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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (UniVATS) is widely used as a minimally invasive thoracic operation. The goal of our study was to analyse the effect of long-term experience with the UniVATS lobectomy on the learning curve. METHODS: The learning curves were quantitatively evaluated by the unadjusted cumulative sum, and they were segmented using joinpoint linear regression analysis. The variables were compared between subgroups using trend analysis, and linear regression analysis was applied to correlate clinical characteristics at different stages of the learning curve with the duration of the operation. RESULTS: The learning curve for the UniVATS lobectomy can be divided into 3 phases of proficiency at ∼200-300 procedures, with a fourth phase as the number of procedures increases. The 1st-52nd, 52nd-156th, 156th-244th and 244th-538th procedures comprised the preliminary learning stage, preliminary proficiency stage, proficiency stage and advanced proficiency stage, respectively. Surgical outcomes and their variability between stages improved with increasing case numbers, with the most significant addition of an auxiliary operating port and conversions. In multivariable analysis, as stages progressed, influences other than surgical experience increased the operative time, with male and extensive pleural adhesions in the preliminary proficiency stage; male and incomplete pulmonary fissures in the proficiency stage; and male, extensive pleural adhesions and incomplete pulmonary fissures in the advanced proficiency stage. CONCLUSIONS: As the number of procedures increases, there may be 4 different proficiency stages in the UniVATS lobectomy learning curve. The surgeon enters the fourth stage at approximately the 244th procedure. Moreover, at stage 4, the perioperative indicators tend to stabilize, and influences other than surgical experience become more significant.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034424

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COF) possess a robust and porous crystalline structure, making them an appealing candidate for energy storage. Herein, we report an exfoliated polyimide COF composite (P-COF@SWCNT) prepared by an in-situ condensation of anhydide and amine on the single-walled carbon nanotubes as advanced anode for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs). Numerous active sites exposed on the exfoliated frameworks and the various open pathways promote the highly efficient ion diffusion in the P-COF@SWCNT while preventing irreversible dissolution in the electrolyte. During the charging/discharging process, K + is engaged in the carbonyls of imide group and naphthalene rings through the enolization and π-K + effect, which is demonstrated by the DFT calculation and XPS, ex-situ FTIR, Raman. As a result, the prepared P-COF@SWCNT anode enables incredibly high reversible specific capacity of 438 mA h g -1 at 0.05 A g -1 and extended stability. The structural advantage of P-COF@SWCNT enables more insights into the design and versatility of COF as an electrode.

3.
JAMA Pediatr ; : e214375, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747972

RESUMO

Importance: A rapid nutritional transition has caused greater childhood obesity prevalence in many countries, but the repertoire of effective preventive interventions remains limited. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a novel multifaceted intervention for obesity prevention in primary school children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted during a single school year (from September 11, 2018, to June 30, 2019) across 3 socioeconomically distinct regions in China according to a prespecified trial protocol. Twenty-four schools were randomly allocated (1:1) to the intervention or the control group, with 1392 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years participating. Data from the intent-to-treat population were analyzed from October 1 to December 31, 2019. Interventions: A multifaceted intervention targeted both children (promoting healthy diet and physical activity) and their environment (engaging schools and families to support children's behavioral changes). The intervention was novel in its strengthening of family involvement with the assistance of a smartphone app. The control schools engaged in their usual practices. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters) from baseline to the end of the trial. Secondary outcomes included changes in adiposity outcomes (eg, BMI z score, prevalence of obesity), blood pressure, physical activity and dietary behaviors, obesity-related knowledge, and physical fitness. Generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. Results: Among the 1392 participants (mean [SD] age, 9.6 [0.4] years; 717 boys [51.5%]; mean [SD] BMI, 18.6 [3.7]), 1362 (97.8%) with follow-up data were included in the analyses. From baseline to the end of the trial, the mean BMI decreased in the intervention group, whereas it increased in the control group; the mean between-group difference in BMI change was -0.46 (95% CI, -0.67 to -0.25; P < .001), which showed no evidence of difference across different regions, sexes, maternal education levels, and primary caregivers (parents vs nonparents). The prevalence of obesity decreased by 27.0% of the baseline figure (a relative decrease) in the intervention group, compared with 5.6% in the control group. The intervention also improved other adiposity outcomes, dietary, sedentary, and physical activity behaviors, and obesity-related knowledge, but it did not change moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, physical fitness, or blood pressure. No adverse events were observed during the intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: The multifaceted intervention effectively reduced the mean BMI and obesity prevalence in primary school children across socioeconomically distinct regions in China, suggesting its potential for national scaling. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03665857.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767294

