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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124937, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574441

RESUMO

Nowadays, silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as one of the most productive nano-powder, has been extensively applied in various filed. The potential harm of SiNPs has previously received severe attention. A bulk of researches have proven the adverse effect of SiNPs on the health of ecological organisms and human. However, neurotoxic impacts of SiNPs, still remain in the stage of exploration. The potential neurotoxic effects of SiNPs need to be further explored. And the toxic mechanism needs comprehensive clarification. Herein, the neurotoxicity of SiNPs of various concentrations (100, 300, 1000 µg/mL) on adult zebrafish was determined by behavioral phenotyping and confirmed by molecular biology techniques such as qPCR. Behavioral phenotype revealed observable effects of SiNPs on disturbing light/dark preference, dampening exploratory behavior, inhibiting memory capability. Furthermore, the relationship between neurotoxic symptom and the transcriptional alteration of autophagy- and parkinsonism-related genes was preliminarily assessed. Importantly, further investigations should be carried out to determine the effects of SiNPs to cause neurodegeneration in the brain as well as to decipher the specific neurotoxic mechanisms. In sum, this work comprehensively evaluated the neurotoxic effect of small-sized SiNPs on overall neurobehavioral profiles and indicated the potential for SiNPs to cause Parkinson's disease, which will provide a solid reference for the research on the neurotoxicity of SiNPs.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2081: 219-228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721129

RESUMO

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) technology has been extensively applied due to various advantages such as noninvasiveness, high sensitivity and selectivity, excellent biocompatibility and real-time visualization and monitoring. The firefly luciferase (Fluc)/luciferin system, one of the principal bioluminescent systems, has been developed as a sensor for imaging biological processes. However, a limited number of Fluc substrates hamper the further application of firefly luciferase/luciferin systems for biomedical purposes. Here we describe an approach to synthesize a series of novel luciferin substrates (cyaLucs) that produced elevated bioluminescent signals in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate the high efficiency of N-cyclobutylaminoluciferin (cybLuc) with high light emission and long duration in deep tissue imaging by diagnosis of cerebral tumors in vivo in a rodent model.

3.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 66: 101520, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention avoidance of feedback-related stimuli is proposed to be associated with and maintain social anxiety. However, previous research has mainly focused on comparing the attention bias between two types of stimuli, while little is known about attention distribution patterns among positive, neutral, and negative feedback and non-feedback stimuli in individuals with high trait social anxiety (HSA) or low trait social anxiety (LSA). METHODS: The current study assessed eye movement pattern of participants with HSA or LSA during a speech task (high anxiety condition) or while solely watching audience feedback of the speech (low anxiety condition). A pre-recorded audience who displayed approving, neutral, or disapproving gestures was presented as feedback stimuli, while neutral facial photos were used as non-feedback stimuli. RESULTS: Only in the high anxiety condition, participants with HSA exhibited longer total fixation on non-feedback stimuli compared to those with LSA; whereas in the low anxiety condition, both groups paid more attention to emotional feedback stimuli. LIMITATIONS: The final sample size was modest due to a high suspicion rate of the reality of the audience. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that only in highly anxious social situations, socially anxious individuals lack the attentional preference toward positive feedback that individuals with low anxious have.

4.
Food Chem ; 303: 125407, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466032

RESUMO

Theaflavin (TF), which is the key pigment in black tea, is a health-promoting food component with beneficial effects on humans. However, the interactions by which these effects are transferred and exerted into protein-rich foods are unclear. Here, egg ovalbumin (OVA) was selected as a representative dietary protein to ascertain their binding mechanism. Steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetric results showed that TF can interact well with OVA with an affinity magnitude of 104. The noncovalent binding was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. Structural analysis displayed that the TF binding pocket significantly overlapped with one of the surrounding specific IgE-binding epitopes, thereby causing a subtle structural adjustment on the secondary conformation of OVA. The biological complexation model that was delineated here will help understand how black tea dyes egg white in tea egg products and for the development of protein-rich carriers in functional foods.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Ovalbumina/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Ligação Proteica , Chá/química
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121132, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518813

