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1.
Front Oncol ; 11: 764630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868985

RESUMO

Numerous clinical studies investigated how low expression of CD9 predicts poor prognosis of solid tumor. However, the results were inconclusive. This present meta-analysis was therefore performed to determine the prognostic value of CD9 expression in solid tumors. In this meta-analysis, 25 studies involving 5,555 participants were included; the result showed strong significant associations between declined expression of CD9 and all endpoints: overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.45-2.43, p < 0.000) and time to progression (TTP) (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.38-2.88, p < 0.000). The subgroup analysis was also performed, which revealed that the associations between CD9 downregulated expression related to poor OS in lung cancer and head and neck cancer. Also, low expression of CD9 was significantly connected with poor TTP in patients with head and neck cancer. The adverse prognostic impact of decreased expression of CD9 was observed in patients of different ethnicities. In conclusion, these results showed that declined expression of CD9 was associated with poor survival in human solid tumors. CD9 may be a valuable prognostic predictive biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in human solid tumors.

2.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 364, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic Bochdalek hernias are found mainly in infants in respiratory distress and occur rarely in adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of Bochdalek hernia associated with developmental abnormalities in an adult who exhibited acute chest pain and dyspnea on exertion. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of the differential diagnosis of acute left-sided chest pain and antenatal examination.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Adulto , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Gravidez
3.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211016472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study performed dosimetry studies and secondary cancer risk assessments on using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as image guided tools for the early lung cancer patients treated with SBRT. METHODS: The imaging doses from MV-EPID and kV-CBCT of the Edge accelerator were retrospectively added to sixty-one SBRT treatment plans of early lung cancer patients. The MV-EPID imaging dose (6MV Photon beam) was calculated in Pinnacle TPS, and the kV-CBCT imaging dose was simulated and calculated by modeling of the kV energy beam in TPS using Pinnacle automatic modeling program. Three types of plans, namely PlanEPID, PlanCBCT and Planorigin, were generated with incorporating doses of EPID, CBCT and no imaging, respectively, for analysis. The effects of imaging doses on dose-volume-histogram (DVH) and plan quality were analyzed, and the excess absolute risk (EAR) of secondary cancer for ipsilateral lung was evaluated. RESULTS: The regions that received less than 50 cGy were significantly impacted by the imaging doses, while the isodose lines greater than 1000 cGy were barely changed. The DVH values of ipsilateral lung increased the most in PlanEPID, followed by PlanCBCT. Compared to Planorigin on the average, the estimated EAR of ipsilateral lung in PlanEPID increased by 3.43%, while the corresponding EAR increase in PlanCBCT was much smaller (about 0.4%). Considering only the contribution of the imaging dose, the EAR values for the ipsilateral lung due to the MV-EPID dose in 5 years,10 years and 15 years were 1.49 cases, 2.09 cases and 2.88 cases per 104PY respectively, and those due to the kV-CBCT dose were about 9 times lower, correspondingly. CONCLUSIONS: The imaging doses produced by MV-EPID and kV-CBCT had little effects on the target dose coverage. The secondary cancer risk caused by MV-EPID dose is more than 8.5 times that of kV-CBCT.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 620727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026776

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Although the pathogenesis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been gradually revealed, the risk for re-emergence of coronavirus nucleic acids in recovered patients remains poorly understood. Hence, this study evaluated the risk predictors associated with re-positivity for virus nucleic acid. Methods: Between February 1 and March 20, 2020, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical epidemiological data of 129 COVID-19 patients who were treated at Zhongxiang People's Hospital of Hubei Province in China. Subsequently, a risk prediction model for the re-positivity of virus nucleic acid was developed, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for further validation. Results: In this study, the rate of re-positivity for virus nucleic acid was 17.8% (23/129) where all re-positivity cases were asymptomatic. The median time interval from discharge to nucleic acid re-positivity to discharge after being cured again was 11.5 days (range: 7-23 days). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that leukocytopenia [odds ratio (OR) 7.316, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.319-23.080, p = 0.001], prealbumin < 150 mg/L (OR 4.199, 95% CI 1.461-12.071, p = 0.008), and hyperpyrexia (body temperature >39°C, OR 4.643, 95% CI 1.426-15.117, p = 0.011) were independent risk factors associated with re-positivity. The area under the ROC curve was 0.815 (95% CI, 0.729-0.902). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with leukocytopenia, low prealbumin level, and hyperpyrexia are more likely to test positive for virus nucleic acid after discharge. Timely and effective treatment and appropriate extension of hospital stays and quarantine periods may be feasible strategies for managing such patients.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 77, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623004

