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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2005883, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825277

RESUMO

Single-molecule electrochemical transistors are a type of novel molecular devices in which the tunneling current through the single-molecule junction is modulated by the electrochemical gate, and is considered a promising candidate to be employed in molecular integrated circuits for building the future "molecular computers." Benefiting from the particular interfacial electrical double layer, the current modulation process can be realized through direct orbital gating as well as electrochemical electron transfer driven by electrode potential, thus significantly enriching the functions of the transistor devices. This review focuses on the transfer characteristics and the performance of several typical types of single-molecule electrochemical transistors and the prospects for the fabrication toward integrated devices.

2.
Plant J ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793980

RESUMO

Endosidin20 (ES20) is a recently identified cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI) that targets the catalytic site of plant cellulose synthase (CESA). Here, we screened over 600 ES20 analogs and identified nine active analogs named ES20-1 to ES20-9. Among these, Endosidin20-1 (ES20-1) had stronger inhibitory effects on plant growth and cellulose biosynthesis than ES20. At the biochemical level, we demonstrated that ES20-1, like ES20, directly interacts with CESA6. At the cellular level, this molecule, like ES20, induced the accumulation of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) at the Golgi apparatus and inhibited their secretion to the plasma membrane. Like ES20, ES20-1 likely targets the catalytic site of CESA. However, through molecular docking analysis using modeled full-length CESA6 structure, we found that both ES20 and ES20-1 might have another target site at the transmembrane regions of CESA6. Besides ES20, other CBIs such as Isoxaben, C17 and Flupoxam are widely used tools to dissect the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis and are also valuable resources for the development of herbicide. Here, based on mutant genetic analysis and molecular docking analysis, we have identified the potential target sites of these CBIs on modeled CESA structure. Some bacteria also produce cellulose, and both ES20 and ES20-1 inhibited bacterial cellulose biosynthesis. Therefore, we conclude that ES20-1 is a more potent analog of ES20 that inhibits intrinsic cellulose biosynthesis in plants and both ES20 and ES20-1 show inhibitory effect in bacterial growth and cellulose synthesis, making them excellent tools for exploring the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis across kingdoms.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4966, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654115

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative retinal disease affecting premature infants. In addition to prematurity itself and oxygen treatment, genetic factors have been suggested to predispose to ROP. We aimed to identify potentially pathogenic genes and biological pathways associated with ROP by analyzing variants from whole exome sequencing (WES) data of premature infants. As part of a multicenter ROP cohort study, 100 non-Hispanic Caucasian preterm infants enriched in phenotypic extremes were subjected to WES. Gene-based testing was done on coding nonsynonymous variants. Genes showing enrichment of qualifying variants in severe ROP compared to mild or no ROP from gene-based tests with adjustment for gestational age and birth weight were selected for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Mean BW of included infants with pre-plus, type-1 or type 2 ROP including aggressive posterior ROP (n = 58) and mild or no ROP (n = 42) were 744 g and 995 g, respectively. No single genes reached genome-wide significance that could account for a severe phenotype. GSEA identified two significantly associated pathways (smooth endoplasmic reticulum and vitamin C metabolism) after correction for multiple tests. WES of premature infants revealed potential pathways that may be important in the pathogenesis of ROP and in further genetic studies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of epi-off corneal cross-linking (CXL) in adolescents with progressive keratoconus (KC). SETTING: Private clinical practice DESIGN:: Nonrandomized prospective clinical trial METHODS:: 230 adolescent patients aged 10-19 years old with progressive keratoconus (increasing maximum keratometry (Kmax) or astigmatism of ≥ 1 D associated with decreased corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA)) underwent CXL. Exclusion criteria were age at time of CXL < 10 years or > 19 years, corneas that were thinner than 400 µm or demonstrated central corneal scarring, history of herpetic eye disease, or pregnancy or nursing. Follow up examinations of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), CDVA, Kmax and minimum pachymetry occurred on 130 eyes at 1 year, 77 eyes at 2 years and 55 eyes at 3 years post-CXL. RESULTS: UCVA significantly improved from preop to 1, 2 and 3 years post-CXL. CDVA significantly improved from preop to 1, 2 and 3 years post-CXL. Kmax significantly reduced (improved) from preop to 1 and 3 years post-CXL and reduced (improved) (p=0.22) from preop to two years post-CXL. Minimum pachymetry decreased significantly from preop to 1, 2 and 3 years post-CXL. CONCLUSIONS: CXL in patients aged 10-19 years old is safe and efficacious, halts progression of KC and can improve UCVA, CDVA and Kmax. Minimum pachymetry decreases and stabilizes post-CXL. Ophthalmologists should encourage adolescent patients with KC to obtain prompt evaluation and possible CXL to halt progression of the disease.

