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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt B): 124006, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068995

RESUMO

The remediation of soil contaminated by 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) remains an important issue in environmental research. Although our previous studies demonstrated that earthworms could enhance the degradation of DDT in soils, the underlying mechanisms and microorganisms involved in these transformation processes are still not clear. Here we studied the transformation of DDT in sterilized/non-sterilized drilosphere and non-drilosphere matrices and identified DDT degraders using the technique of DNA-stable isotope probing. The results show that DDT degradation in non-sterilized drilosphere was quicker than that in their non-drilosphere counterparts. Earthworms enhance DDT removal mainly by improving soil properties, thus stimulating indigenous microorganisms rather than abiotic degradation or tissue accumulating. Ten new genera, including Streptomyces, Streptacidiphilus, Dermacoccus, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Virgibacillus, were identified as DDT ring cleavage degrading bacteria in the five matrices tested. Bacillus and Dermacoccus may also play vital roles in the dechlorination of DDTs as they were highly enriched during the incubations. The results of this study provide robust evidence for the application of earthworms in remediating soils polluted with DDT and highlight the importance of using combinations of cultivation-independent techniques together with process-based measurements to examine the function of microbes degrading organic pollutants in drilosphere matrices.

2.
J Otol ; 15(4): 138-143, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293914

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of the periotic mesenchyme (POM) in the development of sensory cells of developing auditory epithelium. Methods: Developing auditory epithelium with or without periotic mesenchyme was isolated from mice at embryonic days 11.5 (E11.5), E12.5 and E13.5, respectively, and cultured in vitro to an equivalent of E18.5's epithelium in vivo. Then, the explants were co-stained with antibodies targeting myosin VIIA, Sox2 and BrdU. Results: More hair cells in E11.5 + 7 DIV, E12.5 + 6 DIV and E13.5 + 5 DIV auditory epithelia were found upon culture with POM (225.90 ± 62.44, 476.94 ± 100.81, and 1386.60 ± 202.38, respectively) compared with the non-POM group (68.17 ± 23.74, 205.00 ± 44.23, and 1266.80 ± 38.84, respectively). Moreover, regardless of developmental stage, the mesenchymal tissue increased the amount of cochlear sensory cells as well as the ratio of differentiated hair cells to total sensory cells. Conclusions: The periotic mesenchyme promotes the development of cochlear sensory cells, and its effect depends on the developmental stage of the auditory epithelium.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290264

RESUMO

Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) possesses potent anti-atherogenic function, however, the underlying pharmacological mechanism remains incompletely understood. Previous studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-induced NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome activation in macrophages plays a vital role in atherogenesis. Whether the anti-atherogenic effect of Tan IIA relies on the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome has not been investigated before. In this study, we found that Tan IIA treatment of high-fat diet fed ApoE-/- mice significantly attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. Consistently, Tan IIA also potently inhibited oxLDL-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mouse macrophages. Mechanically, Tan IIA inhibited NF-κB activation to downregulate pro-interleukin (IL) -1ß and NLRP3 expression, and decreased oxLDL-induced expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), thereby attenuating oxLDL cellular uptake and subsequent induction of mitochondrial and lysosomal damage - events that promote the NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. Through regulating both the inflammasome 'priming' and 'activation' steps, Tan IIA potently inhibited oxLDL-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thereby ameliorating atherogenesis.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 570776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192512

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we mainly explored the mechanism and target of the anti-inflammatory effects of Aureusidin (Aur) in acute liver injury. Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce inflammatory injury in Kupffer cells (KCs) in vitro. After Aur treatment with gradient concentration, flow cytometry, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to detect the apoptotic level of KCs, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the expression levels of inflammatory factors, including Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-18 (IL-18), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Western blot was used to detect the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), MyD88, and p-P65. Aur was labeled with biotin, followed by a pull-down assay to detect its binding with MD2. Moreover, D-GalN/LPS was used to induce acute liver injury in mice in vitro, followed by Aur treatment by gavage. H&E staining was used to detect the pathological changes of liver tissue, an IF assay was used to detect the expression of MD2, Western blot was used to detect the expression of relevant proteins. Results: Aur pretreatment could significantly inhibit LPS-induced KC injury, downregulate the apoptotic level, inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors, decrease the level of MDA, and downregulate the expression of MD2 in cells. Aur could inhibit the activation level of TLR4/MD2-NF-κB in a dose-dependent pattern, a high dose of Aur had a superior effect compared to low-dose Aur. In the case of MD2 deletion, the effects of Aur were suppressed. Additionally, pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays show that Aur can bind with the MD2 protein to inhibit the activation of TLR4/MD2-NF-κB. Results of mice experiments also showed that Aur could relieve liver injury, decrease the levels of ALT and AST, and simultaneously downregulate the levels of inflammatory factors in tissues and peripheral blood. Conclusion: We found that Aur exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by directly targeting the MD2 protein, further inhibiting the expression of TLR4/MD2-NF-κB, thereby relieving acute liver injury. Therefore, Aur might be a potential inhibitor for MD2.

