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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 731842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630412

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one of the most common autoimmune diseases, is characterized by immune cell infiltration, fibroblast-like synovial cell hyperproliferation, and cartilage and bone destruction. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated that immune cells are one of the key targets for the treatment of RA. N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification to eukaryotic mRNA, which is involved in the splicing, stability, export, and degradation of RNA metabolism. m6A methylated-related genes are divided into writers, erasers, and readers, and they are critical for the regulation of cell life. They play a significant role in various biological processes, such as virus replication and cell differentiation by controlling gene expression. Furthermore, a growing number of studies have indicated that m6A is associated with the occurrence of numerous diseases, such as lung cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we summarize the history of m6A research and recent progress on RA research concerning m6A enzymes. The relationship between m6A enzymes, immune cells, and RA suggests that m6A modification offers evidence for the pathogenesis of RA, which will help in the development of new therapies for RA.

2.
Endocrinology ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618891

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress disrupts reproduction and interferes with pulsatile LH secretion. The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is an upstream modulator of the reproductive axis and stress. Corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptors (CRFR2) are activated in the presence of psychosocial stress together with increased expression of the CRFR2 ligand Urocortin3 (Ucn3) in the MePD of rodents. We investigate whether Ucn3 signalling in the MePD is involved in mediating the suppressive effect of psychosocial stress on LH pulsatility. Firstly, we administered Ucn3 into the MePD and monitored the effect on LH pulses in ovariectomised mice. Next, we delivered Astressin2B, a selective CRFR2 antagonist, intra-MePD in the presence of predator odor, 2,4,5-Trimethylthiazole (TMT) and examined the effect on LH pulses. Subsequently, we virally infected Ucn3-cre-tdTomato mice with inhibitory DREADDs targeting MePD Ucn3 neurons while exposing mice to TMT or restraint stress and examined the effect on LH pulsatility as well as corticosterone release. Administration of Ucn3 into the MePD dose-dependently inhibited LH pulses and administration of Astressin2B blocked the suppressive effect of TMT on LH pulsatility. Additionally, DREADDs inhibition of MePD Ucn3 neurons blocked TMT and restraint stress-induced inhibition of LH pulses and corticosterone release. These results demonstrate for the first time that Ucn3 neurons in the MePD mediate psychosocial stress-induced suppression of the GnRH pulse generator and corticosterone secretion. Ucn3 signalling in the MePD plays a role in modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-ganadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes, and this brain locus may represent a nodal centre in the interaction between the reproductive and stress axes.

3.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa297, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676096

RESUMO

Receptor recognition and subsequent membrane fusion are essential for the establishment of successful infection by SARS-CoV-2. Halting these steps can cure COVID-19. Here we have identified and characterized a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Remarkably, HB27 can also prevent SARS-CoV-2 membrane fusion. Consequently, a single dose of HB27 conferred effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 in two established mouse models. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when administrated with 10 times the effective dose of HB27. Cryo-EM studies on complex of SARS-CoV-2 trimeric S with HB27 Fab reveal that three Fab fragments work synergistically to occlude SARS-CoV-2 from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Binding of the antibody also restrains any further conformational changes of the receptor binding domain, possibly interfering with progression from the prefusion to the postfusion stage. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for immuno-therapies against COVID-19.

4.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(9): 809-14, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558250

RESUMO

The scalp acupuncture therapy, an important component of the microneedle system of the acupuncturology, is effective in the treatment of multiple types of diseases. In the present paper, we made a comparative analysis about the theoretical basis, acupoint location and main clinical indications of the ten academic schools of scalp-acupuncture, including FANG Yun-peng's Scalp Acupuncture, JIAO Shun-fa's Scalp Acupuncture, ZHU Ming-qing's Scalp Acupuncture, etc. which are widely used in clinic at present after collecting the related articles published in recent 60 years from databases of CNKI, Wanfang and VIP, and relevant books. These nine academic schools are similar in clinical indications (such as neurological disorders, brain-derived di-seases) and in needle inserting angle and depth, and different in the needling manipulations, needlingmethods, needle retaining time, theoretical basis, attending diseases of the same one stimulated region, and the position and yin or yang of holograms. The main problems facing the scalp acupuncture are non-uniform positioning method, non-uniform needling method, and non-uniform indications of the same scalp acupoint. Up to now, it remains unclear that which academic school is better in the therapeutic efficacy, thus, we should strengthen clinical research to find out its inherent law in diagnosis and treatment, constantly optimize the needle scheme, determine the best scalp-acupoint position and best needling manipulations, quantize and standardize the related issues, and accelerate the integration of the different academic schools, so as to improve clinical curative effect and to further promote the application and popularization, serving the patients in a better way.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 911: 174462, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536366

