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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540315

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) tungsten disulfide (WS2) has inspired great efforts in optoelectronics, such as in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and photodetectors. However, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 2D WS2 domains with the coexistence of a discontinuous single layer and multilayers are still not suitable for the fabrication of photodetectors on a large scale. An emerging field in the integration of organic materials with 2D materials offers the advantages of molecular diversity and flexibility to provide an exciting aspect on high-performance device applications. Herein, we fabricated a photodetector based on a 2D-WS2/organic semiconductor materials (mixture of the (Poly-(N, N'-bis-4-butylphenyl-N, N'-bisphenyl) benzidine and Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (Poly-TPD/PCBM)) heterojunction. The application of Poly-TPD/PCBM organic blend film enhanced light absorption, electrically connected the isolated WS2 domains, and promoted the separation of electron-hole pairs. The generated exciton could sufficiently diffuse to the interface of the WS2 and the organic blend layers for efficient charge separation, where Poly-TPD was favorable for hole carrier transport and PCBM for electron transport to their respective electrodes. We show that the photodetector exhibited high responsivity, detectivity, and an on/off ratio of 0.1 A/W, 1.1 × 1011 Jones, and 100, respectively. In addition, the photodetector showed a broad spectral response from 500 nm to 750 nm, with a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8%. Our work offers a facile solution-coating process combined with a CVD technique to prepare an inorganic/organic heterojunction photodetector with high performance on silicon substrate.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(34): 28754-28763, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084253

RESUMO

The authors report a new patterned electroless metallization process for creating micro- and nanoscale metallic structures on polymeric substrates, which are essential for emerging flexible and stretchable optical and electronic applications. This novel process features a selective adsorption of catalytic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) on a lithographically masked poly(dopamine) (PDA) interlayer in situ polymerized on the substrates. The moisture-resistant PDA layer has excellent stability under a harsh electroless plating bath, which enables electroless metallization on versatile substrate materials regardless of their hydrophobicity, and significantly strengthens the attachment of electroless plated metallic structures on the polymeric substrates. Prototype devices fabricated using this PDA-assisted electroless metallization patterning exhibit superior mechanical stability under high bending and stretching stress. The lithographic patterning of the PDA spatially confines the adsorption of PdNPs and reduces defects due to random adsorption of catalytic particles on the undesired area. The high resolution of the lithographic patterning enables the demonstration of a copper micrograting pattern with a linewidth down to 2 µm and a silver plasmonic nanodisk array with a 500 nm pitch. A copper mesh is also fabricated using our new patterned electroless metallization process and functions as flexible transparent electrodes with >80% visible transmittance and <1 Ω sq-1 sheet resistance. Moreover, flexible and stretchable dynamic electroluminescent displays and functional flexible printed circuits are demonstrated to show the promising capability of our fabrication process in versatile flexible and stretchable electronic devices.

3.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 132: 169-187, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009884

RESUMO

Nanoparticles for biomedical applications are generally formed by bottom-up approaches such as self-assembly, emulsification and precipitation. But these methods usually have critical limitations in fabrication of nanoparticles with controllable morphologies and monodispersed size. Compared with bottom-up methods, top-down nanofabrication techniques offer advantages of high fidelity and high controllability. This review focuses on top-down nanofabrication techniques for engineering particles along with their biomedical applications. We present several commonly used top-down nanofabrication techniques that have the potential to fabricate nanoparticles, including photolithography, interference lithography, electron beam lithography, mold-based lithography (nanoimprint lithography and soft lithography), nanostencil lithography, and nanosphere lithography. Varieties of current and emerging applications are also covered: (i) targeting, (ii) drug and gene delivery, (iii) imaging, and (iv) therapy. Finally, a future perspective of the nanoparticles fabricated by the top-down techniques in biomedicine is also addressed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia , Humanos
4.
Opt Express ; 26(7): 8194-8200, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715788