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of salinity (1% sodium chloride) on anaerobic microbial community structure in high strength telephthalic wastewater treatment system, the performances of anaerobic-aerobic process and the shifts of microbial community in anaerobic tank were studied and determined. Results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the whole process remained above 90%. And the effluent concentrations of targeted pollutants were lower than 10 mg/L, other than para-toluic acid (PT, 38.09 mg/L). However, methane production significantly decreased compared to no salinity situation. This might be due to the inhibition of salinity on methanogens, which hindered the conversion of acetate to methane. Furthermore, the dominant genus in bacterial level changed from Tepidisphaera to Syntrophus, which facilitated the syntrophic association with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The prevailed archaea remained acetoclastic Methanothrix above 90%. Therefore, the salinity on anaerobic microbial community structure mainly reflects in the methanogen process, remarkably decreasing methane production.

6.
Talanta ; 206: 120199, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514856

RESUMO

A new class of intracellular signal amplification approach, integrating biodegradable manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet with target-triggered DNAzyme recycling amplification in one nanosystem, was developed for highly specific and sensitive monitoring of microRNAs (miRNAs) in living cells. Briefly, the MnO2 nanosheets were employed as carrier and quencher for the hairpin-locked-DNAzyme strands (H1). Upon entering cells, the surface-adsorbed strands (H1) can be released due to the degradation of the MnO2 nanosheets by cellular glutathione. Subsequently, the hybridization reaction between target miRNAs and H1 probe induced the conformation alteration of the hairpin probes H1, formed an "active" DNAzyme. With the assistor of Mg2+, the DNAzyme was activated and induced the release of the fluorophores labeled DNA fragment, which achieved the restoration of fluorescence signal. Meanwhile, the target molecules was released and hybridized with the other H1 strand to initiate another cycle of activation, cleavage, and turnovers, which producing enhanced fluorescence signal for sensitive analysis of intracellular miRNAs. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging experiments demonstrated that the MnO2-DNAzyme nanosystem could visually detect microRNA-21 in cancer cells. The proposed strategy provides a good platform for highly sensitive detection and imaging analysis of various intracellular miRNAs in situ.

7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 283-298, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585890

RESUMO

Nlrp3 inflammasomes were shown to play a critical role in triggering obesity-associated early onsets of cardiovascular complications such as endothelial barrier dysfunction with endothelial hyperpermeability. Statins prevent endothelial dysfunction and decrease cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether statin treatment for obesity-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction is in part due to the blockade of Nlrp3 inflammasome signaling axis. The results showed that simvastatin, a clinically and widely used statin, prevented free fatty acid-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and disruption of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin junctions in mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs). This protective effect of simvastatin was largely due to improved lysosome function that attenuated lysosome injury-mediated Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and subsequent release of high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1). Mechanistically, simvastatin induces autophagy that promotes removal of damaged lysosomes and also promotes lysosome regeneration that preserves lysosome function. Collectively, simvastatin treatment improves lysosome function via enhancing lysosome biogenesis and its autophagic turnover, which may be an important mechanism to suppress Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and prevents endothelial hyperpermeability in obesity.

8.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 105-119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407071