RESUMO

The exploitation of highly efficient carbon dioxide reduction (CO2RR) electrocatalyst for methane (CH4) electrosynthesis has attracted great attention for the intermittent renewable electricity storage, but remain challenges. Here, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-ligated Copper single atom site (Cu SAS) embedded in metal organic framework is reported (2Bn-Cu@UiO-67), which can achieve an outstanding Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 81% for the CO2 reduction to CH4 at -1.5 V vs RHE with a current density of 420 mA cm-2. Notably, the CH4 FE of our catalyst remains above 70% within a wide potential range, and achieves an unprecedented turnover frequency (TOF) of 16.3 s-1, which almost represents the best molecular catalyst for CH4 electrosynthesis to date. The experimental results show that the σ donation of NHC enriches the surface electron density of Cu SAS and promotes the preferential adsorption of CHO* intermediates. Meanwhile, the porosity of the catalyst facilitates the diffusion of CO2 to 2Bn-Cu, thereby significantly increasing the availability of each catalytic center. This NHC-ligated Cu SAS catalyst design has great advantages in CH4 electrosynthesis and provides ideas for the commercial production of CH4.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(51): 26837-26846, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636126

RESUMO

Although ether-based electrolytes have been extensively applied in anode evaluation of batteries, anodic instability arising from solvent oxidability is always a tremendous obstacle to matching with high-voltage cathodes. Herein, by rational design for solvation configuration, the fully coordinated ether-based electrolyte with strong resistance against oxidation is reported, which remains anodically stable with high-voltage Na3 V2 (PO4 )2 O2 F (NVPF) cathode under 4.5 V (versus Na+ /Na) protected by an effective interphase. The assembled graphite//NVPF full cells display superior rate performance and unprecedented cycling stability. Beyond that, the constructed full cells coupling the high-voltage NVPF cathode with hard carbon anode exhibit outstanding electrochemical performances in terms of high average output voltage up to 3.72 V, long-term cycle life (such as 95 % capacity retention after 700 cycles) and high energy density (247 Wh kg-1 ). In short, the optimized ether-based electrolyte enriches systematic options, the ability to maintain oxidative stability and compatibility with various anodes, exhibiting attractive prospects for application.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(37): 15453-15461, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506145

RESUMO

Ligands are the most commonly used means to control the regioselectivity of organic reactions. It is very important to develop new regioselective control methods for organic synthesis. In this study, we designed and synthesized a single-atomic-site catalyst (SAC), namely, Cu1-TiC, with strong electronic metal-support interaction (EMSI) effects by studying various reaction mechanisms. π cloud back-donation to the alkyne on the metal catalytic intermediate was enhanced during the reaction by using transient electron-rich characteristics. In this way, the reaction achieved highly linear-E-type regioselective conversion of electronically unbiased alkynes and completely avoided the formation of branched isomers (ln:br >100:1, TON up to 612, 3 times higher than previously recorded). The structural elements of the SACs were designed following the requirements of the synthesis mechanism. Every element in the catalyst played an important role in the synthesis mechanism. This demonstrated that the EMSI, which is normally thought to be responsible for the improvement in catalytic efficiency and durability in heterogeneous catalysis, now first shows exciting potential for regulating the regioselectivity in homogeneous catalysis.