RESUMO

A fast-reconfigurable and actively-stabilized fiber-optic interference lithography system is demonstrated in this paper. Employment of fiber-optic components greatly enhances the flexibility of the whole system, simplifies its optical alignment, and suppresses the interference of mechanical vibrations. Active stabilization is implemented in the system and evaluated through modeling and experiment. We demonstrate 3-inch-diameter wafer-scale patterning of 240-nm-period grating lines with a sub-50-nm linewidth and an aspect ratio over 3. Two-dimensional patterns of different geometries and dimensions are also demonstrated to show the versatility of our system. Step-and-repeat exposure is demonstrated with independently controlled patterning fields of 2×2cm2 large.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(24): 21009-21017, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799181

RESUMO

We report stretchable metal-mesh transparent electrodes (TEs) with excellent electrical conductivity (<2 Ω/sq) and optical transparency (>80%) under up to 55% strain. The figures of merit on these electrodes, as defined as the ratio between electrical conductivity and optical conductivity, are among the highest reported for stretchable TEs under moderate stretching. Moreover, we demonstrate their application in a stretchable electroluminescent (EL) light-emitting film as top and bottom electrodes. EL lighting devices require low-resistance electrodes to unleash their potential for large-area low-power-consumption applications, in which our highly conductive and transparent stretchable TEs provide an edge on other competitor approaches. Importantly, our stretchable metal-mesh electrodes are fabricated through a vacuum-free solution-processed approach that is scalable for cost-effective mass production. We also investigate the fracture and fatigue mechanisms of stretchable metal-mesh electrodes with various mesh patterns and observe different behaviors under one-time and cyclic stretching conditions. Our solution-processed fabrication method, failure mechanism investigation, and device demonstration for metal-mesh stretchable TEs will facilitate the adoption of this promising high-performance approach in stretchable and wearable electronics applications.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(3): 3029-3038, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320159

RESUMO

The maneuver of small bubbles in a programmed way will advance numerous processes, including gas evolution reaction and aeration. Unlike in-air droplets, rapidly rising bubbles in liquid medium can hardly be steered through interaction with solid substrates, causing difficulties in maneuvering bubbles. We pattern and lubricate nanoporous substrates with regions of contrasting wettability that is similar to the back of Namib desert beetles and subsequently immerse the lubricated surface underwater to spontaneously form spatially patterned Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces after the dewetting of lubricants. As a result, bubbles are confined on lubricant-infused surfaces, with their high mobility well preserved. The interfacial states of attached bubbles are analyzed, and their dynamic sliding velocities are quantified. Using the lubricated patterned surfaces, we further demonstrate the predefined motion of bubbles driven by buoyancy at a small tiling angle, as well as a self-propulsion of bubbles driven by surface tension force at a tilting angle of 0°, respectively. The spatially lubricated surfaces simplify gas handling in liquid medium and have potential applications in fields where bubble handling is crucial.

7.
J Vis Exp ; (124)2017 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671661

RESUMO

Here, the authors report the embedded metal-mesh transparent electrode (EMTE), a new transparent electrode (TE) with a metal mesh completely embedded in a polymer film. This paper also presents a low-cost, vacuum-free fabrication method for this novel TE; the approach combines lithography, electroplating, and imprint transfer (LEIT) processing. The embedded nature of the EMTEs offers many advantages, such as high surface smoothness, which is essential for organic electronic device production; superior mechanical stability during bending; favorable resistance to chemicals and moisture; and strong adhesion with plastic film. LEIT fabrication features an electroplating process for vacuum-free metal deposition and is favorable for industrial mass production. Furthermore, LEIT allows for the fabrication of metal mesh with a high aspect ratio (i.e., thickness to linewidth), significantly enhancing its electrical conductance without adversely losing optical transmittance. We demonstrate several prototypes of flexible EMTEs, with sheet resistances lower than 1 Ω/sq and transmittances greater than 90%, resulting in very high figures of merit (FoM) - up to 1.5 x 104 - which are amongst the best values in the published literature.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Cicloparafinas/química , Eletrodos , Polímeros/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(9): 8083-8091, 2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28170221