5.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 6315-6326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209471

RESUMO

Background: The sustained high prevalence of smoking in China has contributed substantially to the burden of chronic diseases, including respiratory diseases. This study compared the prevalence of smoking and respiratory diseases in Chinese adults between two time periods spanning over 25 years. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were performed in four Chinese cities of Chongqing, Lanzhou, Wuhan, and Guangzhou in 1993-1996 (Period 1) and in 2017-2018 (Period 2). Participants completed questionnaires asking smoking status, the presence of asthma and chronic bronchitis, education attainment and household characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios of disease prevalence with regard to active smoking status for men and passive smoking status for women. Results: Prevalence of asthma, prevalence of chronic bronchitis, and smoking rate, all decreased from Period 1 to Period 2. We observed strong evidence that active smoking increased prevalence for both asthma and chronic bronchitis in men during Period 1, with spatial heterogeneity and modifying effect by college-level education. Home exposure to passive smoking was associated with increased odds of having chronic bronchitis among female participants in Chongqing during Period 2, although the association was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence for asthma and chronic bronchitis were lower in 2017-2018 compared to 25 years ago in the same four Chinese cities. Decreased smoking rate may have contribution to the improvement of these respiratory diseases. Male smokers, especially those without college-level education, showed higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis compared to nonsmokers during Period 1.

6.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 6327-6341, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209472

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of certain respiratory diseases of children in China appears to be on the rise in recent decades. This study aims to explore residential environmental factors that may affect respiratory diseases and lung function of children and to assess the effects of lifestyle (diet and exercise) on lung function. Methods: The study was conducted in Chongqing, southwest of China in June, 2017. Information on respiratory diseases was obtained from 2,126 primary school children through a family questionnaire by purposive sampling. In addition, a random sample of 771 children participating in the family-questionnaire was selected for physical measurements and lung function test as well as lifestyle questionnaire survey. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationship between indoor environment and children's respiratory diseases. The effects of indoor environment and lifestyle on lung function indices were analyzed by t-test, variance analysis, and univariate and multivariate linear regression methods. Results: Among residential environmental factors, indoor ventilation and air circulation were significant associated with children's respiratory health outcomes. The use of air conditioning for more than 8 h/day in summer was a risk factor for asthma with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.99, bronchitis (AOR =1.62), and allergic rhinitis (AOR =1.51). Ventilation for less than 12 h per day during summer increased the risk for allergic rhinitis (AOR =1.40). Children living in homes with an opened kitchen had the risk of developing allergic rhinitis 1.51 times higher than children living in homes with a closed kitchen. Indoor dampness and mold were significantly associated with increased risks for childhood asthma (AOR =2.16), bronchitis (AOR =1.55) and allergic rhinitis (AOR =1.55). The frequent use of hygienic incense and mosquito coils also increased the risk for asthma (AOR =2.58) and bronchitis (AOR =1.42) in children. The multiple linear regression results showed that frequent use of air fresheners reduced children's peak expiratory flow (PEF) and small airway function (FEF25-75) after potential influencing factors were adjusted for. Analyses of lifestyle variables showed that increased lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV3) was associated with increasing consumption of vegetable and fruit as well as increasing time of physical exercise. Conclusions: This study identified the following residential risk factors for children's respiratory diseases in Chongqing: poor indoor ventilation, home dampness and mold presence, and frequent use of hygienic incense and mosquito coils. Frequent use of air fresheners is associated with reduced lung function in children. High frequency consumption of vegetables, fruits and dairy products as well as daily exercise for more than 1 hour have positive effects on children's lung development.