RESUMO

The phenylalanine-tyrosine-dopa-dopamine pathway provides dopamine to the brain. In this process, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that hydroxylates tyrosine and generates levodopa (L-dopa) with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a coenzyme. Here, we show that oral berberine (BBR) might supply H• through dihydroberberine (reduced BBR produced by bacterial nitroreductase) and promote the production of BH4 from dihydrobiopterin; the increased BH4 enhances TH activity, which accelerates the production of L-dopa by the gut bacteria. Oral BBR acts in a way similar to vitamins. The L-dopa produced by the intestinal bacteria enters the brain through the circulation and is transformed to dopamine. To verify the gut-brain dialog activated by BBR's effect, Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium was transplanted into Parkinson's disease (PD) mice. The bacteria significantly increased brain dopamine and ameliorated PD manifestation in mice; additionally, combination of BBR with bacteria showed better therapeutic effect than that with bacteria alone. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethyl-pyranylium tetrafluoroborate (TMP-TFB)-derivatized matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging of dopamine identified elevated striatal dopamine levels in mouse brains with oral Enterococcus, and BBR strengthened the imaging intensity of brain dopamine. These results demonstrated that BBR was an agonist of TH in Enterococcus and could lead to the production of L-dopa in the gut. Furthermore, a study of 28 patients with hyperlipidemia confirmed that oral BBR increased blood/fecal L-dopa by the intestinal bacteria. Hence, BBR might improve the brain function by upregulating the biosynthesis of L-dopa in the gut microbiota through a vitamin-like effect.

7.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 10(1): 10, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide [ATO, inorganic arsenite (iAsIII) in solution] plays an important role in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the long-term adverse effects (AEs) and the retention of arsenic among APL patients are rarely reported. In this study, we focused on arsenic methylation metabolism and its relationship with chronic hepatic toxicity, as we previously reported, among APL patients who had finished the treatment of ATO. METHODS: A total of 112 de novo APL patients who had completed the ATO-containing treatment were enrolled in the study. Arsenic species [iAsIII, inorganic arsenate (iAsV), and their organic metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in patients' plasma, urine, hair and nails were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the arsenic (+ 3 oxidative state) methylation transferase (AS3MT) gene, which was known as the main catalyzer for arsenic methylation, were tested with the polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The study showed the metabolic pattern of arsenic in APL patients undergoing and after the treatment of ATO, in terms of total arsenic (TAs) and four species of arsenic. TAs decreased to normal after 6 months since cessation of ATO. But the arsenic speciation demonstrated significantly higher portion of iAsIII in patient's urine (40.08% vs. 1.94%, P < 0.001), hair (29.25% vs. 13.29%, P = 0.002) and nails (30.21% vs. 13.64%, P = 0.003) than the healthy controls', indicating a decreased capacity of arsenic methylation metabolism after the treatment of ATO. Urine primary methylation index (PMI) was significantly lower in patients with both chronic liver dysfunction (0.14 vs. 0.28, P = 0.047) and hepatic steatosis (0.19 vs. 0.3, P = 0.027), suggesting that insufficient methylation of arsenic might be related to chronic liver disorders. Two SNPs (A9749G and A27215G) of the AS3MT gene were associated with impaired urine secondary methylation index (SMI). CONCLUSIONS: The long-term follow-up of arsenic speciation indicated a decreased arsenic methylation metabolism and a probable relationship with chronic hepatic disorders among APL patients after the cessation of ATO. Urine PMI could be a monitoring index for chronic AEs of ATO, and the SNPs of AS3MT gene should be considered when determining the dosage of ATO.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495363

