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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1156, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major cause of bacterial meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in children. Inappropriate choice of antibiotic can have important adverse consequences for both the individual and the community. Here, we focused on penicillin/cefotaxime non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae and evaluated appropriateness of targeted antibiotic therapy for children with IPD (invasive pneumococcal diseases) in China. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 14 hospitals from 13 provinces in China. Antibiotics prescription, clinical features and resistance patterns of IPD cases from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected. Appropriateness of targeted antibiotics therapy was assessed. RESULTS: 806 IPD cases were collected. The non-susceptibility rates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and cefotaxime were 40.9% and 20.7% respectively in 492 non-meningitis cases, whereas those were 73.2% and 43.0% respectively in 314 meningitis cases. Carbapenems were used in 21.3% of non-meningitis cases and 42.0% of meningitis cases for targeted therapy. For 390 non-meningitis cases with isolates susceptible to cefotaxime, vancomycin and linezolid were used in 17.9% and 8.7% of cases respectively for targeted therapy. For 179 meningitis cases with isolates susceptible to cefotaxime, vancomycin and linezolid were prescribed in 55.3% and 15.6% of cases respectively. Overall, inappropriate targeted therapies were identified in 361 (44.8%) of 806 IPD cases, including 232 (28.8%) cases with inappropriate use of carbapenems, 169 (21.0%) cases with inappropriate use of vancomycin and 62 (7.7%) cases with inappropriate use of linezolid. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic regimens for IPD definite therapy were often excessive with extensive prescription of carbapenems, vancomycin or linezolid in China. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should be implemented to improve antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812446

RESUMO

A metal-free C(sp3)-H phosphorylation of saturated aza-heterocycles via the merger of organic photoredox and Brønsted acid catalyses was established under mild conditions. This protocol provided straightforward and economic access to a variety of valuable α-phosphoryl cyclic amines by using commercially available diarylphosphine oxide reagents. In addition, the D-A fluorescent molecule DCQ was used for the first time as a photocatalyst and exhibited an excellent photoredox catalytic efficiency in this transformation. A series of mechanistic experiments and DFT calculations demonstrated that this transformation underwent a sequential visible light photoredox catalytic oxidation/nucleophilic addition process.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 447, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tapeworm infections are among the tropical neglected parasitic diseases endemically occurring in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims at estimating the pooled prevalence and distribution of Taenia and Echinococcus infections in humans and animals from reports from Ethiopia. METHODS: The systematic search was conducted in four bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Africa Journal Online and Science Direct). Additional data were retrieved from grey literature. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were considered for the systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was conducted using MetaXL add-in for Microsoft Excel. Heterogeneity and inconsistency were evaluated using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics, respectively. RESULTS: The study provides a country-based database of Taenia and Echinococcus infections consisting of 311 datasets from 201 publications which were mostly abattoir surveys; of these, 251 datasets were subjected to meta-analysis. Most of the studies were from Oromia (32.8%) followed by Amhara (22.9%) regional states. The pooled prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in intermediate and accidental hosts was calculated as 22% (95% CI 18-26%) and high study variability (Q = 24,420.65, I2 = 100%, P = 0.000). Moreover, a pooled prevalence of Echinococcus infections in final hosts was calculated as 33% (95% CI 20-48%) and low study variability (Q = 17.24, I2 = 65%, P = 0.001). Similarly, study subjects (human, cattle, sheep, goat and wolf) were infected by Taenia spp. with pooled prevalence of 3% (95% CI 2-4%) and moderate study variability (Q = 279.07, I2 = 89, P = 0.000). Meanwhile, the pooled prevalence of Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis and T. multiceps infections in intermediate hosts were calculated as 38%, 14% and 5%, respectively. The random effect meta-analysis of bovine cysticercosis showed a pooled prevalence of 7% (95% CI 5-9%) and high study variability was of (Q = 4458.76; I2 = 99%, P = 0.000). Significant differences in prevalence of Taenia and Echinococcus infections between study sites or different livestock origins have been reported. CONCLUSION: The study evidenced a comprehensive dataset on the prevalence and distribution of Taenia and Echinococcus infections at different interfaces by regions and hosts and hence can aid in the design of more effective control strategies.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 677045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291101