6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 266, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649486

RESUMO

Keratoconus is characterised by reduced rigidity of the cornea with distortion and focal thinning that causes blurred vision, however, the pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown. It can lead to severe visual morbidity in children and young adults and is a common indication for corneal transplantation worldwide. Here we report the first large scale genome-wide association study of keratoconus including 4,669 cases and 116,547 controls. We have identified significant association with 36 genomic loci that, for the first time, implicate both dysregulation of corneal collagen matrix integrity and cell differentiation pathways as primary disease-causing mechanisms. The results also suggest pleiotropy, with some disease mechanisms shared with other corneal diseases, such as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. The common variants associated with keratoconus explain 12.5% of the genetic variance, which shows potential for the future development of a diagnostic test to detect susceptibility to disease.

7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 103: 106318, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588078

RESUMO

The INdividual response to VITamin D (INVITe) trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial of vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IU daily) designed to determine clinical and genetic characteristics that modify the response to vitamin D supplementation. To enhance internal and external validity and reduce cost, the INVITe trial was nested within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), an ongoing prospective observational cohort study. The INVITe trial enrolled a community-based population of 666 racially and ethnically diverse participants from January 2017 to April 2019. This represents 30% of 2210 MESA participants approached for screening, and 96% of those found to be eligible. Barriers to enrollment included delayed initiation of the trial relative to scheduled MESA study visits, a lower number of available MESA participants than expected, and a high prevalence (18%) of high-dose vitamin D supplementation (>1000 IU daily, an exclusion criterion). The final study visit was attended by 611 participants (92%), and median adherence was 98%. Our experience suggests that integration of a randomized trial into an existing observational cohort study may leverage strengths of the source population and enhance enrollment, retention, and adherence, although with limited enrollment capacity. The INVITe trial will use rigorously-collected data to advance understanding of individual determinants of vitamin D response.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571983

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) materials are widely used in optoelectronics, thermodynamics and ultrafast fiber lasers because of their excellent nonlinear optical properties. Silver sulfide (Ag2S) is a kind of 3D material with a unique tetragonal structure and large absorption coefficient. In this paper, a double-balance detection system is used to measure the saturation absorption intensity of Ag2S as 226.6 MW/cm2 and the modulation depth as 13.9%. In the ring fiber laser, Ag2S is used as a saturable absorber (SA) to obtain a stable dual-wavelength mode locking. The center wavelengths of the mode locking are 1536.9 and 1544.5 nm, and the corresponding 3-dB bandwidths are 1.3 and 1.5. nm. By adjusting the polarization controller (PC), a tuning process from two wavelengths to multiple wavelengths is realized, and the tunable width is 13.1 nm. This phenomenon is due to the combined effect of birefringence and nonlinear effects in the cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a multiplexed fiber laser with Ag2S as a SA. The emergence of this result provides a valuable reference information for the multifunctional compact fiber laser, and the formed system can be applied in the fields of fiber sensing, telecommunications and optical communication.

9.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aims to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS: The levels of MRP8/14, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the serum of the patients with AECOPD were determined using ELISA assay. The correlation between the expression of MRP8/14 and TNF-α, IL-1ß, forced expiratory volume in one second FEV1 % pred in AECOPD patients was analyzed using Pearson's correlation assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum MRP8/14 in AECOPD patients. RESULTS: The levels of MRP8/14, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the serum of the patients with AECOPD were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, the expression of MRP8/14 was positively correlated with TNF-α, IL-1ß, and negatively correlated with FEV1 % pred. In addition, the level of serum MRP8/14 in GOLD 3-4 patients was higher than that in GOLD 1 - 2 patients. Meanwhile, the level of serum MRP8/14 in AECOPD patients with mMRC 3 - 4 was higher than that in patients with mMRC 0 - 2. ROC analysis showed that serum MRP8/14 could differentiate AECOPD patients from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, elevated serum MRP8/14 level plays a key role in chronic airway inflammation and may be a useful marker in the diagnosis of AECOPD patients.