RESUMO

The protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway, which is a branch of the unfolded protein response, participates in a range of pathophysiological processes of neurological diseases. However, few studies have investigated the role of the PERK in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The present study evaluated the role of the PERK pathway during the early phase of ICH-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) and its potential mechanisms. An autologous whole blood ICH model was established in rats, and cultured primary cortical neurons were treated with oxyhemoglobin to mimic ICH in vitro. We found that levels of phosphorylated alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) increased significantly and peaked at 12 h during the early phase of the ICH. To further elucidate the role of the PERK pathway, we assessed the effects of the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, and the eIF2α dephosphorylation antagonist, salubrinal, at 12 h after ICH both in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of PERK with GSK2606414 suppressed the protein levels of p-eIF2α and ATF4, resulting in increase of transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12, which promoted apoptosis and reduced neuronal survival. Treatment with salubrinal yielded opposite results, which suggested that activation of the PERK pathway could promote neuronal survival and reduce apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of the PERK pathway during the early phase of ICH-induced SBI. These findings highlight the potential value of PERK pathway as a therapeutic target for ICH.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Hemorragia Cerebral , RNA , eIF-2 Quinase , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos , Ratos , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
9.
J Endocrinol ; 244(1): 213-222, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645018

RESUMO

Cerebral circulation is important in fetal brain development, and angiotensin II (Ang II) plays vital roles in regulation of adult cerebral circulation. However, functions of Ang II in fetal cerebral vasculature and influences of in utero hypoxia on Ang II-mediated fetal cerebral vascular responses are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of in utero hypoxia on fetal middle cerebral arteries (MCA) via Ang II. Near-term ovine fetuses were exposed to in utero hypoxia, and fetal MCA responses to Ang II were tested for vascular tension, calcium transient, and molecular analysis. Ang II caused significant dose-dependent contraction in control fetal MCA. Ang II-induced MCA constriction was decreased significantly in hypoxic fetuses. Neither losartan (AT1R antagonist, 10-5 mol/L) nor PD123,319 (AT2R antagonist, 10-5 mol/L) altered Ang II-mediated contraction in fetal MCA. Phenylephrine-mediated constriction was also significantly weaker in hypoxic fetuses. Bay K8644 caused similar contractions between the two groups. Protein expression of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels was unchanged. There were no differences in caffeine-mediated vascular tension or calcium transients. Contraction induced by PDBu (PKC agonist) was obviously weaker in hypoxic MCA. Protein expression of PKCß was reduced in the hypoxic compared with the control, along with no differences in phosphorylation levels. The results showed that fetal MCA was functionally responsive to Ang II near term. Intrauterine hypoxia reduced the vascular agonist-mediated contraction in fetal MCA, probably via decreasing PKCß and its phosphorylation, which might play protective effects on fetal cerebral circulation against transient hypoxia.

10.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 37(1): 5-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postictal delirium (PID) is a relatively common complication following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether prophylactic dexmedetomidine administration would safely decrease the incidence of PID in psychiatric patients after ECT. DESIGN: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PATIENTS: A total of 223 patients undergoing ECT were randomly allocated to two groups. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received 0.5 µg kg dexmedetomidine (Dex group, n=111) or 0.9% sodium chloride (Con group, n=112) before ECT. Propofol was used for anaesthesia and succinylcholine for muscle relaxation. The incidence of PID was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentage of patients who were diagnosed with PID at any ECT session during the whole treatment. RESULTS: PID occurred in 76 (67.9%) of 112 patients given saline (0.9% sodium chloride), and in 49 (44.1%) of 111 patients given dexmedetomidine during the whole treatment. There was a significant difference in the incidence of PID between two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analyses showed that the incidence of PID was significantly lower in the Dex group than in the Con group from the first to the seventh ECT session (P < 0.005). There were no significant differences in seizure duration or recovery time between the two groups. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure in the Dex group were significantly lower than in the Con group at 0, 5 and 15 min after electrical stimulation. No patients developed bradycardia, hypotension or respiratory depression during recovery. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of PID with no respiratory depressant effect. Dexmedetomidine might be considered an effective method for the prevention of PID post-ECT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOR-17012306.