7.
Small ; 17(32): e2102010, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216100

RESUMO

There are still many problems that hinder the development of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), including poor rate performance, short-term cycle lifespan, and inferior low-temperature property. Herein, excellent Na-storage performance in fluorophosphate (Na3 V2 (PO4 )2 F3 ) cathode is achieved by lattice regulation based on charge balance theory. Lattice regulation of aliovalent Mn2+ for V3+ increases both electronic conductivity and Na+ -migration kinetics. Because of the maintaining of electrical neutrality in the material, aliovalent Mn2+ -introduced leads to the coexistence of V3+ and V4+ from charge balance theory. It decreases the particle size and improves the structural stability, suppressing the large lattice distortion during cathode reaction processes. These multiple effects enhance the specific capacity (123.8 mAh g-1 ), outstanding high-rate (68% capacity retention at 20 C), ultralong cycle (only 0.018% capacity attenuation per cycle over 1000 cycles at 1 C) and low-temperature (96.5% capacity retention after 400 cycles at -25 °C) performances of Mn2+ -induced Na3 V1.98 Mn0.02 (PO4 )2 F3 when used as cathode in SIBs. Importantly, a feasible sodium-ion full battery is assembled, achieving outstanding rate capability and cycle stability. The strategy of aliovalent ion-induced lattice regulation constructs cathode materials with superior performances, which is available to improve other electrode materials for energy storage systems.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(35): 19085-19091, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155750

RESUMO

It is still of great difficulty to develop the non-platinum catalyst with high catalytic efficiency towards hydrogen evolution reaction via the strategies till now. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the new methods of catalyst designing. Here, we put forward the catalyst designed by the electronic metal-support interaction (EMSI), which is demonstrated to be a reliable strategy to find out the high-efficiency catalyst. We carried out the density functional theory calculation first to design the proper EMSI of the catalyst. We applied the model of M1-M2-X (X=C, N, O) during the calculation. Among the catalysts we chose, the EMSI of Rh1TiC, with the active sites of Rh1-Ti2C2, is found to be the most proper one for HER. The electrochemical experiment further demonstrated the feasibility of the EMSI strategy. The single atomic site catalyst of Rh1-TiC exhibits higher catalytic efficiency than that of state-of-art Pt/C. It achieves a small overpotential of 22 mV and 86 mV at the at the current density of 10 mA cm-2 and 100 mA cm-2 in acid media, with a Tafel slope of 25 mV dec-1 and a mass activity of 54403.9 mA cm-2 mgRh -1 (vs. 192.2 mA cm-2 mgPt -1 of Pt/C). Besides, it also shows appealing advantage in energy saving compared with Pt/C (≈20 % electricity consuming decrease at 2 kA m-2 ) Therefore, we believe that the strategy of regulating EMSI can act as a possible way for achieving the high catalytic efficiency on the next step of SACs.

9.
Biomaterials ; 273: 120788, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933912

RESUMO

Intrinsic immune behaviors of nanomaterials and immune systems promote research on their adjuvanticity and the design of next generation nanovaccine-based immunotherapies. Herein, we report a promising multifunctional nanoadjuvant by exploring the immune-potentiating effects of black phosphorus nanosheets (BPs) in vitro and in vivo. The facile coating of BPs with phenylalanine-lysine-phenylalanine (FKF) tripeptide-modified antigen epitopes (FKF-OVAp@BP) enables the generation of a minimalized nanovaccine by integrating high loading capacity, efficient drug delivery, comprehensive dendritic cell (DC) activation, and biocompatibility for cancer immunotherapy. Systemic immunization elicits potent antitumor cellular immunity and significantly augments checkpoint blockade (CPB) against melanoma in a mouse model. Furthermore, near-infrared (NIR) photothermal effects of BPs create an immune-favorable microenvironment for improved local immunization. This study offers new insight into the integration of immunoactivity and photothermal effects for enhanced cancer immunotherapy by using a nanoadjuvant and thus potentially advances the design and application of multifunctional adjuvant materials for cancer nanotreatment.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Fósforo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fatores Imunológicos , Camundongos
10.
Comput Biol Chem ; 90: 107358, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, the network pharmacological methods were used to predict the target of effective components of compounds in Zisheng Shenqi Decoction (ZSD, or Nourishing Kidney Qi Decoction) in the treatment of gouty arthritis (GA). METHOD: The main effective components and corresponding key targets of herbs in the ZSD were discerned through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis (TCMSP), Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-TCM) database. UniProt database and Swiss Target Prediction (STP) database was used to rectify and unify the target names and supply the target information. The targets related to GA were obtained by using GeneCards database. After we discovered the potential common targets between ZSD and GA, the interaction network diagram of "ZSD-component-GA-target" was constructed by Cytoscape software (Version 3.7.1). Subsequently, the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of ZSD effective components-targets and GA-related targets was constructed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes Database (STRING). Bioconductor package "org.Hs.eg.db" and "cluster profiler" package were installed in R software (Version 3.6.0) which used for Gene Ontology analysis and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis. RESULTS: 146 components and 613 targets of 11 herbal medicines in the ZSD were got from TCMSP database and BATMAN-TCM database. 987 targets of GA were obtained from GeneCards database. After intersected and removed duplications, 132 common targets between ZSD and GA were screened out by Cytoscape software (Version 3.7.1). These common targets derived from 81 effective components of 146 components, such as quercetin, stigmasterol and kaempferol. They were closely related to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti oxidative stress and the principal targets comprised of Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2x7R), Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and IL-1ß. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis by R software (Version 3.6.0) showed that the key target genes had close relationship with oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolic process and leukocyte migration in aspects of biological process, cell components and molecular function. It also indicated that ZSD could decrease inflammatory reaction, alleviate ROS accumulation and attenuate pain by regulating P2 × 7R and NOD like receptor signaling pathway of inflammatory reaction. CONCLUSION: A total of 81 effective components and 132 common target genes between ZSD and GA were screened by network pharmacology. The PPI network, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis suggested that ZSD can exerte anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects on the treatment of GA by reducing decreasing inflammatory reaction, alleviating ROS accumulation, and attenuating pain. The possible molecular mechanism of it mainly involved multiple components, multiple targets and multiple signaling pathways, which provided a comprehensive understanding for further study. In general, the network pharmacological method applied in this study provides an alternative strategy for the mechanism of ZSD in the treatment of GA.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(4): 504-507, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331360

