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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693787

RESUMO

Sex chromosomes are a peculiar constituent of the genome because the evolutionary forces that fix the primary sex-determining gene cause genic degeneration and accumulation of junk DNA in the heterogametic partner. One of the most spectacular phenomena in sex chromosome evolution is the occurrence of neo-Y chromosomes, which lead to X1X2Y sex-determining systems. Such neo-sex chromosomes are critical for understanding the processes of sex chromosome evolution because they rejuvenate their total gene content. We assembled the male and female genomes at the chromosome level of the spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus), which has a cytogenetically recognized neo-Y chromosome. The full assembly and annotation of all three sex chromosomes allowed us to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Contrary to other neo-Y chromosomes, the fusion to X2 is quite ancient, estimated at 48 Mya. Despite its old age and being even older in the X1 homologous region which carries a huge inversion that occurred as early as 55-48 Mya, genetic degeneration of the neo-Y appears to be only moderate. Transcriptomic analysis showed that sex chromosomes harbor 87 genes, which may serve important functions in the testis. The accumulation of such male-beneficial genes, a large inversion on the X1 homologous region and fusion to X2 appear to be the main drivers of neo-Y evolution in the spotted knifejaw. The availability of high-quality assemblies of the neo-Y and both X chromosomes make this fish an ideal model for a better understanding of the variability of sex determination mechanisms and of sex chromosome evolution.

2.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 117, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteopetrosis is a genetic disease characterized by defects in osteoclast formation and function. There were a few cases of subtrochanteric femur fractures treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS) in patients with osteopetrosis, but unfortunately the healing outcome was rather poor. CASE PRESENTATION: We present our experience for treating a patient with intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (IRO) suffering from subtrochanteric femur fracture. In this case, we successfully used dynamic hip screw (DHS) internal fixation through meticulous preoperative planning and postoperative care, as well as application of surgical techniques. The patient displayed stable internal fixation with no limitation of activities during follow-up for 15 months. In addition to this case, a review of previous case reports showed an increasing number of case reports demonstrating that surgical treatment-related complications could be avoided preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. CONCLUSION: DHS for this patient, who suffered from subtrochanteric fractures with osteopetrosis, was successfully implemented. In the light of a comprehensive literature review, preoperative planning, surgical techniques, and postoperative rehabilitation care can significantly reduce the complications.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Osteopetrose , Parafusos Ósseos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Osteopetrose/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Peptides ; 138: 170505, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539872

RESUMO

Neuropeptide Y is known to stimulate food intake in fish. In this study, we investigated tilapia NPY (tNPY) both for its effects on the growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT) in low fish meal and for its thermal stability. Three diets were formulated containing 0, 3 and 10 % fish meal (NF, LF and HF). From these diets, six experimental diets were prepared by spraying either tNPY solution (0.3 µg/g feed) or distilled water (DW) onto the surface of formulated feeds (NF + DW, NF + tNPY, LF + DW, LF + tNPY, HF + DW and HF + tNPY). Tilapia were fed the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Fish in the NF + tNPY, LF + tNPY and HF + tNPY groups showed increasing trends in the weight gain rate and specific growth rate compared to its corresponding control group. The feed coefficient of group HF + tNPY was significantly lower than that of the control group. The growth performance of the LF + tNPY approached that of the HF + DW group. The mRNA levels of npy in NF + tNPY were significantly higher than those in NF + DW. A field experiment in which tNPY was sprayed in feeds by the vacuum spray method with doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.4 µg/g feed was performed for three months, and the FBW of tilapia receiving tNPY at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/g feed was higher than that of the control group although not significantly. The bioactivity of tNPY was confirmed by its ability to reduce cAMP levels and activate the ERK1/2 pathway. These results demonstrated that tNPY could promote tilapia growth with oral administration low fish meal diets.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 203: 106562, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631507