11.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(1): 120-126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In longitudinal studies, serum biomarkers are often measured longitudinally which is valuable to predict the risk of disease progression. Previous risk prediction models for liver cirrhosis restrict data to baseline or baseline and a single follow-up time point, which failed to incorporate the time-dependent marker information. The aim of this study is to develop risk model in patients with chronic hepatitis B for dynamic prediction of cirrhosis by incorporating longitudinal clinical data. METHODS: Data from the hospital-based retrospective cohort at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, from 2004 to 2016, were analyzed. Using the multilevel logistic regression model, the time-dependent marker information and individual characteristics were taken as input, and the risk of at different time as the output. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up, 8.8% of patients progressed to cirrhosis, the average estimate values of hepatitis B virus DNA and alanine aminotransferase demonstrated a downward trend, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio showed a flat trend overall. The important predictors were as follows: age, oral antiviral treatment, hepatitis B virus DNA. This risk prediction model had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.835 (95% confidence interval: 0.772-0.899) and 0.809 (95% confidence interval: 0.708-0.910) in the derivation and validation sets, respectively. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal prediction model can be used for dynamic prediction of disease progression and identify changing high-risk patients.

12.
Virus Res ; : 197827, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785306

RESUMO

Potato virus Y (PVY) causes huge damage to potato and tobacco production worldwide. The complete genome sequence of GZ, a PVY isolate (strain SYR-I) from Guizhou province, China, was cloned into the binary vector pCambia0390. Three introns were individually inserted into the P3 and CI ORFs to produce plasmid pCamPVY-GZ. The plasmid could infect plants of Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum via agroinfiltration and plants of pepper and potato by mechanical inoculation. The green fluorescence protein gene of Aequoria victoriae was cloned into the encoding regions between nuclear inclusion body 'b' and coat protein genes in pCamPVY-GZ to produce pCamPVY-GZ-GFP, which could infect plants of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum, potato and tomato, and produce green fluorescence in the systemic leaves of inoculated plants. Mutations were introduced to pCamPVY-GZ to make the lysine (K) 391 and glutamic acid (E)410 of helper component-proteinase to arginine (R) and asparagic acid (E), respectively. Unlike wild type PVY-GZ, the mutant PVY-K391R/E410D could not induce veinal necrosis in N. tabacum plants. With an interval of 14 days, mutant PVY-K391R/E410D could protect N. tabacum plants from the infection of severe PVY strain. The results presented here provide a promising alternate for the prevention of diseases caused by PVY.

13.
Bioresour Technol ; : 122470, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791916

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission is a serious environmental problem in composting. Previous studies have indicated that electric field assistance results in lower N2O emissions in aerobic composting; however, the exact mechanisms involved in electric-field assisted aerobic composting (EAAC) are not clear. In this study, the biological N transformation processes and the N-associated genes were investigated. The results demonstrated that electric field application inhibited nitrification, weakened the nitrifying functional genes (the hao and nxrA genes declined maximally by 86% and 86.8%, respectively), and increased the N2O consumption-related gene (nosZ) by a maximum factor of 2.76 compared with that in CAC. The correlation analysis demonstrated that nitrification was the main source of N2O emission in EAAC. The findings imply that EAAC is a promising process for mitigating N2O emission at the source during aerobic composting.

14.
Pancreatology ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: FOLFIRINOX (FFX) or abraxane plus gemcitabine (AG)-based chemotherapy is used widely as firstline treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. However, their use in the elderly is discouraged because of adverse events. More clinical data about the therapeutic response and tolerability to FFX or AG in elderly patents (over 70 years old) are required. METHODS: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (n = 203; 131 metastatic pancreatic cancer patients (MPC) and 72 locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients (LAPC)) were treated using modified-FFX (mFFX) or AG and mFFX sequentially. The patients were grouped according to their age, patients below 70 years old and patients above 70 years old. The objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The ORRs in the elderly and in patients below 70 were similar (30.0% versus 32.3%). The median OS and PFS were also similar between the groups (mOS 13.3 m vs 12.7 m, p = 0.729, HR 0.874 (95% CI 0.5310 to 1.438); mPFS mPFS 10.6 m vs 10.3 m, p = 0.363, HR 0.800 (95% CI 0.4954 to 1.293)). However, the elderly patients suffered a higher incidence of severe adverse events (50% vs. 28.3%). CONCLUSIONS: These data could provide guidance for chemotherapy use in elderly patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Age did not affect treatment outcome; however, supportive treatment is very important for elderly patients receiving chemotherapy.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786297