RESUMO

A novel STING agonist, CDGSF, ipsilaterally modified with phosphorothioate and fluorine, was synthesized. The phosphorothioate in CDGSF might be a site for covalent conjugation. Injection of CDGSF generated an immunogenic ("hot") tumor microenvironment to suppress melanoma, more efficiently than dithio CDG. In particular, immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using CDGSF as an adjuvant elicited an exceptionally high antibody titer and a robust T cell response, overcoming the drawbacks of aluminum hydroxide. These results highlighted the therapeutic potential of CDGSF for cancer immunotherapy and the adjuvant potential of the STING agonist in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for the first time.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/síntese química , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , ELISPOT , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/mortalidade , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/síntese química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
12.
Bioconjug Chem ; 31(11): 2499-2503, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147965

RESUMO

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), agonists of stimulator of interferon genes (STING), are promising agents for immunotherapy. However, the application of CDNs has been limited by their instability and low transmembrane efficiency. Here, we introduced a conjugated adjuvant of STING and TLR1/2, Pam3CSK4-CDGSF. Conjugating CDGSF with Pam3CSK4 increased the stability and intracellular delivery. In addition, by synergistically activating the STING and TLR pathways, Pam3CSK4-CDGSF was able to enhance immune activation. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were triggered by Pam3CSK4-CDGSF plus OVA (V4), and tumor growth was significantly inhibited after V4 administration. More importantly, V4 can also boost the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response for cancer cell killing. Thus, the conjugated STING and TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4-CDGSF can serve as a potent adjuvant for vaccine construction to augment antitumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/agonistas , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/agonistas
13.
Chem Rev ; 120(20): 11420-11478, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914967

RESUMO

Personalized cancer vaccines (PCVs) are reinvigorating vaccine strategies in cancer immunotherapy. In contrast to adoptive T-cell therapy and checkpoint blockade, the PCV strategy modulates the innate and adaptive immune systems with broader activation to redeploy antitumor immunity with individualized tumor-specific antigens (neoantigens). Following a sequential scheme of tumor biopsy, mutation analysis, and epitope prediction, the administration of neoantigens with synthetic long peptide (SLP) or mRNA formulations dramatically improves the population and activity of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Despite the promising prospect of PCVs, there is still great potential for optimizing prevaccination procedures and vaccine potency. In particular, the arduous development of tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-based vaccines provides valuable experience and rational principles for augmenting vaccine potency which is expected to advance PCV through the design of adjuvants, delivery systems, and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) reversion since current personalized vaccination simply admixes antigens with adjuvants. Considering the broader application of TAA-based vaccine design, these two strategies complement each other and can lead to both personalized and universal therapeutic methods. Chemical strategies provide vast opportunities for (1) exploring novel adjuvants, including synthetic molecules and materials with optimizable activity, (2) constructing efficient and precise delivery systems to avoid systemic diffusion, improve biosafety, target secondary lymphoid organs, and enhance antigen presentation, and (3) combining bioengineering methods to innovate improvements in conventional vaccination, "smartly" re-educate the TME, and modulate antitumor immunity. As chemical strategies have proven versatility, reliability, and universality in the design of T cell- and B cell-based antitumor vaccines, the union of such numerous chemical methods in vaccine construction is expected to provide new vigor and vitality in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/química , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/imunologia
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(42): 47580-47589, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969641