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Optic radiation protection is crucial in the basal temporal approach to the mesial temporal lobe. Clear description of the optic radiation in the basal brain surface is lacking. Our aim is to describe the anatomy of optic radiation in the basal cerebral surface and define safety zone of basal temporal approach avoiding of optic radiation injury. METHODS: Five brain specimens (10 hemispheres) were dissected using Klingler method to observe the course of the optic radiation. Diffusion tensor imaging data of 25 volunteers were used to verify the fiber dissection results. The relationship of the optic radiation to nearby structures were illustrated and measured. RESULTS: The optic radiation bends from the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle to its bottom at a basal turning point of optic radiation (bTPOR). The bTPOR is at the plane crossing the center point of the splenium of corpus callosum. MRI measurements showed no significant difference in the distance from the center of the splenium of corpus callosum and the bTPOR to the occipital pole (59.46 ± 4.338 mm vs 59.54 ± 3.805 mm, p = 0.95). Anterior to bTPOR, no optic radiation fibers were found at the basal brain surface. CONCLUSIONS: The bTPOR was found as a landmark of the optic radiation in the cerebral basal surface. With neuronavigation, the splenium of corpus callosum can be a landmark of the bTPOR. By approaching mesial temporal lesions using the basal temporal approach anterior to bTPOR, optic radiation injury can be prevented.

6.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(1): 115306, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516988

RESUMO

A comparative performance evaluation of the novel Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) and MTB/RIF Xpert (Xpert) for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) diagnosis was performed. The cerebrospinal fluids of suspected TBM patients were collected consecutively and subjected to smear microscopy, culture, Xpert, and Xpert Ultra. In total, 160 patients were recruited. Xpert Ultra produced a higher sensitivity (45%, 34 of 76) than Xpert (28%, 21 of 76; P = 0.001) and culture (18%, 14 of 76; P < 0.001), respectively. Inclusion of Xpert Ultra outcomes increased the percentage of definite TBM case from 36% (27 of 76) to 51% (39 of 76). Both Xpert Ultra and Xpert accurately identified the one rifampicin (RIF)-resistant and the 5 RIF-sensitive cases defined by phenotypic drug sensitivity test. The specificities of all of the culture, Xpert and Xpert Ultra were 100% (45 of 45). Xpert Ultra outperformed both Xpert and culture for TBM diagnosis, which may speed up the appropriate treatment of patients in clinical practice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270435

RESUMO

Atomic oxygen (AO) has an important influence on the performance of solid lubricating materials applied in space. The tribological behaviors of both sputtered WS2 films without and with a dense layer were mainly investigated under the ex situ AO irradiation condition. AO irradiation results in the worse tribological property for the WS2 film without a dense layer. On the contrary, it is surprising that the WS2 film with the dense layer exhibits a lower friction coefficient after irradiation, which is different from the reported results that the solid lubricating films always increased the friction and wear because the surfaces of the films were oxidized by AO. Meanwhile, it is found that the generated W oxides contributes to the partial surface of the wear track becoming smooth because of the shear and slip of crystal planes for WS2 crystals on the surface of the dense layer. Eventually, the lubricating mechanisms of the irradiated WS2 films are also revealed via correlating the friction and wear characteristics of the films.

8.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 9365-9376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061424

RESUMO

Objective: Long-chain noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in a wide range of biological processes, especially the pathogenesis and development of tumors. LncRNA MCM3AP-AS1 has been demonstrated to be involved in the invasion of various tumors including prostate cancer (PCa). However, its functions in PCa have not been fully elucidated. Methods: qRT-PCR was conducted to measure the expression levels of lncRNA MCM3AP-AS1 and miR-543-3p in PCa tissue samples and cell lines. The expression levels of E-cadherin and SLC39A10 proteins were detected by Western blots. CCK-8 test, cell scratch test and trans-well test were used to evaluate the proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of PCa cells, respectively. Annexin V-FITC/PI experiments were carried out to determine the status of apoptosis. Bioinformatics analysis and Luciferase assay were used to explore the relationship between lncRNA MCM3AP-AS1, miR-543-3p and SLC39A10. Results: In PCa tissue samples and cell lines, lncRNA MCM3AP-AS1 was up-regulated while miR-543-3p was down-regulated. Over-expression of MCM3AP-AS1 could promote the proliferation and invasion of PCa cells. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of MCM3AP-AS1 and miR-543-3p was significantly and inversely correlated. We further verified that miR-543-3p inhibitor was able to reverse si-MCM3AP-AS1-mediated inhibitory effects on the PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion through regulating the downstream protein axis SLC39A10/PTEN/Akt. Finally, in vivo experiments indicated that knocking down of MCM3AP-AS1 could largely reduce tumor volumes, and decreased the ratio of Ki67-positive cells and the expression of SLC39A10 in tumor samples. Conclusion: LncRNA MCM3AP-AS1 can promote the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of PCa cells through regulating the miR-543-3p/SLC39A10/PTEN axis, which suggests that lncRNA MCM3AP-AS1 might be a potential target for prostate cancer therapy.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063328