7.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 6356-6364, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209474

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory morbidity and mortality during childhood remains a major challenge for global health. Due to the rapid economic development in Chongqing, we expect substantial temporal changes in respiratory health status and environmental risk factors in children. By leveraging a historical dataset, this study aims to assess the changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases, residential exposure factors, and their associations in school-age children over a period of 25 years. Methods: This study involved two cross-sectional surveys conducted in Chongqing with a 25-year interval (2017 vs. 1993). Purpose sampling was used to conduct questionnaire surveys on school-age children in both surveys. Information collected include children's respiratory health outcomes, family residential exposures, demographic information, and parental respiratory disease history. The changes of residential exposures as well as demographics were determined by chi-square test. Odds ratios were calculated to compare the prevalence of children's respiratory symptoms and diseases between the two periods. Associations between children's respiratory outcomes and exposure indicators were assessed using multivariate logistic regressions. Results: The majority of residential exposure indicators improved in 2017, including sleep in shared room, cooking with coal, poor kitchen ventilation, cooking frequency, and parental smoking. Compared to the 1993 study, the adjusted risk for children's wheezing was lower (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49), but the risk for bronchitis was higher (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.31) in the 2017 study. Poor kitchen ventilation and parental smoking were linked to an increased risk of children's wheezing (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.90) and bronchitis (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.21), respectively, while heating in winter was linked to an increased risk of phlegm (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.90) and wheezing (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.01) in the 1993 study. However, these residential exposure factors were no longer associated with the children's respiratory diseases in the 2017 study. Conclusions: Our study found improvement of residential exposures in Chongqing, a decline of prevalence of children's wheezing but an increase of that of bronchitis from 1993 to 2017. Poor kitchen ventilation, heating in winter, and parental smoking were significant risk factors in the 1993 survey but, with significantly reduced prevalence in 2017, were not significantly associated with children's respiratory morbidity in the latter survey.

8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145980

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs play important roles in tumorigenesis and tumour progression. In previous screening, lncRNA-LINC00659 (LINC00659) is highly expressed in gastric cancer; however, its role in gastric cancer has not been illustrated yet. In this study, the expression of LINC00659 was detected in cancer tissues and paracancerous tissues of patients with gastric cancer. As a result, LINC00659 expression was increased in gastric cancer tissues, which was closely associated with tumour stage and lymph node metastasis, but was not correlated with age, gender and tissue differentiation. Survival curve analysis showed that patients with low expression of LINC00659 harboured higher overall survival. In vitro, the level of LINC00659 was increased in gastric cancer cells. Afterwards, the expression of LINC00659 was down-regulated in SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells by plasmid-mediated si-LINC00659 transfection. Consequently, the cell invasion ability was weakened, the cell cycle was inhibited, and cell viability was also suppressed. Luciferase reporter gene assay and RNA pull-down assay showed that LINC00659 could bind to the transcription factor SUZ12, indicating that SUZ12 was a regulatory gene of LINC00659. The overexpression of SUZ12 could resist the roles of si-LINC00659. In this study, we found that LINC00659 was highly expressed in gastric cancer, which might be related to the regulation of cell proliferation and promotion of cell invasion. Transcription factor, SUZ12, was a regulator of LINC00659. Additionally, LINC00659 could regulate cell cycle and invasion of gastric cancer by promoting the expression of SUZ12.

9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172315

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of intra-arterial lidocaine for pain control of uterine artery embolization remains controversial. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of intra-arterial lidocaine versus placebo on the postoperative pain intensity of uterine artery embolization. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through April 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of intra-arterial lidocaine versus placebo on pain control of uterine artery embolization. This meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS: Three RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control group for uterine artery embolization, intra-arterial lidocaine was associated with substantially reduced pain scores at 4 h (SMD = -0.85; 95% CI = -1.31 to -0.38; p = .0003) and analgesic consumption (SMD = -0.84; 95% CI = -1.26 to -0.42; p < .0001), but has no obvious influence on pain scores at 7 h (SMD = -0.19; 95% CI = -0.63 to 0.25; p = .40) or pain scores at 24 h (SMD = -0.55; 95% CI = -1.25 to 0.16; p = .13). CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial lidocaine is effective for pain control after uterine artery embolization.