RESUMO

Cerebral coenurosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia multiceps (Coenurus cerebralis), is a fatal central nervous system disease in sheep and other herbivores and occasionally humans. Comparative transcriptomic profiles of the developmental stages of the parasite remain unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to determine the transcriptome profiles of different stages of the life cycle of T. multiceps, including Oncosphere, Coenurus cerebralis (Pro with Cyst), and Adult (Adu), as well as scolex-neck proglottids (Snp), immature-mature proglottids (Imp), and gravid proglottids (Grp) of the adult stage. A total of 42.6 Gb (average 6.1 Gb) Illumina pair-end reads with a 125-bp read length were generated for seven samples. The total number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the various life stages ranged from 2,577 to 3,879; however, for the tissues of the adult worm, the range was from 1,229 to 1,939. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the DEGs mainly participated in cellular and metabolic processes, binding and catalytic activity, genetic information processing, and environmental information processing. In addition, a large number of genes related to development and parasite-host interaction were identified. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the levels of 28 selected DEGs were consistent with those determined using RNA sequencing. The present study provides insights into the mechanisms of the development and parasitic life of T. multiceps.

5.
Orthop Surg ; 13(4): 1149-1158, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effects of cervical decompression first, lumbar decompression first, or simultaneous decompression of both lesions in the treatment of tandem spinal stenosis (TSS). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis. From January 2013 to December 2018, 51 TSS patients underwent our surgery and postoperative investigation. Among the 51 subjects, 27 females and 24 males, aged 49-77 years with an average age of 66.3 ± 6.8, were selected. According to the different operation sequences, all patients were divided into three groups. In simultaneous operation group, five patients underwent cervical and lumbar vertebrae surgery at the same time. In first cervical surgery group, 28 patients underwent cervical vertebra surgery first, followed by lumbar spine surgery after a period of recovery. And in first lumbar surgery group, 18 patients underwent lumbar vertebrae surgery first. The choice for neck surgery is posterior cervical single-door vertebroplasty, the surgery of lumber is plate excision and decompression needle-rod system internal fixation. The outcome measures are visual analogue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopaedic Association cervical (JOA-C) and lumbar (JOA-L) scores, which were assessed at 3 months and 1 year after the operation by telephone interview. In addition, operative time, estimated blood loss, and hospital stay were also recorded. RESULTS: All the patients in the study had surgery performed successfully by the same group of orthopaedic surgeons. The preoperative VAS scores of simultaneous operation group, first cervical surgery group, and first lumbar surgery group were 8.00 ± 1.00, 8.36 ± 0.68, and 8.17 ± 0.71 (P > 0.05). The preoperative JOA-C scores were 7.00 ± 2.35, 6.54 ± 1.53, and 7.83 ± 1.04 (P < 0.05). And the preoperative JOA-L scores were 7.20 ± 2.17, 4.64 ± 2.36, and 5.78 ± 1.22 respectively (P < 0.05). During the final 1-year follow-up, the JOA-C improvement rates of simultaneous operation group, first cervical surgery group, and first lumbar surgery group were 85.68% ± 5.44%, 84.27% ± 5.02%, and 83.34% ± 10.25%, respectively (P > 0.05), and the JOA-L improvement rates were 80.04% ± 3.35%, 81.65% ± 3.74%, and 80.21% ± 4.76% (P > 0.05). The difference among them was not statistically significant. In addition, operation time (OP), blood loss (BL), and hospital stay (HS) in the simultaneous operation group were 245.00 ± 5.00 min, 480.00 ± 27.39 mL, and 16.60 ± 0.55 days, respectively. While those parameters in the first cervical surgery group were 342.50 ± 18.18 min, 528.21 ± 43.97 mL, and 22.75 ± 2.15 days, and in the first lumbar surgery group they were 346.11 ± 24.77 min, 519.44 ± 43.99 mL, and 22.89 ± 1.64 days. The average blood loss in simultaneous operation group was less (P > 0.05); meanwhile, the operation time and hospital stay time were significantly shorter in the simultaneous operation group than in the first cervical surgery group and first lumbar surgery group (P < 0.05). Only one case of fat liquefaction occurred in first cervical surgery group, which healed spontaneously after a regular change of dressing for 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: Under the condition of ensuring the surgical effect, the choice of staged surgery or concurrent surgery according to the patients' own symptoms of cervical and lumbar symptoms could both obtain satisfactory results, and the damage of simultaneous surgery was less than that of staged surgery.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991179