RESUMO

A new type of embedded metal-mesh transparent electrode (EMTE) with in-situ electrodeposited catalytic platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) is developed as a high-performance counter electrode (CE) for lightweight flexible bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thick but narrow nickel micromesh fully embedded in a plastic film provides superior electrical conductivity, optical transmittance, and mechanical stability to the novel electrode. PtNPs decorated selectively on the nickel micromesh surface provide catalytic function with minimum material cost and without interfering with optical transparency. Facile and fully solution-processed fabrication of the novel CE is demonstrated with potential for scalable and cost-effective production. Using this PtNP-decorated nickel EMTE as the CE and titanium foil as the photoanode, unifacial flexible DSSCs are fabricated with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.91%. By replacing the titanium foil with a transparent ITO-PEN photoanode, full-plastic bifacial DSSCs are fabricated and tested, demonstrating a remarkable PCE of 4.87% under rear-side illumination, which approaches 85% of the 5.67% PCE under front-side illumination, among the highest ratio in published results. These promising results reveal the enormous potential of this hybrid transparent CE in scalable production and commercialization of low-cost and efficient flexible DSSCs.

9.
Small ; 12(22): 3021-30, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027390

RESUMO

A new structure of flexible transparent electrodes is reported, featuring a metal mesh fully embedded and mechanically anchored in a flexible substrate, and a cost-effective solution-based fabrication strategy for this new transparent electrode. The embedded nature of the metal-mesh electrodes provides a series of advantages, including surface smoothness that is crucial for device fabrication, mechanical stability under high bending stress, strong adhesion to the substrate with excellent flexibility, and favorable resistance against moisture, oxygen, and chemicals. The novel fabrication process replaces vacuum-based metal deposition with an electrodeposition process and is potentially suitable for high-throughput, large-volume, and low-cost production. In particular, this strategy enables fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio (thickness to linewidth) metal mesh, substantially improving conductivity without considerably sacrificing transparency. Various prototype flexible transparent electrodes are demonstrated with transmittance higher than 90% and sheet resistance below 1 ohm sq(-1) , as well as extremely high figures of merit up to 1.5 × 10(4) , which are among the highest reported values in recent studies. Finally using our embedded metal-mesh electrode, a flexible transparent thin-film heater is demonstrated with a low power density requirement, rapid response time, and a low operating voltage.

10.
Protein Expr Purif ; 118: 70-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26500192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plectasin might serve as a substitute for traditional antibiotics, but its yields and antimicrobial activities warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To identify the influence of inducible versus constitutive expression of plectasin on yields and antimicrobial activities. METHODS: Through SOE-PCR, a recombinant plectasin gene was generated and inserted into inducible (pPICZαA) and constitutive (pGAPZαA) vectors in order to create Pichia pastoris GS115 strains. After 120 h of fermentation, supernatants were purified by an AKTA purifier using nickel columns. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone assays were performed after Tricine-SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: After 120 h of fermentation, the yield of constitutive plectasin (370 µg/ml) was much lower than that from inducible vector (880 µg/ml) (P < 0.05). However, constitutive strain reached its plateau phase faster and keep more consistent yield (P < 0.05). The MICs of inducible plectasin against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 15471118, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus feces (VREF), and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumonia (PRSP) 31355 were 64, 32, and 64 µg/ml, respectively, while those of constitutive plectasin were 4, 4, and 16 µg/ml. No significant differences were observed in antimicrobial activities between inducible and constitutive plectasin for MRSA 15471118, VREF and PRSP 31355 (all P ï¼ž 0.05). However, constitutive plectasin had a larger inhibition zone than inducible plectasin with the same mass. CONCLUSIONS: Although P. pastoris GS115 (pGAPZαA-Plectasin-GS115) had lower expression than P. pastoris GS115 (pPICZαA-plectasin-GS115), it reached the plateau phase faster, had steadier yields and showed superiority in antimicrobial activities. Therefore, pGAPZαA might be more suitable for expression of plectasin in GS115 compared with pPICZαA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pichia/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Pichia/classificação , Pichia/metabolismo
11.
Opt Express ; 23(3): 2328-38, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836100