10.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599652

RESUMO

Graphene aerogels possessing a three-dimensional (3D) porous netlike structure, good electrical conductivity and ultralow density have been widely regarded as a promising candidate for high-efficiency electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorption. Herein, nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/cobalt-zinc ferrite (NRGO/Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) composite aerogels were synthesized through a solvothermal and subsequent hydrothermal self-assembly two-step method. The results of micromorphology analysis showed that the 3D networks were well constructed through the partial stacking of adjacent NRGO sheets, which were decorated with numerous Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 microspheres. The as-synthesized NRGO/Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 composite aerogels have a very low density (12.1-14.6 mg cm-3) and good compression recovery. Moreover, excellent EMW absorption performance could be achieved through facilely regulating the additive volume of ethylenediamine (i.e. nitrogen doping contents) and filler contents. Impressively, the composite aerogel with a doped nitrogen content of 2.5 wt% displayed the optimal minimum reflection loss (RLmin) of -66.8 dB in the X-band at a thickness of 2.6 mm and the broadest effective absorption bandwidth of 5.0 GHz under an ultrathin thickness of merely 1.6 mm. Meanwhile, the RLmin of NRGO/Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 composite aerogels below -20 dB could be reached in almost the whole tested thickness range (1.4-5.0 mm). Additionally, the potential EMW absorption mechanisms were revealed, which was mainly due to the unique 3D porous netlike structure, synergistic effects among conduction loss, magnetic resonance loss and polarization loss, as well as the balanced attenuation capacity and impedance matching. It was believed that this work provided an alternative way for fabricating strong mechanical graphene-based 3D magnetic/dielectric composites as light-weight and high-efficiency EMW absorbers.

11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548988

RESUMO

Left ventricular thrombosis and cerebral infarction caused by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) are uncommon in infants. We present the case of a 23-month-old girl whose echocardiography revealed a left ventricular thrombus, which resolved after sinus rhythm was restored. The girl had experienced repeated systemic convulsions and high muscular tension of the left limb accompanied by movement disorder. Soon afterward, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed scattered lacunar cerebral infarctions in the right lateral ventricle. The symptoms, signs, and laboratory examination satisfied the diagnosis of left ventricular thrombosis and cerebral infarction caused by recurrent episodes of PSVT. The girl was given antiarrhythmic drugs, including propranolol, esmolol, and amiodarone, intracranial pressure decreasing treatment (mannitol), heart and brain cell nutritional therapy, anticoagulant therapy, and her condition gradually improved. This case report highlights the importance of pediatric PSVT patients' clinical management and that more emphasis should be placed on early recognition and prevention of severe complications. Pediatricians should be trained early recognition of the nonspecific clinical manifestations of PSVT, make effectively and quickly diagnosis by electrocardiogram, evaluation of cardiac function and thrombosis by echocardiography, and termination PSVT as rapidly as possible. Thromboprophylaxis therapy might be considered for recurrent episodes of PSVT.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24207, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530213