RESUMO

Taenia hydatigena is a widespread tapeworm of canids (primarily dogs) that causes cysticercosis in ruminants (domestic and wild) and manifests as depression and weakness secondary to various hepatic damages and sometimes mortality in young animals, although, commonly encountered cases are asymptomatic. In most taeniids, genetic polymorphism has been found to impact host preferences, distribution, disease epidemiology and management. Recently, we identified two main mitochondrial lineages of T. hydatigena in China, and here, we examined the mitochondrial nad4-nad5 genes of T. hydatigena from China, Nigeria, Pakistan and Sudan to assess the intraspecies variation of isolates from these countries and also the distribution of the distinct mitochondrial groups. In addition to China, haplogroup B variant was found in Pakistan, while haplogroup A demonstrated a widespread distribution. We then designed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay using XmiI (AccI) and RsaI (AfaI) restriction enzymes to differentiate members of both haplogroups. This result provides more molecular evidence supporting the existence of distinct mitochondrial variants of T. hydatigena. The epidemiological significance of these different mitochondrial groups remains to be explored further. The current PCR-RFLP assay offers a useful molecular approach for investigating the genetic population structure of T. hydatigena in enzootic regions and in identifying/discriminating the different mitochondrial groups (haplogroups A and B).

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 647119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833747

RESUMO

The larva of Taeniidae species can infect a wide range of mammals, causing major public health and food safety hazards worldwide. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a biodiversity hotspot, is home to many species of rodents, which act as the critical intermediate hosts of many Taeniidae species. In this study, we identified two new larvae of Taenia spp., named T. caixuepengi and T. tianguangfui, collected from the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and the Qinghai vole (Neodon fuscus), respectively, in QTP, and their mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic trees based on the mitochondrial genome showed that T. caixuepengi has the closest genetic relationship with T. pisiformis, while T. tianguangfui was contained in a monophyletic group with T. crassiceps, T. twitchelli, and T. martis. Biogeographic scenarios analysis based on split time speculated that the speciation of T. caixuepengi (∼5.49 Mya) is due to host switching caused by the evolution of its intermediate host. Although the reason for T. tianguangfui (∼13.11 Mya) speciation is not clear, the analysis suggests that it should be infective to a variety of other rodents following the evolutionary divergence time of its intermediate host and the range of intermediate hosts of its genetically close species. This study confirms the species diversity of Taeniidae in the QTP, and speculates that the uplift of the QTP has not only a profound impact on the biodiversity of plants and animals, but also that of parasites.

8.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531330

RESUMO

Monocular image-based 3-D model retrieval aims to search for relevant 3-D models from a dataset given one RGB image captured in the real world, which can significantly benefit several applications, such as self-service checkout, online shopping, etc. To help advance this promising yet challenging research topic, we built a novel dataset and organized the first international contest for monocular image-based 3-D model retrieval. Moreover, we conduct a thorough analysis of the state-of-the-art methods. Existing methods can be classified into supervised and unsupervised methods. The supervised methods can be analyzed based on several important aspects, such as the strategies of domain adaptation, view fusion, loss function, and similarity measure. The unsupervised methods focus on solving this problem with unlabeled data and domain adaptation. Seven popular metrics are employed to evaluate the performance, and accordingly, we provide a thorough analysis and guidance for future work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first benchmark for monocular image-based 3-D model retrieval, which aims to help related research in multiview feature learning, domain adaptation, and information retrieval.