RESUMO

We theoretically study the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure based ultrathin broadband optical absorber which consists of a metallic substrate, a dielectric middle layer, and a nanostructured metallic top layer. It is found that, there exists an effective permittivity, εnull, for the top nanostructured metallic layer which leads to unit-absorption (zero-reflection) of the MIM structure. Importantly, this εnull exhibits abnormal dispersion behaviors. Both its real and imaginary parts increase monotonically with the wavelength. To obtain such naturally non-existing permittivity, we investigate the optical properties of two typical types of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, namely, thoroughly mingled composites using Bruggeman's effective medium theory, and more realistic Au nanosphere-in-dielectric structures using numerical permittivity retrieval techniques. We demonstrate that the εnull-type dispersions, and consequently, perfect absorption can be obtained over a broad spectral range when the filling factor of the metal component is close to the percolation threshold. The result not only explains the recently reported broadband absorbers made of randomly deposited Au nanoparticles [M. K. Hedayati, et al, Adv. Mater. 23, 5410 (2011)], but also provides theoretical guidelines for designing ultrathin broadband plasmonic absorbers for a wealthy of important applications.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 24(46): 465304, 2013 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24164740

RESUMO

A challenge in the fabrication of nanostructures into non-planar substrates is to form a thin, uniform resist film on non-planar surfaces. This is critical to the fabrication of nanostructures via a lithographic technique due to the subsequent pattern transfer process. Here we report a new double transfer UV-curing nanoimprint technique that can create a nanopatterned thin film with a uniform residual layer not only on flat substrates but also on highly curved surfaces. Surface relief gratings with pitches down to 200 nm are successfully imprinted on the cylindrical surface of optical fibers, and further transferred into a SiO2 matrix using reactive ion etching (RIE), demonstrating that our technique is applicable for fabricating high-resolution nanostructures on non-planar substrates.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 23(35): 355303, 2012 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22895113

RESUMO

Quantum lithography (QL) is a revolutionary approach to significantly increase the throughput and lower the cost of electron beam lithography in writing large-area masks with nanoscale features. A major challenge in QL is that its principle can be readily applied to positive- but not negative-tone QL. In fact, negative-tone QL, which is as indispensable as positive-tone QL in practical usage, has not been achieved. Here we propose a new method to overcome the obstacle, and report the first experimental demonstration of negative-tone QL. The new method uses a new type of nanoimprinted blank with the nanoscale tiles made of an aluminum/chromium bi-layer of metals, and a novel electrochemical process that removes only non-tagged quantized tiles of the new blank while keeping tagged ones. The demonstrated negative-tone QL has a 200 nm pitch and 30 nm gap and can be further scaled down to even smaller pitch sizes.

14.
Nanotechnology ; 23(22): 225301, 2012 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22571971

RESUMO

Using a new nanoplasmonic architecture and an optimized spacer, we observed the following: (a) the average fluorescence of an infrared dye (indocyanine green) is enhanced by 2970 fold uniformly (variation < 11%) over a large sample area and over a wide range of dye concentrations (380 to 380,000 molecule µm(-2)), laser excitation powers and laser beam sizes; and (b) for a single molecule placed at a 'hot spot', the fluorescence enhancement is 4.5 × 10(6) fold. The giant and uniform enhancements (orders of magnitude higher than before), plus easy and inexpensive large area fabrication ( > 4″ wafers), should open up wide applications.

15.
Opt Express ; 19(21): 21098-108, 2011 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21997118

RESUMO

We observed that when subwavelength-sized holes in an optically opaque metal film are completely covered by opaque metal disks larger than the holes, the light transmission through the holes is not reduced, but rather enhanced. Particularly we report (i) the observation of light transmission through the holes blocked by the metal disks up to 70% larger than the unblocked holes; (ii) the observation of tuning the light transmission by varying the coupling strength between the blocking disks and the hole array, or by changing the size of the disks and holes; (iii) the observation and simulation that the metal disk blocker can improve light coupling from free space to a subwavelength hole; and (iv) the simulation that shows the light transmission through subwavelength holes can be enhanced, even though the gap between the disk and the metal film is partially connected with a metal. We believe these finding should have broad and significant impacts and applications to optical systems in many fields.