RESUMO

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are heralded as promising candidates for grid-scale energy storage systems due to their low cost and abundant sodium resources. Excellent rate capacity and outstanding cycling stability are always the goals for SIBs. Up to now, nearly all attention has been focused on the control of morphology and structure of electrode materials, but the influence of binders on their performance is neglected, especially in cathode materials. Herein, using Na3V2(PO4)2O2F (NVPOF) as a cathode material, the influence of four different binders (sodium alginate, SA; carboxymethylcellulose sodium, CMC; poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF; and poly(acrylic latex), LA133) on its electrochemical performance is studied. As a result, when using SA as the binder, the electrochemical performance of the NVPOF electrode is improved significantly, which is mainly because of the high water solubility, rich carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, and high adhesive and cohesive properties of the SA binder, leading to the uniform distribution of active materials NVPOF and carbon black in electrodes, good integrity, low polarization, and superior kinetic properties of the NVPOF electrodes, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. More importantly, when coupled with a hard carbon anode, the fabricated sodium-ion full cells also exhibit excellent rate performance, thus providing a preview of their practical application. This work shows that the battery performance can be improved by matching suitable binder systems, which is believed to have great importance for the further optimization of the electrochemical performance of SIBs.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824190

RESUMO

Misperception of nutritional status is common and hinders the progress of childhood obesity prevention. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a smartphone-assisted intervention to improve student and parental perception of students' nutritional status (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese). We conducted a parallel-group controlled trial with a non-randomized design in three junior middle schools of Beijing, China in 2019. One school was allocated to the intervention group and two schools to the control group. A total of 573 students (aged 13.1 ± 0.4 years) participated in the trial. The 3-month intervention included three components: health education sessions for students and parents, regular monitoring of students' weight, and the provision of feedback via a smartphone application. Schools in the control group continued their usual practice. Primary outcomes included the student and parental accurate perception of students' nutritional status. The percentage of students' accurate perception of their own nutritional status in the intervention group increased from 49.0% to 59.2% from baseline to three months, whereas it decreased from 64.1% to 58.1% in the control group; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) between the two groups was 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 2.59). The intervention did not significantly improve parental perception of students' nutritional status (p > 0.05). The study findings provided a brief approach for improving perception of nutritional status among middle school students.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Smartphone , Adolescente , Pequim , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
16.
Chem Asian J ; 15(18): 2803-2814, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543733

RESUMO

As the power supply of the prosperous new energy products, advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are widely applied to portable energy equipment and large-scale energy storage systems. To broaden the applicable range, considerable endeavours have been devoted towards improving the energy and power density of LIBs. However, the side reaction caused by the close contact between the electrode (particularly the cathode) and the electrolyte leads to capacity decay and structural degradation, which is a tricky problem to be solved. In order to overcome this obstacle, the researchers focused their attention on electrolyte additives. By adding additives to the electrolyte, the construction of a stable cathode-electrolyte interphase (CEI) between the cathode and the electrolyte has been proven to competently elevate the overall electrochemical performance of LIBs. However, how to choose electrolyte additives that match different cathode systems ideally to achieve stable CEI layer construction and high-performance LIBs is still in the stage of repeated experiments and exploration. This article specifically introduces the working mechanism of diverse electrolyte additives for forming a stable CEI layer and summarizes the latest research progress in the application of electrolyte additives for LIBs with diverse cathode materials. Finally, we tentatively set forth recommendations on the screening and customization of ideal additives required for the construction of robust CEI layer in LIBs. We believe this minireview will have a certain reference value for the design and construction of stable CEI layer to realize desirable performance of LIBs.