RESUMO

CPP was isolated from Cyclocarya paliurus (C. paliurus) and CPP-D was purified from CPP with a further step by DEAE-Cellulose. In this study, the structure and antioxidant activities of these two polysaccharides were investigated. The molecular weight of CPP was determined as 1.15 × 105 Da and the monosaccharides of it were Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc, Gal in a molar ratio of 0.021:0.237:0.020:0.036:0.454:0.231, while the molecular weight of CPP-D was 9.1 × 103 Da and the monosaccharides of it were Man, Glc, Gal in a molar ratio of 0.235:0.677:0.088. CPP-D consisted of three structural residues →4)-ß-D-Glc-(1→, →2,6)-ß-D-Man-(1→ and →4)-ß-D-Gal. These structures were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPGPC, and NMR. The antioxidant assay in RAW264.7 cell showed that both CPP and CPP-D promoted cell viability and antioxidant activity, which decreased the content of MDA and increased the activity of SOD, T-AOC, CAT (P < .05). As a result, CPP-D isolated by DEAE-Cellulose didn't reduce the antioxidant activity of C. paliurus polysaccharide and could enhance the cell viability.

16.
Adv Mater ; : e1905145, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788896

RESUMO

Rapid cut-off of blood supply in diseases involving thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the current thrombolysis strategies offer limited results due to the therapeutics' short half-lives, low targeting ability, and unexpected bleeding complications. Inspired by the innate roles of platelets in hemostasis and pathological thrombus, platelet membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles (nanoplatelets) are developed for targeting delivery of the thrombolytic drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), to local thrombus sites. The tailor-designed nanoplatelets efficiently accumulate at the thrombi in pulmonary embolism and mesenteric arterial thrombosis model mice, eliciting a significantly enhanced thrombolysis activity compared to free rt-PA. In addition, the nanoplatelets exhibit improved therapeutic efficacy over free rt-PA in an ischemic stroke model. Analysis of in vivo coagulation indicators suggests the nanoplatelets might possess a low risk of bleeding complications. The hybrid biomimetic nanoplatelets described offer a promising solution to improve the efficacy and reduce the bleeding risk of thrombolytic therapy in a broad spectrum of thrombosis diseases.

17.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 252, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate receptor-ß (FR-ß) is a cell surface receptor that is significantly upregulated on activated macrophages during inflammation and provides a potential target for folate-based therapeutic and diagnostic agents. FR-ß expression in central nervous system inflammation remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, we used focally induced acute and chronic phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to study patterns of FR-ß expression and evaluated its potential as an in vivo imaging target. METHODS: Focal EAE was induced in rats using heat-killed Bacillus Calmette-Guérin followed by activation with complete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The rats were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at acute (14 days) and chronic (90 days) phases of inflammation. The animals were finally sacrificed for ex vivo autoradiography of their brains. PET studies were performed using FR-ß-targeting aluminum [18F]fluoride-labeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid conjugated folate ([18F]AlF-NOTA-folate, 18F-FOL) and 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO)-targeting N-acetyl-N-(2-[11C]methoxybenzyl)-2-phenoxy-5-pyridinamine (11C-PBR28). Post-mortem immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-FR-ß, anti-cluster of differentiation 68 (anti-CD68), anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase (anti-iNOS), and anti-mannose receptor C-type 1 (anti-MRC-1) antibodies. The specificity of 18F-FOL binding was verified using in vitro brain sections with folate glucosamine used as a blocking agent. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of focal EAE lesions demonstrated anti-FR-ß positive cells at the lesion border in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation. We found that anti-FR-ß correlated with anti-CD68 and anti-MRC-1 immunohistochemistry; for MRC-1, the correlation was most prominent in the chronic phase of inflammation. Both 18F-FOL and 11C-PBR28 radiotracers bound to the EAE lesions. Autoradiography studies verified that this binding took place in areas of anti-FR-ß positivity. A blocking assay using folate glucosamine further verified the tracer's specificity. In the chronic phase of EAE, the lesion-to-background ratio of 18F-FOL was significantly higher than that of 11C-PBR28 (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Our EAE results imply that FR-ß may be a useful target for in vivo imaging of multiple sclerosis-related immunopathology. FR-ß-targeted PET imaging with 18F-FOL may facilitate the monitoring of lesion development and complement the information obtained from TSPO imaging by bringing more specificity to the PET imaging armamentarium for neuroinflammation.