9.
Parasitology ; 148(3): 311-326, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092662

RESUMO

Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena formerly referred to as Cysticercus tenuicollis is a disease of veterinary importance that constitutes a significant threat to livestock production worldwide, especially in endemic regions due to condemnation of visceral organs and mortality rate of infected young animals. While the genetic diversity among parasites is found to be potentially useful in many areas of research including molecular diagnostics, epidemiology and control, that of T. hydatigena across the globe remains poorly understood. In this study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of adult worms and larval stages of T. hydatigena isolated from dogs, sheep and a wild boar in China showed that the population structure consists of two major haplogroups with very high nucleotide substitutions involving synonymous and non-synonymous changes. Compared with other cestodes such as Echinococcus spp., the genetic variation observed between the haplogroups is sufficient for the assignment of major haplotype or genotype division as both groups showed a total of 166 point-mutation differences between the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences. Preliminary analysis of a nuclear protein-coding gene (pepck) did not reveal any peculiar changes between both groups which suggests that these variants may only differ in their mitochondrial makeup.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Haplótipos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Taenia/metabolismo , Teníase/parasitologia
10.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20(1): 568, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that suppressor of tumorigenicity 7 antisense RNA 1 (ST7-AS1) is an oncogenic long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). However, little is known on its clinical significance, biological functions, or molecular mechanisms in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS: The expression of ST7-AS1 and miR-181b-5p were examined by qRT-PCR. The correlations between ST7-AS1 level and different clinicopathological features were analysed. In vitro, LUAD cells were examined for cell viability, migration and invasion by MTT, wound healing and Transwell assay, respectively. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers were detected by Western blot. The regulations between ST7-AS1, miR-181b-5p, and KPNA4 were examined by luciferase assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pulldown. Both gain- and loss-of-function strategies were used to assess the importance of different signalling molecules in malignant phenotypes of LUAD cells. The in vivo effect was analysed using the xenograft and the experimental metastasis mouse models. RESULTS: ST7-AS1 was upregulated in LUAD tissues or cell lines, correlated with tumours of positive lymph node metastasis or higher TNM stages, and associated with shorter overall survival of LUAD patients. ST7-AS1 essentially maintained the viability, migration, invasion, and EMT of LUAD cells. The oncogenic activities of ST7-AS1 were accomplished by sponging miR-181b-5p and releasing the suppression of the latter on KPNA4. In LUAD tissues, ST7-AS1 level positively correlated with that of KPNA4 and negatively with miR-181b-5p level. In vivo, targeting ST7-AS1 significantly inhibited xenograft growth and metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: ST7-AS1, by regulating miR-181b-5p/KPNA4 axis, promotes the malignancy of LUAD cells. Targeting ST7-AS1 and KPNA4 or up-regulating miR-181b-5p, therefore, may benefit the treatment of LUAD.

11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 590, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic or alveolar echinococcosis caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus spp. is a very severe zoonotic helminth infection. Echinococcus shiquicus is a newly discovered species that has only been reported in the Qinghai and Sichuan provinces of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China where, to date, it has only been confirmed in Tibetan foxes and wild small mammal populations of the Tibetan plateau. Information on its genetic and evolutionary diversity is scanty. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of E. shiquicus in plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), a known intermediate host, and to determine the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship of the E. shiquicus population in the Tibet region of China based on mitochondrial DNA. METHODS: Echinococcus shiquicus samples were collected from Damxung and Nyêmo counties (located in Tibet Autonomous Region, China). The mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene sequences were analyzed, and the genetic diversity and epidemiology of E. shiquicus in the region were discussed based on the results. RESULTS: The prevalence of E. shiquicus in pikas in Damxung and Nyêmo counties was 3.95% (6/152) and 6.98% (9/129), respectively. In combination with previous public sequence data, the haplotype analysis revealed 12 haplotypes (H) characterized by two distinct clusters (I and II), and a sequence distance of 99.1-99.9% from the reference haplotype (H1). The diversity and neutrality indices for the entire E. shiquicus populations were: haplotype diversity (Hd) ± standard deviation (SD) 0.862 ± 0.035; nucleotide diversity (Hd ± SD) 0.0056 ± 0.0003; Tajima's D 0.876 (P > 0.05); and Fu's F 6.000 (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This was the first analysis of the newly discovered E. shiquicus in plateau pikas in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The neutrality indices suggest a deficiency of alleles, indicative of a recent population bottleneck.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/genética , Variação Genética , Lagomorpha/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/classificação , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/parasitologia , Genótipo , Prevalência , Tibet/epidemiologia
12.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 11743-11754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244238