RESUMO

As all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) are widely accepted in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), deescalating toxicity becomes a research hotspot. Here, we evaluated whether chemotherapy could be replaced or reduced by ATO in APL patients at different risks. After achieving complete remission with ATRA-ATO-based induction therapy, patients were randomized (1:1) into ATO and non-ATO groups for consolidation: ATRA-ATO versus ATRA-anthracycline for low-/intermediate-risk patients, or ATRA-ATO-anthracycline versus ATRA-anthracycline-cytarabine for high-risk patients. The primary end point was to assess disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 y by a noninferiority margin of -5%; 855 patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 54.9 mo, and 658 of 755 patients could be evaluated at 3 y. In the ATO group, 96.1% (319/332) achieved 3-y DFS, compared to 92.6% (302/326) in the non-ATO group. The difference was 3.45% (95% CI -0.07 to 6.97), confirming noninferiority (P < 0.001). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated 7-y DFS was 95.7% (95% CI 93.6 to 97.9) in ATO and 92.6% (95% CI 89.8 to 95.4) in non-ATO groups (P = 0.066). Concerning secondary end points, the 7-y cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was significantly lower in ATO (2.2% [95% CI 1.1 to 4.2]) than in non-ATO group (6.1% [95% CI 3.9 to 9.5], P = 0.011). In addition, grade 3 to 4 hematological toxicities were significantly reduced in the ATO group during consolidation. Hence, ATRA-ATO in both chemotherapy-replacing and -reducing settings in consolidation is not inferior to ATRA-chemotherapy (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01987297).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Trióxido de Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Trióxido de Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Consolidação/efeitos adversos , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18509, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116163