10.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119301

RESUMO

A metal-free intramolecular aminophosphination of sulfonamidoallenes with diarylphosphine oxides and Tf2O was developed. This method offers a general and practical procedure to construct valuable alkenylphosphine-substituted N-heterocycles via the bifunctionalization reaction of allenes in good yields under mild conditions.

11.
Brain Behav ; 10(11): e01824, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The main pathological change is the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc), thereby leading to dopamine reduction in nigral striatum. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxic substance, mediates apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and causes Parkinson-like symptoms in mice. METHODS: Our team previously found that Antrodia camphorata polysaccharide (ACP) exerted a good behavioral improvement effect on the PD mouse model established by 6-OHDA; however, the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we focused on ROS-NLRP3 signal to investigate the mechanism of 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons MES23.5 and the protective effects of ACP on dopaminergic neurons. RESULT: 6-OHDA could further activate the expression of inflammasome NLRP3 by inducing ROS, thereby resulting in apoptosis of MES23.5 cells. ACP could inhibit the expression of ROS-NLRP3 induced by 6-OHDA, exerting a protective role in MES23.5 cells. Animal experiments also confirmed that ACP intervention could reduce the activation level of ROS-NLRP3 in the substantia nigra-striatum and improve the exercise capacity of PD mice. CONCLUSION: Our study validated that 6-OHDA could induce apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons via ROS-NLRP3 activation. ACP could inhibit this signal and protect dopaminergic neurons, which might be promising in research of PD therapeutics.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824995

RESUMO

Suicidal behavior is a major public health concern worldwide and has become the second-leading cause of death among adolescents. The purposes of this study were to investigate the associations between childhood maltreatment and suicidal behavior and to test whether depressive symptoms have moderating effects on these associations. A multistage stratified cluster randomized sampling method was adopted to collect data from 21,019 high school students in Guangdong Province, China. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents were 18.2% and 3.6%, respectively. Physical abuse (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.35, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.32-1.38), emotional abuse (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.25-1.28), sexual abuse (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.21-1.30), physical neglect (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.08-1.11), and emotional neglect (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.08-1.09) were all associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, and these associations were also found for suicide attempts. According to stratification analyses, physical abuse/emotional abuse/sexual abuse had a stronger effect on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among students without depressive symptoms than among students with depressive symptoms. Childhood maltreatment was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in Chinese adolescents. Depressive symptoms play a moderating role in the association between childhood maltreatment and suicidal behaviors.

13.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(3): 2577-2584, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765751

RESUMO

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can enhance the recanalization of thrombosis during the progression of cerebral infarction. Prazosin plays a therapeutic role in expanding the peripheral vasculature and regulating infarction cardiosclerosis by inhibiting phosphoinositide signaling. However, the possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of prazosin have not been fully explored. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the anti-apoptotic effects of prazosin on EPCs in a rat cerebral infarction model. The results showed that prazosin treatment decreased apoptosis of EPCs. Prazosin treatment decreased the serum expression levels of the inflammatory factors, interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α in rats with cerebral infarctions as well as in EPCs in vitro. In addition, prazosin reduced the expression levels of Akt, NF-κB, phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-NF-κB in EPCs and the middle cerebral artery of rats with cerebral infarction. These findings demonstrated that prazosin inhibited EPC apoptosis in the cerebral infarction rats through targeting the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results indicated that prazosin has a preventive effect on cerebral infarction by inhibiting EPC apoptosis and by inhibiting the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo through regulating the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.

14.
Theriogenology ; 157: 149-161, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810792

RESUMO

CD83, either in its membrance-bound form (mCD83) or soluble form (sCD83), is an important immunomodulatory molecule in humans and mice. While mCD83 is immunostimulatory, sCD83 exhibits striking immunosuppressive activities, suggesting that sCD83 may be used to combat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, graft-versus-host disease and habitual abortion. Although many studies had shed lights on the role of CD83 in humans and mice, little is known about CD83 in other animals. Recently, we showed that porcine CD83 had similar biochemical characteristics and immunoregulatory functions as its human counterpart. However, whether porcine sCD83 (psCD83) is involved in maintaining the immunological tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface and thereby prevents embryo loss and abortion during pregnancy is unclear. In this study, we used LPS-induced animal model to analyze the effect of porcine sCD83 on the mouse abortion. Results showed that psCD83 could significantly alleviate LPS-induced abortion in mice, indicating that the psCD83 had the function of fetal protection. Mechanically, psCD83-mediated fetal protection was related to the promotion on Th2 cytokine production, Treg cell differentiation and trophoblast invasion. This study provides a molecular basis for the fetal protection of psCD83, as well as a potential target for the regulation of maternal-fetal interfacial immune tolerance.