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of ATAS acupuncture (Acupoints-Time-Space Acupuncture) as a non-pharmacological intervention to prevent or relieve chemotherapy-induced fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing taxane chemotherapy. Methods: A pilot study in Kunming center with the aim of evaluating 40 patients randomized to 3 groups: ATAS, sham and non-acupuncture with an unequal randomization of 2:1:1. Participants with stage I-III breast cancer were scheduled to receive adjuvant EC4P4 chemotherapy. Participants in the ATAS and sham acupuncture arms received 20 sessions of acupuncture over 20 weeks, non-acupuncture arm received usual care. Evaluation scales, including VAS-F, MFI-20, HDAS, ISI, and blood samples were collected at four timepoints (T1-T4). mRNA sequencing was performed to detect the mechanism of acupuncture. Results: A total of 581 sessions of acupuncture were performed on patients in the acupuncture group. There was no difference between the three groups in terms of clinical characteristics. Patients randomized to ATAS acupuncture had improved symptoms including fatigue, anxiety and insomnia during the whole process of chemotherapy compared with the other two groups. The VAS-F score of ATAS acupuncture group was decreased compared with non-acupuncture group (P=0.004). The score of MFI-20 in ATAS acupuncture group was kept at low level, while the other two groups' scores kept climbing during chemotherapy (P=0.016; P=0.028, respectively). The mechanism of ATAS acupuncture which reduced fatigue and depression may be related to ADROA1, by regulating cGMP/PKG pathway. Conclusion: This pilot study has demonstrated that ATAS acupuncture can significantly reduce fatigue induced by chemotherapy. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-17,013,652, registered Dec 3, 2017. http://www.chictr.org.cn/. Protocol Version: Version 3.2 dated from 2018/04/20.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072069

RESUMO

Trichinella infection can induce macrophages into the alternatively activated phenotype, which is primarily associated with the development of a polarized Th2 immune response. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory effect of T. spiralis thioredoxin peroxidase-2 (TsTPX2), a protein derived from T. spiralis ES products, in the regulation of Th2 response through direct activation of macrophages. The location of TsTPX2 was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. The immune response in vivo induced by rTsTPX2 was characterized by analyzing the Th2 cytokines and Th1 cytokines in the peripheral blood. The rTsTPX2-activated macrophages (MrTsTPX2) were tested for polarization, their ability to evoke naïve CD4+ T cells, and resistance to the larval infection after adoptive transfer in BALB/c mice. The immunolocalization analysis showed TsTPX2 in cuticles and stichosome of T. spiralis ML. The immunostaining was detected in cuticles and stichosome of T. spiralis Ad3 and ML, as well as in tissue-dwellings around ML after the intestines and muscle tissues of infected mice were incubated with anti-rTsTPX2 antibody. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rTsTPX2 could induce a Th1-suppressing mixed immune response given the increased levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) production along with the decreased levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α). In vitro studies showed that rTsTPX2 could directly drive RAW264.7 and peritoneal macrophages to the M2 phenotype. Moreover, MrTsTPX2 could promote CD4+ T cells polarized into Th2 type in vitro. Adoptive transfer of MrTsTPX2 into mice suppressed Th1 responses by enhancing Th2 responses and exhibited a 44.7% reduction in adult worm burden following challenge with T. spiralis infective larval, suggesting that the TsTPX2 is a potential vaccine candidate against trichinosis. Our study showed that TsTPX2 would be at least one of the molecules to switch macrophages into the M2 phenotype during T. spiralis infection, which provides a new therapeutic approach to various inflammatory disorders like allergies or autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Trichinella spiralis/fisiologia , Triquinelose/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Imunidade Celular , Imunomodulação , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxirredoxinas/genética
14.
Genes Dis ; 7(3): 351-358, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884989