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a persistent pathological repair of chronic liver injury, which is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen-dominated extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well known that hepatic fibrosis can be reversed in the absence of etiology. Studies have shown that long non-coding RNA (Lnc RNA) maternally expressed gene3 (MEG3) has strong effects on the activation of hepatic stellata cells (HSCs). However, the function of MEG3 in the reversal of liver fibrosis has not been studied. In this experiment, we studied the content expression, function, and part of the potential mechanism of MEG3 in reversing liver fibrosis. In in vivo and in vitro models, we found that MEG3 was down-regulated during the formation of liver fibrosis, while it was up-regulated during the reversal of liver fibrosis. Then, it was found that the silencing of MEG3 could gradually restore the activity of the inactivated LX-2 cells, Overexpression of MEG3 can inhibit the activation of LX-2 cells, accelerate the reversal of liver fibrosis. Through catRAPID analysis, it was found that NLR family CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5) may be a target of MEG3. We found that, after MEG3 silencing, NLRC5 expression was upregulated in LX-2 cells in the reverse phase, while, after MEG3 overexpression, NLRC5 expression was decreased. Further, we verified that MEG3 can target NLRC5 through RNA pull down experiment. Therefore, MEG3 may inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells by targeting NLRC5, thus accelerating the reversal of hepatic fibrosis.

6.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 36(8): 624-631, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375126

RESUMO

First introduced in 1976, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become an indispensable tool for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of tumors, heart disease, as well as other conditions, including inflammation and infection. Because 18F-FDG can accurately reflect the glucose metabolism level of organs and tissues, it is known as a "century molecule" and is currently the main agent for PET imaging. The degree of 18F-FDG uptake by cells is related to both the rate of glucose metabolism and glucose transporter expression. These, in turn, are strongly influenced by hypoxia, in which cells meet their energy needs through glycolysis, and 18F-FDG uptake increased due to hypoxia. 18F-FDG uptake is a complex process, and hypoxia may be one of the fundamental driving forces. The correct interpretation of 18F-FDG uptake in PET imaging can help clinics make treatment decisions more accurately and effectively. In this article, we review the application of 18F-FDG PET in tumors, myocardium, and inflammation. We discuss the relationship between 18F-FDG uptake and hypoxia, the possible mechanism of 18F-FDG uptake caused by hypoxia, and the associated clinical implications.

7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1739-1750, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379047

RESUMO

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a re-emerging flavivirus, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations and high mortality, with no specific antiviral therapies available. The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF17D) has been widely used for over eighty years. However, the emergence of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YFL-AVD) and yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YFL-AND) raised non-negligible concerns. Additionally, the attenuation mechanism of YF17D is still unclear. Thus, the development of convenient models is crucial to understand the mechanisms behind YF17D attenuation and its adverse effects. In this work, we generated a reporter YF17D expressing nano-luciferase (NLuc). In vitro and in vivo characterization demonstrated that the NLuc-YF17D shared similar biological properties with its parental strain and the NLuc activity can reflect viral infectivity reliably. Combined with in vivo bioluminescence imaging, a series of mice models of YF17D infection was established, which will be useful for the evaluation of antiviral medicines and novel vaccine candidates. Especially, we demonstrated that intraperitoneally (i.p.) infection of NLuc-YF17D in type I interferon receptor-deficient mice A129 resulted in outcomes resembling YEL-AVD and YEL-AND, evidenced by viral replication in multiple organs and invasion of the central neuronal system. Finally, in vitro and in vivo assays based on this reporter virus were established to evaluate the antiviral activities of validated antiviral agents. In conclusion, the bioluminescent reporter virus described herein provides a powerful platform to study YF17D attenuation and vaccine-associated diseases as well as to develop novel countermeasures against YFV.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 700407, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395270

RESUMO

Hypoxia is an important characteristic of most solid malignancies, and is closely related to tumor prognosis and therapeutic resistance. Hypoxia is one of the most important factors associated with resistance to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therapies targeting tumor hypoxia have attracted considerable attention. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) are bioreductive drugs that are selectively activated under hypoxic conditions and that can accurately target the hypoxic regions of solid tumors. Both single-agent and combined use with other drugs have shown promising antitumor effects. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action and the current preclinical and clinical progress of several of the most widely used HAPs, summarize their existing problems and shortcomings, and discuss future research prospects.