15.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(12): 1709-1721, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681202

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity of azithromycin in neonates, infants, and children. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for relevant studies using Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. We calculated the pooled incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with azithromycin based on prospective studies (RCTs and prospective cohort studies) and analyzed the risk difference (RD) of ADRs between azithromycin and placebo or other antibiotics using meta-analysis of RCTs. RESULTS: We included 133 studies with 4243 ADRs reported in 197,675 neonates, infants, and children who received azithromycin. The safety of azithromycin as MDA in pediatrics was poorly monitored. The main ADRs were diarrhea and vomiting. In prospective non-MDA studies, the most common toxicity was gastrointestinal ADRs (938/1967; 47.7%). The most serious toxicities were cardiac (prolonged QT or irregular heart beat) and idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). Compared with placebo, azithromycin did not show increased risk ADRs based on RCTs (risk difference - 0.17 to 0.07). The incidence of QT prolonged was higher in the medium-dosage group (10-30 mg/kg/day) than that of low-dosage group (≤ 10 mg/kg/day) (82.0% vs 1.2%). CONCLUSION: The safety of azithromycin as MDA needs further evaluation. The most common ADRs are diarrhea and vomiting. The risk of the most serious uncommon ADRs (cardiac-prolonged QT and IHPS) is unknown.

16.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641645

RESUMO

AIM: Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) acts as a key receptor for TGF-ß family members, which play important roles in regulating cardiovascular activity. However, ALK7's potential role, and underlying mechanism, in the macrophage activation involved in atherogenesis remain unexplored. METHODS: ALK7 expression in macrophages was tested by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence co-staining. The loss-of-function strategy using AdshALK7 was performed for functional study. Oil Red O staining was used to observe the foam cell formation, while inflammatory mediators and genes related to cholesterol efflux and influx were determined by RT-PCR and western blot. A PPARγ inhibitor (G3335) was used to reveal whether PPARγ was required for ALK7 to affect macrophage activation. RESULTS: The results exhibited upregulated ALK7 expression in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induced bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs), isolated from ApoE-deficient mice, while ALK7's strong immunoreactivity in BMDMs was observed. ALK7 knockdown significantly attenuated pro-inflammatory, but promoted anti-inflammatory, macrophage markers expression. Additionally, ALK7 silencing decreased foam cell formation, accompanied by the up-regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 involved in cholesterol efflux but the down-regulation of CD36 and SR-A implicated in cholesterol influx. Mechanistically, ALK7 knockdown upregulated PPARγ expression, which was required for the ameliorated effect of ALK7 silencing macrophage activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that ALK7 was a positive regulator for macrophage activation, partially through down-regulation of PPARγ expression, which suggested that neutralizing ALK7 might be promising therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis.

17.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 1823454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714382

RESUMO

The utricle is one of the five sensory organs in the mammalian vestibular system, and while the utricle has a limited ability to repair itself, this is not sufficient for the recovery of vestibular function after hair cell (HC) loss induced by ototoxic drugs. In order to further explore the possible self-recovery mechanism of the adult mouse vestibular system, we established a reliable utricle epithelium injury model for studying the regeneration of HCs and examined the toxic effects of 3,3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN) on the utricle in vivo in C57BL/6J mice, which is one of the most commonly used strains in inner ear research. This work focused on the epithelial cell loss, vestibular dysfunction, and spontaneous cell regeneration after IDPN administration. HC loss and supporting cell (SC) loss after IDPN treatment was dose-dependent and resulted in dysfunction of the vestibular system, as indicated by the swim test and the rotating vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) test. EdU-positive SCs were observed only in severely injured utricles wherein above 47% SCs were dead. No EdU-positive HCs were observed in either control or injured utricles. RT-qPCR showed transient upregulation of Hes5 and Hey1 and fluctuating upregulation of Axin2 and ß-catenin after IDPN administration. We conclude that a single intraperitoneal injection of IDPN is a practical way to establish an injured utricle model in adult C57BL/6J mice in vivo. We observed activation of Notch and Wnt signaling during the limited spontaneous HC regeneration after vestibular sensory epithelium damage, and such signaling might act as the promoting factors for tissue self-repair in the inner ear.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140574, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721731