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: A common lenticel disorder which occurs in the peel of 'Xinli No. 7' pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) had not previously been described. Symptoms of this lenticel disorder include enlarging and bulging of the lenticels which results in significant commercial losses. Understanding the physiological basis of lenticel disorder and developing practical methods to control it is crucial for the successful marketing of this pear. RESULTS: The development of this lenticel disorder was found to be closely related to the endogenous ethylene production during storage. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) combined with an ethylene absorbent (EA) treatment was found to significantly reduce the development of the disorder by inhibiting the expression of ethylene related genes, PbACS1, PbACS2 and PbACO. It is proposed that the enlarged lenticels may result from increased lignin accumulation in the peel cells, which is inhibited by this combined postharvest treatment. It was shown that the expression of six lignin related genes decreased following the treatment. The results suggest that PbPAL, Pb4CL and PbCAD could be critical in regulating the development of this lenticel disorder. CONCLUSION: Endogenous ethylene plays a key role in the development of this lenticel disorder in 'Xinli No. 7' pear. The enlarged lenticels which is characteristic of this disorder maybe related to increased lignin accumulation in the peel cells, which were inhibited with 1-MCP combined with an EA treatment. These results provide a practical method for managing the development of lenticel disorder in 'Xinli No. 7' pear and helps clarify the developmental mechanisms of this disorder. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 19421-19439, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040048

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is regarded as a high-risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in AD pathogenesis, is normally activated under acidic conditions and also in TBI. However, both the molecular mechanism underlying AEP activation-mediated TBI-related AD pathologies, and the role of AEP as an AD therapeutic target, still remain unclear. Here, we report that TBI induces hippocampus dependent cognitive deficit and synaptic dysfunction, accompanied with AEP activation, I2PP2A (inhibitor 2 of PP2A, also called SET) mis-translocation from neuronal nucleus to cytoplasm, an obvious increase in AEP interaction with SET, and tau hyperphosphorylation in hippocampus of rats. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), mimicking an acidic condition, also leads to AEP activation, SET mis-translocation, PP2A inhibition, tau hyperphosphorylation, and a decrease in synaptic proteins, all of which are abrogated by AEP inhibitor AENK in primary neurons. Interestingly, AENK restores SET back to the nucleus, mitigates tau pathologies, rescuing TBI-induced cognitive deficit in rats. These findings highlight a novel etiopathogenic mechanism of TBI-related AD, which is initiated by AEP activation, accumulating SET in cytoplasm, and favoring tau pathology and cognitive impairments. Lowering AEP activity by AEP inhibitor would be beneficial to AD patients with TBI.