Assuntos
Metais/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Dispositivos Ópticos , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Refratometria , Espalhamento de Radiação , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
16.
Nanotechnology ; 22(44): 445301, 2011 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21975519

RESUMO

Nano-graphene ribbons are promising in many electronic applications, as their bandgaps can be opened by reducing the widths, e.g. below 20 nm. However, a high-throughput method to pattern large-area nano-graphene features is still not available. Here we report a fabrication method of sub-20 nm ribbons on graphite stamps by nanoimprint lithography and a transfer-printing of the graphene ribbons to a Si wafer using electrostatic force assisted bonding. These methods provide a path for fast and high-throughput nano-graphene device production.

17.
Opt Express ; 19(5): 3925-36, 2011 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21369218

RESUMO

We propose and demonstrate a new SERS substrate architecture that couples a dense three-dimensional (3-D) cavity nanoantenna array, through nano-gaps, with dense plasmonic nanodots; and a new nanofabrication that combines nanoimprint, guided self-assembly and self-alignment and has fabricated the architecture precisely, simply, inexpensively and over large area (4-inch wafer). We experimentally achieved not only high area-average SERS enhancement (1.2×109) but also excellent uniformity (22.4% variation) at the same time over the entire large-area sample by measuring 90 points with a regular mapping distance. The best uniformity achieved is 15% variation over 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm area at slightly lower enhancement factor and is independent of the excitation laser probe size, which had an area varying from ~1 to 10,000 µm2.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Pontos Quânticos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Small ; 6(11): 1242-7, 2010 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20449853

RESUMO

Typically, nanopatterning on plastic substrates has poor fidelity, poor adhesion, and low yield. Here the proposal of and the first experiment using a new fabrication method that overcomes the above obstacles and has achieved arrays of 60-nm-diameter, perfectly round metal dots over a large area on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with high fidelity and high yield is reported. This new method is based on the use of a thin hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) layer on top of PET, nanoimprint lithography, and self-perfection by liquefaction (SPEL). The HSQ layer offers excellent thermal protection to the PET substrate during SPEL, as well as good surface adhesion and etching resistance. Nanoimprinting plus a lift off created a large-area array of Cr squares (100 nm x 130 nm) on HSQ and SPEL changed each Cr square into a perfectly round Cr dot with a diameter of 60 nm, reducing the Cr footprint area by 78%. Compared to bare PET, the use of HSQ also reduced the variation in the diameter of the Cr dots from 11.3 nm (standard deviation) to 1.7 nm, an improvement of over 660%. This new technology can be scaled to much larger areas (including roll-to-roll web processing) and thus potentially has applications in various fields.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Cristalização/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Opt Express ; 18(2): 931-7, 2010 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20173915

RESUMO

We designed, fabricated and demonstrated a solar-blind deep-UV pass filter, that has a measured optical performance of a 27% transmission peak at 290 nm, a pass-band width of 100 nm (from 250 to 350 nm), and a 20dB rejection ratio between deep-UV wavelength and visible wavelength. The filter consists of an aluminum nano-grid, which was made by coating 20 nm Al on a SiO(2) square grid with 190 nm pitch, 30 nm linewidth and 250 nm depth. The performances agree with a rigorous coupled wave analysis. The wavelength for the peak transmission and the pass-bandwidth can be tuned through adjusting the metal nano-grid dimensions. The filter was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography, hence is large area and low cost. Combining with Si photodetectors, the filter offers simple yet effective and low cost solar-blind deep-UV detection at either a single device or large-area complex integrated imaging array level.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Filtração/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Dispositivos Ópticos , Refratometria/instrumentação , Energia Solar , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Fotografação/métodos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Nanotechnology ; 20(46): 465305, 2009 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19847024

RESUMO

We proposed and demonstrated a new approach to pressed self-perfection by liquefaction (P-SPEL), where a layer of SiO2 is used as a stopper on one sidewall of gratings, to self-limit the final trench width in P-SPEL to a preset stopper layer thickness, allowing a precise control of the final trench width without the need to control any pressing parameters such as pressure, temperature and the gap between the pressing plate and the substrate. We achieved 20 nm wide trenches from a 90 nm original width, reducing the original trench by 450%. We also observed improvement in the trench width uniformity. Using the fabricated resist trenches as templates, 20 nm metal lines were achieved by lift-off.

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