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Currently, minute structures, such as cervical nerve roots, can be viewed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences; however, studies comparing multiple sequences in the same set of patients are rare. The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic values of three 3.0-T MRI sequences used in the imaging of cervical nerve roots.This study included 2 phases. In the first phase (n = 45 patients), the most optimal MRI sequence was determined. In the second phase, this MRI sequence was compared with surgical results (n = 31 patients). The three-dimensional double-echo steady-state (3D-DESS), multi-echo data image combination (MEDIC), and 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) sequences were performed to analyze the image quality. Furthermore, the most optimal MRI sequence was compared with surgical results to determine the agreement rate.The image quality scores of the 3 sequences were significantly different (P < .05). The score for 3D-DESS sequence was superior to that of MEDIC sequence, while the score for 3D-SPACE sequence was the worst. For visualization of compressed nerve roots, 3D-DESS sequence was superior to the other 2 sequences in terms of the total quality score and compressed nerve root score. Therefore, 3D-DESS sequence was used for MRI in 31 patients with cervical spondylosis in the second phase of this study. The diagnostic agreement rate was 93.5%.This study concluded that in patients with cervical radiculopathy, the 3D-DESS sequence is superior to the MEDIC and 3D-SPACE sequences and shows a high agreement rate with the surgical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/inervação , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/diagnóstico por imagem , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(4): 5120-5135, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535173

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to use weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to explore the molecular pathogenesis of the emphysema phenotype of COPD. After obtaining lung mRNA expression profiles from ten patients with the emphysema phenotype of COPD and eight controls, emphysema-associated gene modules were identified with WGCNA. Among 13 distinct modules, the green-yellow and brown modules showed the strongest correlations with emphysema severity and lung function and were thus selected as hub modules. On gene ontology analysis, these two modules were mainly enriched in immune response, B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, and collagen fibril organization. Pathway analysis primarily showed enrichment in BCR signaling pathways, ECM receptor interaction, and NF-κB and TGF-ß signaling pathways for the two hub modules. Several genes, including FCRLA, MS4A1, CD19, FKBP10, C1S and HTRA1, among others, were identified as hub genes. Our results shed light on the potential genetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the emphysema phenotype of COPD. However, further research will be needed to confirm the involvement of the identified genes and to determine their therapeutic relevance.

14.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 1533033821997825, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To uncover potential diagnostic biomarkers for endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Quantitative label-free liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) peptidomics strategies were employed to profile 8 cervical mucus (CM) samples, including 3 EAC cases, 2 AIS cases and 3 normal controls (Ctrl). RESULTS: Among the 3721 exclusive peptides identified, 12 (5 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated) endogenous peptides were significantly expressed in EAC compared to healthy controls (EAC/Ctrl); 10 (7 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated) endogenous peptides were significantly expressed in AIS compared to healthy controls (AIS/Ctrl); 11 (6 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) endogenous peptides were significantly expressed in EAC compared to AIS (EAC/AIS) (absolute fold change ≥1.5, Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p-value ≤0.05). Among these identifications, annexin A1 (ANXA1) was found to be down-regulated both in EAC and AIS, and its unique peptide (FIENEEQEYVQTVK) may be promising indicators for cervical glandular epithelial lesions. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to utilize CM peptidomics in cervical glandular malignancies, which may reveal the novel noninvasive biomarkers for EAC and AIS.

15.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525648

RESUMO

Plant diseases have been threatening food production. Controlling plant pathogens has become an important strategy to ensure food security. Although chemical control is an effective disease control strategy, its application is limited by many problems, such as environmental impact and pathogen resistance. In order to overcome these problems, it is necessary to develop more chemical reagents with new functional mechanisms. Due to their special living environment, marine organisms have produced a variety of bioactive compounds with novel structures, which have the potential to develop new fungicides. In the past two decades, screening marine bioactive compounds to inhibit plant pathogens has been a hot topic. In this review, we summarize the screening methods of marine active substances from plant pathogens, the identification of marine active substances from different sources, and the structure and antibacterial mechanism of marine active natural products. Finally, the application prospect of marine bioactive substances in plant disease control was prospected.