11.
Med J Aust ; 213(8): 374-379, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota-produced trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, conflicting findings regarding the link between plasma TMAO level and prognosis for patients with heart failure have been reported. We examined the association of plasma TMAO concentration with risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis of prospective clinical studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE) for published prospective studies examining associations between plasma TMAO level and MACEs and all-cause mortality in adults with heart failure. DATA SYNTHESIS: Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for associations between TMAO level and outcomes were estimated in random effects models. In seven eligible studies including a total of 6879 patients (median follow-up, 5.0 years) and adjusted for multiple risk factors, higher plasma TMAO level was associated with greater risks of MACEs (TMAO tertile 3 v tertile 1: HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.44-1.96; per SD increment: HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.18-1.36) and of all-cause mortality (TMAO tertile 3 v tertile 1: HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.17-2.38; per SD increment: HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07-1.48). Higher TMAO level was also associated with greater risk of MACEs after adjusting for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; six studies included); however, the heterogeneity of studies in which risk was adjusted for eGFR was significant (I2  = 76%). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma TMAO level in patients with heart failure is associated with poorer prognoses. This association is only partially mediated by renal dysfunction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilaminas/sangue , Mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/complicações
12.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical effect of small bone-window craniotomy with microscope combined postoperative ICP monitoring, and further explore an appropriate treatment for HICH patients. METHODS: One hundred fifty patients with HICH were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided into 3 groups at random, 50 each group. Patients in 3 groups were treated with conventional craniotomy, small bone-window craniotomy and small bone-window craniotomy combined ICP monitoring respectively. The surgical efficiency, treatment effect and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The intraoperative blood loss and operation time of small window groups were significantly less than that of conventional group, and the hematoma clearance rate in small window groups were significantly higher than in conventional group (P < 0.05). Compared with conventional group, the hospital stays and mannitol dose used were less in small window groups and least in small window combined ICP monitoring group (P < 0.05). The complication rate in small window combined ICP monitoring group was 10%, which was significantly lower than in conventional group (26%, P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found between small window group (18%) compared with the other 2 groups respectively (P > 0.05). The difference of morality rate between 3 groups wasn't significant (P > 0.05). Three treatment significantly increased the Barthel index score, and the improvement of small window combined ICP monitoring group was significantly higher than in other 2 groups respectively (P < 0.05), while the difference between this two groups wasn't significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Small bone-window craniotomy is more efficient and convenient than conventional craniotomy in the treatment of HICH. In the meantime, small bone-window craniotomy simultaneous with ICP monitoring significantly improved clinical effect and treatment outcomes of HICH patients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781031

RESUMO

Red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) is one of the high economic value grouper species, however, the knowledge regarding its growth is limited. In this study, full-length cDNAs of growth hormone (gh) and its receptors (ghr1 and ghr2) were cloned from the pituitary and liver of red-spotted grouper, respectively. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gh mRNA was predominantly expressed in the pituitary. ghr1 mRNA was highly expressed in the liver, muscle, fat and gonad, while ghr2 mRNA expression was ubiquitously high in the peripheral tissues. However, the mRNA expression of both ghr isoforms was relatively low in the central nervous system. Secretory recombinant grouper GH (rgGH) was expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris and verified. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with the GHR isoforms were used to elucidate the receptor-mediated signaling pathways related to growth regulation. rgGH activated rapid phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 through GHR1, but only STAT5 was phosphorylated via GHR2. rgGH strongly activated STAT5 phosphorylation and significantly stimulated ghr1, ghr2 and insulin-like growth factor (igf1, igf2) mRNA expression in primary cultured hepatocytes. Data showed that the recombinant protein rgGH played effects on igf1/2 mRNA expression via GHR-mediated signaling pathways. Our findings provide essential information about GH and GHRs characteristics in red-spotted grouper.

14.
Parasitology ; 147(13): 1509-1514, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741381

RESUMO

Parabronema skrjabini is one of the most harmful nematodes to camels and is responsible for economic losses in animal husbandry industry. There is an urgent need for in-depth studies of potential vectors of the nematode due to its scant regarding information. As previous studies indicated that flies may be the vectors of P. skrjabini, we captured flies in the main camel-producing areas of Inner Mongolia. After autopsy of the specimens of two species of horn flies, we observed the morphology of the suspected nematode larvae found in them. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal-DNA gene sequences were considered the best candidate to confirm the species of the larvae found. Our results showed that the homology compared with P. skrjabini was 99.5% in GenBank. Subsequently, we preliminarily identified two species of horn flies through morphological observation and then sequenced the mitochondrial-DNA-gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I obtained from two species of horn flies, with 100 and 99.2% similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank, respectively. Thus, we identified Haematobia titillans and Haematobia irritans and provided evidence for their potential role as vectors of parabronemosis. Our study provides reference for future research on the life history of the nematode and the vectors of parabronemosis.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21055, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629732