RESUMO

The phenomenon of enhanced invasion and metastasis of residual tumor cells has been observed in an increasing number of patients receiving chemoradiotherapy recently, and tumor metastasis will undoubtedly limit patient prognosis. However, the key mechanism by which chemoradiotherapy affects the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells remains unclear. Studies have shown that chemoradiotherapy may directly act on tumor cells and alter the tumor microenvironment, or induce cell apoptosis and autophagy to promote tumor cell survival and metastasis. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms by which chemoradiotherapy may affect the biological behavior of tumor cells and open up new avenues for reducing tumor recurrence and metastasis after treatment. These insights will improve the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy.

15.
Yi Chuan ; 42(6): 599-612, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694118

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant cancer with high incidence and mortality in the world. Immunotherapy targeting neoantigens can induce durable tumor regression in cancer patients, but is almost limited to personalized precision therapy, due to the individual differences of unique neoantigens. With the discovery of many common oncogenic mutations, and such mutation-associated neoantigens could cover more patients, and hence are valuable in clinical field. However, whether the common neoantigens can be identified in CRC is unknown. Combining the somatic mutations data from 321 CRC patients with a filter standard and 7 predicted algorithms, we screened and obtained 25 HLA-A*1101-restricted common neoantigens with a high binding affinity (IC50<50 nmol/L) and presentation score (>0.90). Besides the positive epitope KRAS_G12V8-16, 11 out of 25 common neoantigens specifically induced in vitro pre- stimulated cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) to secrete interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Moreover, combining cell-sorting technology and single-cell RNA sequencing, the immune repertoire profiles of C1orf170_S418G413-421 and KRAS_G12V8-16-specific CTL were analyzed and validated. Their related T-cell receptor engineered T cell (TCR-T) cells could also recognize the neoantigens and secrete IFN-γ. Hence, we have established a method to screen for common neoantigens with immunogenicity in CRC based on the public somatic mutation library. It can provide essential peptide and TCR information for immunotherapies, such as peptides, dendritic cells (DC) vaccines, TCR-like antibodies, TCR-T, etc., for the CRC and other cancers, which has practical application value in the clinics.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Colorretais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Mutação , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética
16.
Thyroid ; 30(12): 1752-1758, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458748

RESUMO

Background: Some researchers have achieved favorable efficacy in the treatment of primary papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) using microwave ablation (MWA). However, as PTMC is a slowly progressing disease, a long follow-up period is required to confirm treatment efficacy. Our study aim was to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided MWA in PTMC. Methods: In this study, 41 patients with thyroid masses (41 nodules) were diagnosed with PTMC by fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy. They underwent US-guided MWA. Preablation ultrasonic images of the thyroid nodules were collected, and the volumes were measured. The patients had follow-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months in the first year and every 6 months from the second year on, after MWA. The volume reduction rates (VRRs) of the thyroid nodules were analyzed. Results: In total, 40 of 41 nodules were completely ablated by MWA. After 60 months of follow-up, the volume significantly decreased from a median of 55.78 mm3 (quartile: 21.50, 112.20 mm3) to 0 mm3 (0, 0 mm3) (p < 0.001), with a VRR of 99.37% ± 4.02%. Two patients developed hoarseness after ablation; one recovered within 10 minutes, and the hoarseness in the other patient resolved 2 months after the ablation. No recurrence, metastatic cervical lymph nodes, or distal metastasis was found during the follow-up period. Conclusions: In this five-year follow-up, MWA presented favorable efficacy with satisfactory safety for the treatment of PTMC. It should be considered an alternative therapy to surgery and active surveillance for solitary PTMC.