RESUMO

The potential therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) have now been confirmed in various human and animal-disease models. However, the effects of H2 on the physiological function in a normal state have been largely neglected. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) intake and hydrogen inhalation (HI) are the most common used methods for hydrogen administration, the difference in the effects between HRW intake and HI remains elusive. In the present study, the body weight and 13 serum biochemical parameters were monitored during the six-month hydrogen intervention, all these parameters were significantly altered by oral intake of HRW or HI. Among the 13 parameters, the most striking alterations induced by hydrogen treatment were observed in serum myocardial enzymes spectrum. The results also showed that the changes in these parameters occurred at different time points, and the alterations in most of the parameters were much more significant in HI than HRW. The results of this study provides the basic data for the mechanism research and application of molecular hydrogen in the future.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ratos/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácido Úrico/análise , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Água/química
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 368-373, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a organophosphate insecticide widely used in agriculture with attendant adverse health outcomes. Chronic exposure to CPF induces oxidative stress and elicits harmful effects, including hepatic dysfunction. Molecular hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) could protect rats from hepatotoxicity caused by sub-chronic exposure to CPF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were treated with hydrogen-rich water by oral intake for 8 weeks. Biochemical indicators of liver function, SOD and CAT activity, GSH and MDA levels were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Liver cell damage induced by CPF was evaluated by histopathological and electron microscopy analysis. PCR array analysis was performed to investigated the effects of molecular hydrogen on the regulation of oxidative stress related genes. RESULTS: Both the hepatic function tests and histopathological analysis showed that the liver damage induced by CPF could be ameliorated by HRW intake. HRW intake also attenuated CPF induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by restored SOD activities and MDA levels. The results of PCR Array identified 12 oxidative stress-related genes differentially expressed after CPF exposure, 8 of chich, including the mitochondrial Sod2 gene, were significantly attenuated by HRW intake. The electron microscopy results indicated that the mitochondrial damage caused by CPF was alleviated after HRW treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF induced hepatotoxicity, and the oxidative stress signaling and the mitochondrial pathway may be involved in the protection of molecular hydrogen.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(6): 534-544, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable prediction of progression patterns and failure sites for patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma is valuable for physicians to deliver personalized tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 266 patients who had stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and received first-line TKI treatment from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai Chest Hospital. The clinical characteristics at initial diagnosis, progression patterns, and failure sites were analyzed with the attempt to identify some predictive factors for progression patterns and failure sites. RESULTS: Among all patients, 62.4% developed systemic progression, and 37.6% developed oligoprogression. Both cohorts had a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9 months. The percentage of patients who developed original and distant failure was 39.1% and 60.9%, respectively. Patients with oligometastasis at initial diagnosis were more prone to develop oligoprogression (odds ratio [OR], 4.370; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.881-10.151; P = .001), whereas pulmonary metastasis was negatively correlated with oligoprogression (OR, 0.567; 95% CI, 0.330-0.974; P = .04). Both oligometastasis diagnosis (OR, 2.959; 95% CI, 1.347-6.500; P = .007) and the maximum diameter of the primary lung lesion (threshold 3.25 cm: OR, 3.646; 95% CI, 2.041-6.515; P = .0001) were strong predictive factors for original failures. Osseous metastasis at initial diagnosis might be an indication for distant failure (OR, 0.536; 95% CI, 0.316-0.909; P = .021). CONCLUSION: Over one-half of patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma receiving first-line TKI treatment developed systemic progression and distant failure. Metastasis patterns at initial diagnosis was the most important predictive factor for progression patterns and failure sites. The maximum diameter of the primary lung lesion and evidence of osseous metastasis were also found to be significant indicative factors for failure sites.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18841, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported the rs10757274 SNP (present on locus 9p21 in the gene for CDKN2BAS1) might be associated with susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). Owing to mixed and inconclusive results, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between rs10757274 polymorphism and the risk of CAD. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between rs10757274 polymorphism and the risk of CAD. METHODS: All studies of the rs10757274 SNP with CAD that were published between 2007 and 2018 were retrieved from the PubMed database. Meta-analysis was performed with Stata 14.0 software. The effect size of the rs10757274 SNP with CAD risk was assessed based on the odds ratios (ORs) with calculation of 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eleven studies including 52,209 subjects (cases: 7990, controls: 44,219) were included in the final data combination. Pooled overall analyses showed that rs10757274 (allele model: P < .001; dominant model: P < .001; recessive model: P < .001; Heterozygote codominant: P = .002; Homozygote codominant: P < .001) polymorphisms were significantly associated with the likelihood of CAD. Significant heterogeneity between individual studies appears in all 5 models. Further subgroup analyses revealed that rs10757274 polymorphisms were all significantly correlated with the likelihood of CAD and no heterogeneity were observed in West Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that rs10757274 polymorphisms may serve as genetic biomarkers of CAD, especially in West Asians.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , /genética , Humanos
13.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(24): 6473-6479, 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute arterial embolism of the extremities is a surgical emergency. Atrial fibrillation is the major etiology of acute arterial embolism of the extremities. Emergency femoral artery thrombectomy can successfully treat this issue. However, polycythemia vera (PV) may sometimes explain this medical emergency. Recurrent thrombosis in the lower extremities after thrombectomy can be found in patients with PV, and reoperation is needed for this condition. CASE SUMMARY: A 68-year-old man in China suffered from sudden pain in the left lower extremity for 14 h. The examination in the emergency department showed a diagnosis of acute arterial embolism of the extremities combined with PV. The patient's complaint disappeared after repeat emergency thrombectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute arterial embolism of the extremities should be treated carefully, especially those who have recurrent thrombosis after emergency thrombectomy. Clinicians should be aware of PV, a rare cause of acute arterial embolism of the extremities. The combination of thrombectomy, phlebotomy, and antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs may be a suitable therapeutic regimen for these patients.

14.
Eur Radiol ; 29(9): 4742-4750, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitive mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is essential in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. To overcome the difficulty of EGFR gene test in situations where surgery and biopsy samples are too risky to obtain, we tried a noninvasive imaging method using radiomics features and random forest models. METHODS: Five hundred three lung adenocarcinoma patients who received surgery-based treatment were included in this study. The diagnosis and EGFR gene test were based on resections. TKI-sensitive mutations were found in 60.8% of the patients. CT scans before any invasive operation were gathered and analyzed to extract quantitative radiomics features and build random forest classifiers to identify EGFR mutants from wild types. Clinical features (sex and smoking history) were added to the image-based model. The model was trained on a set of 345 patients and validated on an independent test group (n = 158) using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: The performance of the random forest model with 94 radiomics features reached an AUC of 0.802. Its AUC was further improved to 0.828 by adding sex and smoking history. The sensitivity and specificity are 60.6% and 85.1% at the best diagnostic decision point. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that radiomics could not only reflect the genetic differences among tumors but also have diagnostic value and the potential to be a diagnostic tool. KEY POINTS: • Radiomics provides a potential noninvasive method for the prediction of EGFR mutation status. • In situations where surgeries and biopsy are not available, CT image-based radiomics models could help to make treatment decisions. • The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity still need to be improved before the image-based EGFR identifier could be used in clinics.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(8): 5626-5642, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659419