19.
Primates ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802294

RESUMO

Gibbons represent a highly successful radiation of four genera and 20 species of Asian apes that, in response to recent habitat fragmentation and deforestation, are threatened with extinction. China has six species of gibbons, each of which is critically endangered. We present new biogeographical information on the distribution of the black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor). Four subspecies of N. concolor have been described: three of them are present east of the Mekong River (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis, N. c. concolor and N. c. lu); and another is found west of the Mekong River (N. c. furvogaster). In addition, there has been speculation that gibbons exist in the Biluo Snow Mountains, between the Mekong and Salween basins. To clarify the biogeography of this species, from April 2011 to January 2012 and from January 2016 to September 2018, we conducted interviews with local villagers, completed line transect surveys, monitored gibbon calls, and placed 30 camera traps in the forest canopy. On October 30, 2016, we recorded gibbon's calls. On July 5, 2016, our camera traps obtained one image of a male gibbon, and on February 1 and 8, 2017, we captured two independent images of an adult female gibbon on Zhiben Mountains. Based on the black crest on the head, clearly visible in the photographs, the gibbons are N. c. furvogaster. Evidence from interviews and survey records indicate that N. c. furvogaster once was present in the Zhiben Mountains, at an altitude of between 2000 and 2700 m. Between 1990 and 2000, some 6-7 groups still existed in Caojian, Laowo and adjacent areas. Unfortunately, in the absence of an effective conservation strategy, the population was extirpated by hunters. The remaining forest in the Zhiben Mountains is highly fragmented, and most of the suitable habitat for gibbons has been lost. Therefore, we expect that this newly found gibbon population is under extreme anthropogenic pressure. It is imperative that further investigations of this gibbon population be conducted immediately, and that the local and national governments implement effective conservation plans, including educating the local communities to protect this critically endangered primate population.

20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7604851, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687396

RESUMO

Pyrene is one of the major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during heat treatment of meat and in car exhausts; however, few studies have investigated pyrene-induced adverse effects on human cell lines. This study aimed at the investigation of pyrene-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in human liver HepG2 cells at environmentally relevant concentrations. Pyrene-induced changes in mRNA expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), xenobiotic transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and inflammatory markers were investigated using real-time PCR. As a protection trial, the ameliorative effects of lycopene, a carotenoid abundantly found in tomato, were investigated. The possible mechanisms behind such effects were examined via studying the co exposure effects of pyrene and lycopene on regulatory elements including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Air) and elytroid 2-related factor 2 (RF). The achieved results indicated that pyrene caused significant cytotoxicity at 50 n, with a clear production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. Pyrene upregulated mRNA expression of phase I enzymes including CYP1A1, 1A2, and CYP1B1 and inflammatory markers including TNFα and Cox2. However, pyrene significantly downregulated phase II enzymes, xenobiotic transporters, and antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, lycopene significantly reduced pyrene-induced cytotoxicity and ROS production. Moreover, lycopene upregulated detoxification and antioxidant enzymes, probably via its regulatory effects on Air- and RF-dependent pathways.

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