RESUMO

Food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization are common allergic diseases worldwide, with widely varying estimates of prevalence in children. Our study investigated the characteristics of ingestion and inhalation allergy among children from Sichuan province in Southwest China, so as to get public awareness of these disorders.A total of 1722 children between 0 and 14 years' old were enrolled in this study. They were outpatients in the West China Second University Hospital during June 2019 to September 2019. Serum specific IgE specific to 10 types of food allergen and 10 types of aeroallergen were estimated. Nutrition indicators were tested by electrochemical luminescence.59.70% children were allergic to at least 1 allergen, comprising 24.90% to aeroallergen and 38.81% to food allergen, respectively, whereas 36.28% children were allergic to both aeroallergen and food allergen. Milk was the most common food allergen, and egg came in second place. With regard to aeroallergen, house dust mite held the maximum proportion (65.02%), whereas dust mite followed behind. Inhalation allergy was more commonly seen in boys than girls. Bronchitis was the most common symptom of both allergies. In addition, the highest incidence age for children to be sensitive to food allergen and aeroallergen were 0∼2 years' old and 3∼5 years' old, respectively. It is worth mentioning that there was no significant difference in nutritional status between children with or without allergic diseases.Our findings reveal that milk, egg, house dust mite, and dust mite are the most common allergens among children in Sichuan province. Boys are more susceptible to aeroallergen than girls. Furthermore, the prevalence of ingestion and inhalation allergy varies from different age groups, and has no correlation with nutritional status. In brief, the analysis of the pattern of food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization is invaluable to effective diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Imunização/métodos , Adolescente , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Conscientização , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inalação/imunologia , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Prevalência , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706833

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique with the conventional ILM peeling for idiopathic large macular holes (MHs). METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) using online databases including NCBI PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ISI Web of Science was performed. Anatomic success and type 1 closure rates, the mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean change of BCVA from baseline were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 251 articles, four described clinical trials matching the inclusion criteria and were selected. They included 276 eyes (135 eyes in the inverted ILM flap group and 141 eyes in the ILM peeling group). All the studies used gas tamponade, with two studies having a follow-up duration of 3 months, while one study had a follow-up of 6 months and one study- 12 months. The meta-analysis demonstrated that anatomic success and type 1 closure rates (presence of neurosensory retina in MH) were better in the inverted ILM flap technique (odds ratio (OR) = 4.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.09-11.47; P = 0.0003 and OR = 5.23; 95% CI, 2.83-9.66; P<0.00001). Similarly, the inverted flap technique was superior in terms of postoperative logMAR BCVA and mean change of logMAR BCVA from baseline (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.17, 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.24, P<0.00001 and WMD = 0.08, 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Inverted ILM flap treatment resulted in better closure rates and visual acuity when compared to the standard ILM peeling for large MHs.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/cirurgia , Retina/cirurgia , Perfurações Retinianas/cirurgia , Idoso , Membrana Basal/patologia , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retina/patologia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
17.
BMJ ; 369: m1184, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognosis of unrecognised myocardial infarction determined by electrocardiography (UMI-ECG) or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (UMI-CMR). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported adjusted relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes in participants with unrecognised myocardial infarction compared with those without myocardial infarction. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The primary outcomes were composite major adverse cardiac events, all cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality associated with UMI-ECG and UMI-CMR. The secondary outcomes were the risks of recurrent coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Pooled hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported. The heterogeneity of outcomes was compared in clinically recognised and unrecognised myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 30 studies with 253 425 participants and 1 621 920 person years of follow-up. UMI-ECG was associated with increased risks of all cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.73), cardiovascular mortality (2.33, 1.66 to 3.27), and major adverse cardiac events (1.61, 1.38 to 1.89) compared with the absence of myocardial infarction. UMI-CMR was also associated with increased risks of all cause mortality (3.21, 1.43 to 7.23), cardiovascular mortality (10.79, 4.09 to 28.42), and major adverse cardiac events (3.23, 2.10 to 4.95). No major heterogeneity was observed for any primary outcomes between recognised myocardial infarction and UMI-ECG or UMI-CMR. The absolute risk differences were 7.50 (95% confidence interval 4.50 to 10.95) per 1000 person years for all cause mortality, 11.04 (5.48 to 18.84) for cardiovascular mortality, and 27.45 (17.1 to 40.05) for major adverse cardiac events in participants with UMI-ECG compared with those without myocardial infarction. The corresponding data for UMI-CMR were 32.49 (6.32 to 91.58), 37.2 (11.7 to 104.20), and 51.96 (25.63 to 92.04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: UMI-ECG or UMI-CMR is associated with an adverse long term prognosis similar to that of recognised myocardial infarction. Screening for unrecognised myocardial infarction could be useful for risk stratification among patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 22(4): 467-474, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424478