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside Rg1, a ginseng-derived compound, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chemobrain was developed with three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination at a 2-day interval. Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg daily) was given 1 week prior to DAC regimen for 3 weeks. An amount of 10 mg/kg Rg1 significantly improved chemobrain-like behavior in water maze test. In vivo neuroimaging revealed that Rg1 co-treatment reversed DAC-induced decreases in prefrontal and hippocampal neuronal activity and ameliorated cortical neuronal dendritic spine elimination. It normalized DAC-caused abnormalities in the expression of multiple neuroplasticity biomarkers in the two brain regions. Rg1 suppressed DAC-induced elevation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in multiple sera and brain tissues. Rg1 also modulated cytokine mediators and inhibited DAC-induced microglial polarization from M2 to M1 phenotypes. In in vitro experiments, while impaired viability of PC12 neuroblastic cells and hyperactivation of BV-2 microglial cells, a model of neuroinflammation, were observed in the presence of DAC, Rg1 co-treatment strikingly reduced DAC's neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammatory response. These results indicate that Rg1 exerts its anti-chemobrain effect in an association with the inhibition of neuroinflammation by modulating microglia-mediated cytokines and the related upstream mediators, protecting neuronal activity and promoting neuroplasticity in particular brain regions associated with cognition processing.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microglia/patologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/sangue , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espinhas Dendríticas/patologia , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Ratos
16.
Br J Radiol ; 91(1092): 20180334, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: Genetic phenotype plays a central role in making treatment decisions of lung adenocarcinoma, especially the tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-sensitive mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. We constructed three-dimensional convolutional neural networks (CNN) to analyze underlying patterns in CT images that could indicate that EGFR gene mutation status but are invisible to human eyes. METHODS:: From 2012 to 2015, 503 Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma that had underwent surgery were included. Pathological types and EGFR mutation status were tested from surgical resections. EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R) were found in 215/345 (62.3%) and 91/158 (57.6%) patients in the training and independent validation set, respectively. CT images were taken before any invasive operation. The patients were randomly chosen to train the CNNs or validate the CNNs' performance. The performance was quantified using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. RESULTS:: The CNNs showed an AUC of 0.776 (range: 0.702-0.849, p< 0.0001) in the independent validation set and a fusion model of CNNs and clinical features (sex and smoking history) showed an AUC of 0.838 (range: 0.778-0.899, p< 0.0001), accuracy of 77.2%, sensitivity of 75.8% and specificity of 79.1% at the best diagnostic decision point. CONCLUSION:: The CNN exhibits potential ability to identify EGFR mutation status in patients with lung adenocarcinoma which might help make clinical decisions. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: The CNN showed some diagnostic power and its performance could be further improved by increasing the training set, optimizing the network structure and training strategy. Medical image based CNN has the potential to reflect spatial heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(12): 6624-6635, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746208

RESUMO

Background: We aim to analyze the ability to detect epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations on chest CT images of patients with lung adenocarcinoma using radiomics and/or multi-level residual convolutionary neural networks (MCNNs). Methods: We retrospectively collected 1,010 consecutive patients in Shanghai Chest Hospital from 2013 to 2017, among which 510 patients were EGFR-mutated and 500 patients were wild-type. The patients were randomly divided into a training set (810 patients) and a validation set (200 patients) according to a balanced distribution of clinical features. The CT images and the corresponding EGFR status measured by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) method of the patients in the training set were utilized to construct both a radiomics-based model (MRadiomics) and MCNNs-based model (MMCNNs). The MRadiomics and MMCNNs were combined to build the ModelRadiomics+MCNNs (MRadiomics+MCNNs). Clinical data of gender and smoking history constructed the clinical features-based model (MClinical). MClinical was then added into MRadiomics, MMCNNs, and MRadiomics+MCNNs to establish the ModelRadiomics+Clinical (MRadiomics+Clinical), the ModelMCNNs+Clinical (MMCNNs+Clinical) and the ModelRadiomics+MCNNs+Clinical (MRadiomics+MCNNs+Clinical). All the seven models were tested in the validation set to ascertain whether they were competent to detect EGFR mutations. The detection efficiency of each model was also compared in terms of area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. Results: The AUC of the MRadiomics, MMCNNs and MRadiomics+MCNNs to predict EGFR mutations was 0.740, 0.810 and 0.811 respectively. The performance of MMCNNs was better than that of MRadiomics (P=0.0225). The addition of clinical features did not improve the AUC of the MRadiomics (P=0.623), the MMCNNs (P=0.114) and the MRadiomics+MCNNs (P=0.058). The MRadiomics+MCNNs+Clinical demonstrated the highest AUC value of 0.834. The MMCNNs did not demonstrate any inferiority when compared with the MRadiomics+MCNNs (P=0.742) and the MRadiomics+MCNNs+Clinical (P=0.056). Conclusions: Both of the MRadiomics and the MCNNs could predict EGFR mutations on CT images of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The MMCNNs outperformed the MRadiomics in the detection of EGFR mutations. The combination of these two models, even added with clinical features, is not significantly more efficient than MMCNNs alone.