17.
Clin Exp Med ; 20(1): 121-130, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745677

RESUMO

To investigate the expression levels of fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in human osteosarcoma tissues and its possible correlations with clinical pathological characteristics of patients with osteosarcoma, and to explore the potential effects of FAP on progression and development of osteosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was initially performed to detect the expression levels of FAP in 66 tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues. Patients were sequentially divided into two groups based on different expression levels of FAP. The correlations between the expression levels of FAP and the clinical pathological characteristics were investigated, and the role of FAP in proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells was assessed via colony formation, MTT, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. The possible effects of FAP on tumor growth and metastasis were evaluated in vivo. We further attempted to reveal the underlying mechanism of FAP involved in tumor growth through bioinformatics and IHC assays. High expression levels of FAP were noted in human osteosarcoma tissues. It also was unveiled that FAP was significantly associated with the tumor size (P = 0.005*) and clinical stage (P = 0.017*). Our data further confirmed that knockdown of FAP remarkably blocked proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in mice via AKT signaling pathway. The possible role of FAP in progression and development of osteosarcoma could be figured out. Our data may be helpful to develop a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Gelatinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transplante de Neoplasias , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
J Hepatol ; 72(5): 896-908, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The presence of multifocal tumors, developed either from intrahepatic metastasis (IM) or multicentric occurrence (MO), is a distinct feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunogenomic characterization of multifocal HCC is important for understanding immune escape in different lesions and developing immunotherapy. METHODS: We combined whole-exome/transcriptome sequencing, multiplex immunostaining, immunopeptidomes, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of 47 tumors from 15 patients with HCC and multifocal lesions. RESULTS: IM and MO demonstrated distinct clonal architecture, mutational spectrum and genetic susceptibility. The immune microenvironment also displayed spatiotemporal heterogeneity, such as less T cell and more M2 macrophage infiltration in IM and higher expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints in MO. Similar to mutational profiles, shared neoantigens and TCR repertoires among tumors from the same patients were abundant in IM but scarce in MO. Combining neoantigen prediction and immunopeptidomes identified T cell-specific neoepitopes and achieved a high verification rate in vitro. Immunoediting mainly occurred in MO but not IM, due to the relatively low immune infiltration. Loss of heterozygosity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, identified in 17% of multifocal HCC, hampered the ability of major histocompatibility complex to present neoantigens, especially in IM. An integrated analysis of Immunoscore, immunoediting, TCR clonality and HLA loss of heterozygosity in each tumor could stratify patients into 2 groups based on whether they have a high or low risk of recurrence (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Our study comprehensively characterized the genetic structure, neoepitope landscape, T cell profile and immunoediting status that collectively shape tumor evolution and could be used to optimize personalized immunotherapies for multifocal HCC. LAY SUMMARY: Immunogenomic features of multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are important for understanding immune-escape mechanisms and developing more effective immunotherapy. Herein, comprehensive immunogenomic characterization showed that diverse genomic structures within multifocal HCC would leave footprints on the immune landscape. Only a few tumors were under the control of immunosurveillance, while others evaded the immune system through multiple mechanisms that led to poor prognosis. Our study revealed heterogeneous immunogenomic landscapes and immune-constrained tumor evolution, the understanding of which could be used to optimize personalized immunotherapies for multifocal HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 854, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and Dipylidium caninum are four common large and medium-sized tapeworms parasitizing the small intestine of dogs and other canids. These parasites cause serious impact on the health and development of livestock. However, there are, so far, no commercially available molecular diagnostic kits capable of simultaneously detecting all four parasites in dogs. The aim of the study was therefore to develop a multiplex PCR assay that will accurately detect all four cestode infections in one reaction. METHODS: Specific primers for a multiplex PCR were designed based on corresponding mitochondrial genome sequences, and its detection limit was assessed by serial dilutions of the genomic DNAs of tapeworms examined. Furthermore, field samples of dog feces were tested using the developed assay. RESULTS: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that accurately and simultaneously identify four cestode species in one reaction using specific fragment sizes of 592, 385, 283, and 190 bp for T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and D. caninum, respectively. The lowest DNA concentration detected was 1 ng for T. hydatigena, T. multiceps and T. pisiformis, and 0.1 ng for D. caninum in a 25 µl reaction system. This assay offers high potential for the rapid detection of these four tapeworms in host feces simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an efficient tool for the simultaneous detection of T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and D. caninum. The assay will be potentially useful in epidemiological studies, diagnosis, and treatment of these four cestodes infections during prevention and control program.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Cães
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