9.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211036304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350796

RESUMO

Hypoxia is an important feature of the tumor microenvironment, and is closely associated with cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism and the tumor immune response. All these factors can further promote tumor progression, increase tumor aggressiveness, enhance tumor metastatic potential and lead to poor prognosis. In this review, these effects of hypoxia on tumor biology will be discussed, along with their significance for tumor detection and treatment.

10.
HLA ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383999

RESUMO

HLA-B*46:64 has one nucleotide change from HLA-B*46:01:01:01 where Histidine (113) is changed to Arginine.

11.
HLA ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378356

RESUMO

HLA-A*32:74 has one nucleotide change from HLA-A*32:01:01:01 where alanine (211) is changed to glutamate.

12.
HLA ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378357

RESUMO

HLA-DRB1*15:123 has one nucleotide change from HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01 where Threonine (90) is changed to Isoleucine.

13.
Nucl Med Commun ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We explored the relationship between lymph node metastasis (LNM) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of primary lesions determined by 18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, and evaluated the independent effect of this association. METHODS: This retrospective study included 106 gastric adenocarcinoma patients who were examined by preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging between April 2016 and April 2020. We measured TLG of primary gastric lesions and evaluated its association with LNM. Multivariate logistic regression and a two-piece-wise linear regression were performed to evaluate the relationship between TLG of primary lesions and LNM. RESULTS: Of the 106 patients, 75 cases (71%) had LNM and 31 cases (29%) did not have LNM. Univariate analyses revealed that a per-SD increase in TLG was independently associated with LNM [odds ratio (OR) = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.42-3.98; P = 0.0010]. After full adjustment of confounding factors, multivariate analyses exhibited that TLG of primary lesions was still significantly associated with LNM (OR per-SD: 2.20; 95% CI, 1.16-4.19; P = 0.0164). Generalized additive model indicated a nonlinear relationship and saturation effect between TLG of primary lesions and LNM. When TLG of primary lesions was <23.2, TLG was significantly correlated with LNM (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07-1.48; P = 0.0053), whereas when TLG of primary lesions was ≥ 23.2, the probability of LNM was greater than 60%, gradually reached saturation effect, as high as 80% or more. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, there were saturation and segmentation effects between TLG of primary lesions determined by preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT and LNM. When TLG of primary lesions was ≥ 23.2, the probability of LNM was greater than 60%, gradually reached saturation effect, as high as 80% or more. TLG of primary lesions is helpful in the preoperative diagnosis of LNM in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 672620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413835

RESUMO

An extracellular laccase (GLL) was purified from fermentation broth of the litter-decomposing fungus Gymnopus luxurians by four chromatography steps, which resulted in a high specific activity of 118.82 U/mg, purification fold of 41.22, and recovery rate of 42.05%. It is a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 64 kDa and N-terminal amino acid sequence of AIGPV TDLHI, suggesting that GLL is a typical fungal laccase. GLL demonstrated an optimum temperature range of 55°C-65°C and an optimum pH 2.2 toward 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). It displayed considerably high thermostability and pH stability with about 63% activity retained after 24 h at 50°C, and 86% activity retained after 24 h at pH 2.2, respectively. GLL was significantly enhanced in the presence of K+, Na+, and Mg2+ ions. It demonstrated K m of 539 µM and k cat /K m of 140 mM-1⋅s-1 toward ABTS at pH 2.2 and 37°C. Acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA) were the optimal mediators of GLL (0.4 U/ml) for dye decolorization with decolorization rates of about 60%-90% toward 11 of the 14 synthetic dyes. The optimum reaction conditions were determined to be mediator concentration of 0.1 mM, temperature range of 25°C -60°C, and pH 4.0. The purified laccase was the first laccase isolated from genus Gymnopus with high thermostability, pH stability, and effective decolorization toward dyes, suggesting that it has potentials for textile and environmental applications.

