicked by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Hoechst (HO)/propidium iodide (PI) double fluorescence staining and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay were used to evaluate neuronal death and cell viability, respectively. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot were used to detect protein expressions. Sulbactam pre-incubation significantly and dose-dependently prevented neuronal death and decline in cell viability induced by OGD in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, and upregulated GLT-1 expression in astrocyte cultures endured OGD, which suggested that sulbactam might protect neurons against OGD by up-regulating astrocytic GLT-1 expression. It was further shown that the phosphorylated-p38 MAPK expression in astrocytes was up-regulated after the sulbactam pre-incubation and this up-regulation was moderate in amplitude. Especially, the time course of the up-regulation of phosphorylated-p38 MAPK was obviously earlier than that of GLT-1, which suggested possibility that p38 MAPK might be an upstream signal for GLT-1 up-regulation induced by sulbactam. We further found that SB203580, the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, dose-dependently inhibited the GLT-1 up-regulation induced by sulbactam either in non- or OGD-treated astrocytes and the protective effect of sulbactam on co-cultured neurons against OGD. Taken together, it might be concluded that sulbactam protects cerebral neurons against OGD by up-regulating astrocytic GLT-1 expression via p38 MAPK signal pathway.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(30): 20188-20193, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027957

RESUMO

Two-dimensional surface structures often host a surface state in the bulk gap, which plays a crucial role in the surface electron transport. The diversity of in-gap surface states extends the category of two-dimensional systems and gives us more choices in material applications. In this article, we investigated the surface states of ß-√3 × âˆš3-Bi/Si(111) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy. Two nearly free electron states in the bulk gap of silicon were found in the unoccupied states. Combined with first-principles calculations, these two states were verified to be the Bi-contributed surface states and electron-accumulation-induced quantum well states. Due to the spin-orbit coupling of Bi atoms, Bi-contributed surface states exhibit free-electron Rashba splitting. The in-gap surface states with spin splitting can possibly be used for spin polarized electronics applications.

20.
World J Surg Oncol ; 16(1): 86, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical safety and value of ethanol surgical field infiltration (ESFI), combined with distilled water peritoneal lavage (DWPL), after hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture. METHODS: Rat liver tissue samples were soaked in dehydrated ethanol for different soaking times, and 18 rats were assigned to three groups that underwent different soaking methods of the hepatectomy cut surface. We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients who underwent hepatectomy for treatment of ruptured HCC. Among these, EFSI combined with DWPL was used in 21 patients (DAW group), with only DWPL used in the other 24 patients (DW group). Clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: For in vitro experiments, the depth of coagulation degeneration and necrosis increased with the duration of soaking. For in vivo experiments, rats in all three groups survived until postoperative day 7 without significant postoperative complication. In patients, the rate of post-operation complication was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.398), with no between-group differences in liver function levels. The incidence of peritoneal dissemination was significantly higher for DW than DAW group (P = 0.037). Kaplan-Meier test identified dehydrated ethanol treatment as a significant factor of disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.036). On univariate analysis, dehydrated ethanol treatment was associated with better prognostic outcomes, although it was not retained as an independent factor of patient outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydrated ethanol soaking of the cut surface of the hepatectomy could potentially lower the risk of metastasis and improve the effect of hepatectomy for ruptured HCC as well as showed potential therapeutic value for intraoperative iatrogenic rupture of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Hepatectomia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ruptura Espontânea/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lavagem Peritoneal , Prognóstico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura Espontânea/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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