18.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 184(2): 524-537, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28762006

RESUMO

Producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study investigated the algae found in wastewater of a local dairy farm for their potential as biodiesel feedstocks. Thirteen native algal strains were isolated. On the basis of morphology and 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences, one strain was identified to be a member of cyanobacteria, while other 12 strains belong to green algae. After screening, two Scenedesmus strains out of the 13 microalgae isolates demonstrated superiority in growth rate, lipid productivity, and sedimentation properties, and therefore were selected for further scale-up outdoor cultivation. Both Scenedesmus strains quickly adapted to the outdoor conditions, exhibiting reasonably good growth and strong anti-contamination capabilities. In flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs), algal cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids that accounted for over 60% of total lipids with almost 70% being triacylglycerol. In addition, Scenedesmus obliquus had a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, of which the amount of oleic acid (C18:1) was up to 27.11%. Based on these findings, the dairy farm wastewater-isolated Scenedesmus strains represent promising sources of low-cost, high-quality oil for biofuel production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Scenedesmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(29): 24947-24954, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677391

RESUMO

Herein, we report a novel thermal/photoresponsive shape-memory polyurethane network with a pendant azobenzene group by utilizing its anisotropic-isotropic phase transitions and photoresponsive feature concurrently. To achieve this goal, the side-chain liquid crystalline polyurethane networks based on the pendant azobenzene group [SCLCPU(AZO)-Ns] were developed in a well-defined architecture. The smectic C nature of an LC phase in the polyurethane networks was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The well-defined architecture-made SCLCPU(AZO)-N displays two distinct transition temperatures (Ttrans) (Tg and Tcl), with a difference of about 40 °C. Consequently, the excellent triple-shape-memory effect in this network was demonstrated by cyclic thermomechanical analysis. By making full use of the trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene, the reversible bending and unbending behaviors were realized under the light irradiation with wavelengths of 450 and 550 nm, respectively.

20.
Theranostics ; 7(9): 2443-2451, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744326

RESUMO

Nitroreductases (NRs) are bacterial enzymes that reduce nitro-containing compounds. We have previously reported that NR of intestinal bacteria is a key factor promoting berberine (BBR) intestinal absorption. We show here that feeding hamsters with high fat diet (HFD) caused an increase in blood lipids and NR activity in the intestine. The elevation of fecal NR by HFD was due to the increase in either the fraction of NR-producing bacteria or their activity in the intestine. When given orally, BBR bioavailability in the HFD-fed hamsters was higher than that in those fed with normal chow (by +72%, *P<0.05). BBR (100 mg/kg/day, orally) decreased blood lipids in the HFD-fed hamsters (**P<0.01) but not in those fed with normal diet. Clinical studies indicated that patients with hyperlipidemia had higher fecal NR activity than that in the healthy individuals (**P<0.01). Similarly, after oral administration, the blood level of BBR in hyperlipidemic patients was higher than that in healthy individuals (*P<0.05). Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between blood BBR and fecal NR activity (r=0.703). Thus, the fecal NR activity might serve as a biomarker in the personalized treatment of hyperlipidemia using BBR.


Assuntos
Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/farmacocinética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/farmacocinética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fezes/enzimologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrorredutases/análise
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