RESUMO

Sex-specific DNA markers are very helpful for identifying genetic sex and studying sex determination mechanisms in fish. To identify the sex-specific markers of spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus), we performed a comparative analysis of the female and male genomes. In this study, an 18 bp insertion was identified in the male genome after verification by sequencing depth and PCR. An effective and rapid method based on PCR was then developed to identify the genetic sex. A male-female-shared primer pair and a male-specific primer were designed for PCR amplification to avoid false-negative phenomena. To examine the primers in practice, we utilized hundreds of spotted knifejaw fish from different groups to identify their genetic sex, and the results were consistent with their phenotypic sex. The male-specific DNA marker would be helpful for artificial breeding, Y chromosome assembly and further study of the sex determination mechanism. This study is the first to identify an effective sex-specific marker in spotted knifejaw.

19.
Ophthalmic Res ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388512

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the safety and efficacy of topical anesthesia combined with sub-conjunctival anesthesia (termed two-step anesthesia) for 23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy or other posterior segment surgery. Methods:Patients (n = 90) requiring 23-/25- vitrectomy or other posterior segment surgery were randomized into three groups. Group 1 received peribulbar anesthesia, Group 2 received retrobulbar anesthesia and Group 3 received two-step anesthesia. A 5-point visual analog pain scale (VAPS) was used to measure self-report of patient pain. Complications were recorded for subsequent analysis. Results: VAPS for overall intraoperative pain ranged from 0 - 3 (1.07±1.07) in Group 1, from 0 - 2 (0.69±0.93) in Group 2 and from 0 - 3 (1.06±0.98,) in Group 3Assessment of surgeon discomfort score ranged from 0 - 2 (0.31±0.66) in Group 1, from 0 - 3 (0.38±0.82) in Group 2 and from 0 - 2 (0.47±0.62) in Group 3. Both scores reveal no significant difference among the three groups. While there were no complications noted in Group 1, there was an ocular perforation in Group 2. Additionally, there were no complications in Group 3 related to the anesthetic technique. Conclusions: Results suggest that two-step anesthesia is a safe and effective anesthetic approach for select patients with undergoing 23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy or other posterior segment surgeries. It may offer a viable alternative to peribulbar anesthesia and retrobulbar anesthesia for carefully selected 23- or 25-gauge cannular-access ocular surgeries.

20.
Neurotherapeutics ; 17(3): 1271-1286, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367475

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a serious mental condition and is associated with cognitive impairments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the learning- and memory-related molecules found in the CNS and its level was reported to be reduced in SZ brain, while ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) could improve SZ symptoms, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Using MK801 injection-induced SZ rat model, we here found that supplementation with ω-3PUFAs improved the levels of p-CREB, BDNF, and p-TrkB in the brain of SZ rats, and restore hippocampal neuronal damage, thereby reducing cognitive impairments in SZ rats. However, overexpression of AAV9/CREB S133A (CREB inactivated mutation) downregulated BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and remarkably abolished the preventive effect of ω-3PUFAs in MK801-induced schizophrenia. Interestingly, AAV9/CREB S133D (CREB activated mutation) improved synaptic dysfunctions and cognitive defects in MK801 rats. In conclusion, these findings indicate that MK801-induced SZ lesions dephosphorylate CREB at Ser133 site, leading to neuron damage, and ω-3PUFAs improve SZ cognitive impairments by upregulating the CREB/BDNF/TrkB pathway, which provides new clues for the mechanism of SZ cognitive impairments, and a basis for therapeutic intervention.

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