17.
Chemistry ; 26(35): 7823-7830, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196795

RESUMO

Phosphate cathode materials are practical for use in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their high stability and long-term cycle life. In this work, the temperature-dependent properties of the phosphate cathode Na3 V2 (PO4 )2 O2 F (NVPOF) are studied in a wide temperature range from -25 to 55 °C. Upon cycling at general temperature (above 0 °C), the NVPOF cathode retains an excellent charge/discharge performance, and the rate capability is noteworthy, indicating that NVPOF is a competitive candidate as a temperature-adaptive cathode for SIBs. Upon decreasing the temperature below 0 °C, the cell performance deteriorates, which may be caused by the electrolyte and Na electrode, based on the study of ionic conductivity and electrode kinetics. This work proposes a new breakthrough point for the development of SIBs with high performance over a wide temperature range for advanced power systems.

18.
Chemistry ; 26(16): 3499-3503, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011042

RESUMO

It has been reported that many molecules could inhibit the aggregation of Aß (amyloid-ß) through suppressing either primary nucleation, secondary nucleation, or elongation processes. In order to suppress multiple pathways of Aß aggregation, we screened 23 small molecules and found two types of inhibitors with different inhibiting mechanisms based on chemical kinetics analysis. Trp-glucose conjugates (AS2) could bind with fibril ends while natural products (D3 and D4) could associate with monomers. A cocktail of these two kinds of molecules achieved co-inhibition of various fibrillar species and avoid unwanted interference.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Cinética
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(7): 2465-2472, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-ß-farnesene (EßF), is a natural product secreted from the aphid cornicle as a signal to warn companions of danger. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are the vital targets in insect signal transduction pathways. To improve bioactivity of EßF as more economic and stable aphid control agents, EßF derivatives containing an active substructure, salicylic acid moiety, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their bioactivities in a structure-function study under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: EßF derivatives, (E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl-2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoate and (E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate showed outstanding aphid-repellent activity at a dose of 5 µg against Acyrthosiphon pisum (repellency proportions of 67.3% and 71.2%, respectively) and Myzus persicae (repellency proportions of 80.0% and 74.4%, respectively) in laboratory. EßF and most of its derivatives bound strongly to ApisOBP9 with a higher affinity than those of the reported potential targets AphisOBP3 and ApisOBP7. The binding affinities to these three ApisOBPs were generally consistent with the in vivo aphid-repellent activity. A molecular docking study suggested that the hydrophobic effect was crucial for the interactions between the derivatives and the OBPs. CONCLUSION: New EßF derivatives containing salicylic acid moiety and their repellent activity, binding mechanism with three potential OBPs are presented. A new OBP, ApisOBP9, was characterized as a potential EßF and EßF derivatives binding protein for the first time. The hydrophobic nature of these analogues is responsible for their activity. Two analogues 3b and 3e with outstanding aphid-repellent activity could be new leads for aphid control agents.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Agroquímicos , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Feromônios , Ácido Salicílico , Sesquiterpenos
20.
Mol Pharm ; 17(2): 417-425, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841011

RESUMO

Constructing an effective therapeutic cancer vaccine is very attractive and promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, the poor immunogenicity of tumor antigens and suppression of the immune system in the tumor microenvironment are two major obstacles for developing effective cancer vaccines. Invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells), which are essential bridges between the innate and adaptive immune systems, can be rapidly activated by their agonists and, consequently, evoke whole immune systems. Herein, we conjugated a potent agonist of the iNKT cell, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), with the tumor-associated MUC1 glycopeptide antigens as novel self-adjuvanting cancer vaccines through click chemistry. Immunological studies revealed that the mouse immune system was potently evoked and that high levels of tumor-specific IgG antibodies were elicited by vaccine conjugates without an external adjuvant. The produced antibodies could specifically recognize and bind to antigen-expressing cancer cells and, subsequently, induce cytotoxicity through complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Thus, the insertion of α-GalCer significantly improved the immunogenicity of the MUC1 glycopeptide and induced strong antigen-specific antitumor responses, indicating that α-GalCer is an effective built-in adjuvant for constructing potent chemical synthetic antitumor vaccines.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Galactosilceramidas/administração & dosagem , Imunização/métodos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Química Click/métodos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Galactosilceramidas/química , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucina-1/química , Mucina-1/genética , Transfecção , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
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