15.
Nucl Med Commun ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sublobar resection is suitable for peripheral cT1N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The traditional PET-CT criterion (lymph node size ≥1.0 cm or SUVmax ≥2.5) for predicting lymph nodes metastasis (LNM) has unsatisfactory performance. OBJECTIVE: We explore the clinical role of preoperative SUVmax and the size of the primary lesions for predicting peripheral cT1 NSCLC LNM. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 174 peripheral cT1 NSCLC patients underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET-CT and divided into the LNM and non-LNM group by pathology. We compared the differences of primary lesions' baseline characteristics between the two groups. The risk factors of LNM were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis, and we assessed the diagnostic efficacy with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV). RESULTS: Of the enrolled cases, the incidence of LNM was 24.7%. The preoperative SUVmax >6.3 or size >2.3 cm of the primary lesions were independent risk factors of peripheral cT1 NSCLC LNM (ORs, 95% CIs were 6.18 (2.40-15.92) and 3.03 (1.35-6.81). The sensitivity, NPV of SUVmax >6.3 or size >2.3 cm of the primary lesions were higher than the traditional PET-CT criterion for predicting LNM (100.0 vs. 86.0%, 100.0 vs. 89.7%). A Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a goodness-of-fit (P = 0.479). CONCLUSIONS: The excellent sensitivity and NPV of preoperative of the SUVmax >6.3 or size >2.3 cm of the primary lesions based on 18F-FDG PET-CT might identify the patients at low-risk LNM in peripheral cT1 NSCLC.

16.
HLA ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255438

RESUMO

HLA-B*52:49N has one nucleotide change from HLA-B*52:01:01:01 where 601G (GAG) is changed to T(TAG).

17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 320, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217224

RESUMO

N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is a highly abundant protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) in eukaryotes. However, the plant NATs and their biological functions have been poorly explored. Here we reveal that loss of function of CKRC3 and NBC-1, the auxiliary subunit (Naa25) and catalytic subunit (Naa20) of Arabidopsis NatB, respectively, led to defects in skotomorphogenesis and triple responses of ethylene. Proteome profiling and WB test revealed that the 1-amincyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO, catalyzing the last step of ethylene biosynthesis pathway) activity was significantly down-regulated in natb mutants, leading to reduced endogenous ethylene content. The defective phenotypes could be fully rescued by application of exogenous ethylene, but less by its precursor ACC. The present results reveal a previously unknown regulation mechanism at the co-translational protein level for ethylene homeostasis, in which the NatB-mediated NTA of ACOs render them an intracellular stability to maintain ethylene homeostasis for normal growth and responses.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Homeostase , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal B/metabolismo , Acetilação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Biocatálise , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Morfogênese , Mutação/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
18.
HLA ; 98(4): 399-401, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272840

RESUMO

HLA-DRB1*08:76 is a novel allele differing by a single nucleotide from the HLA-DRB1*08:03:02 allele.

19.
HLA ; 98(4): 383-385, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318623

RESUMO

HLA-A*31:97 differs by three nucleotide and two amino acid changes from HLA-A*31:01:02:01.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 700373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305608

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by a tumor-like expansion of the synovium and subsequent destruction of adjacent articular cartilage and bone. In our previous work we showed that phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) contributes to the activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), but the underlying mechanism is not unknown. In this study, we show that PTEN is downregulated while DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 is upregulated in FLS from RA patients and a rat model of AIA. DNA methylation of PTEN was increased by administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in FLS of RA patients, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation and methylation-specific PCR. Treatment with the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine suppressed cytokine and chemokine release and FLS activation in vitro and alleviated paw swelling in vivo. PTEN overexpression reduced inflammation and activation of FLS via protein kinase B (AKT) signaling in RA, and intra-articular injection of PTEN-expressing adenovirus into the knee of AIA rats markedly reduced inflammation and paw swelling. Thus, PTEN methylation promotes the inflammation and activation of FLS in the pathogenesis of RA. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of articular cartilage destruction in RA, and indicate that therapeutic strategies that prevent PTEN methylation may an effective treatment.

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