RESUMO

Environmental factors that drive vegetation change in the Three River Headwater Region (TRHR) on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are largely unknown. In particular, the response of alpine grasslands in the TRHR to changing climate and ecological compensations is still poorly understood. Here, we present data on vegetation trends of the TRHR from 1982 to 2015 by employing multiple high-resolution satellite data to determine the mean annual normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In addition, spatio-temporal changes in climate were monitored by long-term climate data collection and by using the distributed modeling system. It emerged that: 1) there was a weak increasing trend, albeit not significant, in overall TRHR NDVI, ranging between 0.23 and 0.27; whereas, grassland NDVI ranged between 0.43 and 0.50, and displayed a significant (r2adj = 0.46; P = 0.004) linear increase with year; 2) annual average temperature was below 0 °C and increased linearly (r2adj = 0.60; P = 0.01) at a rate of 0.06 °C/yr from 2000 to 2015, which was almost four times faster than the rate of global warming; and 3) average rainfall was 493 mm/yr, with no significant yearly trend. In conclusion, climate warming enhanced vegetation growth and recovery in the TRHR since 2000; whereas, rainfall did not show a trend. However, vegetation changes on the spatial scale demonstrated zoning and segmentation effects. Consequently, for restoration of degraded lands in the TRHR, effective one-to-one ecological conservation projects, which are particular to an eco-fragile area, should be implemented. In addition, these results are important for regional planning of livestock stocking rates and animal husbandry systems, which can have great impact on the livelihood of the people in the area.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Rios , China , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(41): 18042-18047, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589819

RESUMO

Ca2+ , a ubiquitous but nuanced modulator of cellular physiology, is meticulously controlled intracellularly. However, intracellular Ca2+ regulation, such as mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering capacity, can be disrupted by 1 O2 . Thus, the intracellular Ca2+ overload, which is recognized as one of the important cell pro-death factors, can be logically achieved by the synergism of 1 O2 with exogenous Ca2+ delivery. Reported herein is a nanoscale covalent organic framework (NCOF)-based nanoagent, namely CaCO3 @COF-BODIPY-2I@GAG (4), which is embedded with CaCO3 nanoparticle (NP) and surface-decorated with BODIPY-2I as photosensitizer (PS) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) targeting agent for CD44 receptors on digestive tract tumor cells. Under illumination, the light-triggered 1 O2 not only kills the tumor cells directly, but also leads to their mitochondrial dysfunction and Ca2+ overload. An enhanced antitumor efficiency is achieved via photodynamic therapy (PDT) and Ca2+ overload synergistic therapy.

20.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923461, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study was carried out to compare the therapeutic efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) and ultrashort wave (UW) for temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 80 patients with myofascial pain and TMD were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomized to receive ESW or UW treatments. Patients in the ESW group received 1 ESW treatment for 4 weeks and patients in the US group were given US treatment once a day for 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The pain was measured using visual analog scale (VAS) and mouth opening was determined as pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO) before and 4 weeks after the treatments. Other parameters assessed included functional indexes of temporomandibular joint such as mandibular movement (MM), joint noise (JN), joint press (JP), and disability index (DI). RESULTS After therapy, VAS, MMO, MM, JN, JP, and DI in ESW group, and VAS in UW group were significantly improved (P<0.05) as compared to before therapy. VAS, MMO, and the functional indexes of temporomandibular joint in the ESW group were significantly better than those in the UW group (1.79 vs. 2.00, 3.23 vs. 2.03, 1.79 vs. 2.41, 1.45 vs. 2.27, 1.55 vs. 2.59, and 3.30 vs. 4.79, respectively. P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS ESW significantly reduces pain and improves the functional indexes of temporomandibular joint and mouth opening limit for TMD patients as compared with UW therapy.

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