16.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 2, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To summarize the characteristics of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation in anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP2) antibody-associated juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). METHODS: Five patients with GI perforation from a JDM cohort of 120 cases are described. Relevant literature was reviewed. RESULTS: Five patients, including four females and one male, were included in the study. The age of onset of these patients ranged from 3.3 to 9.5 years with the median age of 5.0 years. When these patients were complicated by GI perforation, childhood myositis assessment score (CMAS) ranged from 1 to 5 with the median score of 2. Myositis-specific antibody (MSA) spectrum analysis indicated that the five patients were anti-NXP2 antibody positive. The initial symptoms of GI perforation were progressive abdominal pain and intermittent fever. Two patients also presented with ureteral calculus with hydronephrosis and ureteral stricture. Surgery was performed in four patients. One patient failed to undergo a repair as the perforation was high in position. For the other three patients, perforation repair was successful, of which two patients failed due to recurrent perforation. At 24 months postoperative follow-up, one patient was in complete remission on prednisone (Pred) and methotrexate (MTX) treatment, and her ureteral stricture had disappeared. The other four patients died. Adding these cases with 16 other patients described in the literature, the symptom at onset was progressive abdominal pain, which often occurred within 10 months after JDM was diagnosed. Perforation most commonly occurred in the duodenum, although it also occurred at multiple sites or was recurrent. The mortality rate of GI perforation in JDM was 38% (8/21). CONCLUSIONS: All the five perforation cases in our study subjected to MSA analysis were anti-NXP2 antibody positive. The symptom at onset was abdominal pain. The most common site of perforation was the duodenum in the retroperitoneum, and the lack of acute abdominal manifestations prevented early diagnosis. GI perforation may be a fatal complication in JDM, and early diagnosis is very important. More research is needed to determine the pathogenesis and predictive factors of GI perforation in JDM.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 89, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397958

RESUMO

The RNA-binding protein QKI belongs to the hnRNP K-homology domain protein family, a well-known regulator of pre-mRNA alternative splicing and is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. Qki is found highly expressed in developing and adult hearts. By employing the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) to cardiomyocyte differentiation system and generating QKI-deficient hESCs (hESCs-QKIdel) using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, we analyze the physiological role of QKI in cardiomyocyte differentiation, maturation, and contractile function. hESCs-QKIdel largely maintain normal pluripotency and normal differentiation potential for the generation of early cardiogenic progenitors, but they fail to transition into functional cardiomyocytes. In this work, by using a series of transcriptomic, cell and biochemical analyses, and the Qki-deficient mouse model, we demonstrate that QKI is indispensable to cardiac sarcomerogenesis and cardiac function through its regulation of alternative splicing in genes involved in Z-disc formation and contractile physiology, suggesting that QKI is associated with the pathogenesis of certain forms of cardiomyopathies.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Contração Miocárdica/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Actinina/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Precursores de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410852

RESUMO

Obtaining fresh nonlinear optical (NLO) materials is an attractive and challenging topic for the development of laser techniques. Using benchmark AgGaQ2 (Q = S, Se) as the template, new KAg3Ga8Se14 is obtained by a solid-state reaction. Its structure can be built by the intergrowth of 2 : 1 AgGaSe2 and Ga2Se3-like slabs if the K site is occupied by Ag. Powdery KAg3Ga8Se14 demonstrates moderate phase-matchable NLO responses, and a LDT of ca. 2 × AgGaS2. DFT calculations reveal that both AgSe4 and GaSe4 tetrahedral motifs contribute a lot to the NLO performance. This work reveals a new class of promising infrared NLO materials, and the design strategy may apply to other systems.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1764, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469070

RESUMO

Maize is China's largest grain crop. Mechanical grain harvesting is the key technology in maize production, and the kernel moisture concentration (KMC) is the main controlling factor in mechanical maize harvesting in China. The kernel dehydration rate (KDR) is closely related to the KMC. Thus, it is important to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the KMC and KDR in maize, detect relevant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs), and mine relevant candidate genes. Here, 132 maize inbred lines were used to measure the KMC every 5 days from 10 to 40 days after pollination (DAP) in order to calculate the KDR. These lines were genotyped using a maize 55K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. QTNs for the KMC and KDR were detected based on five methods (mrMLM, FASTmrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, pLARmEB, and ISIS EM-BLASSO) in the package mrMLM. A total of 334 significant QTNs were found for both the KMC and KDR, including 175 QTNs unique to the KMC and 178 QTNs unique to the KDR; 116 and 58 QTNs were detected among the 334 QTNs by two and more than two methods, respectively; and 9 and 5 QTNs among 58 QTNs were detected in 2 and 3 years, respectively. A significant enrichment in cellular component was revealed by Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of candidate genes in the intervals adjacent to the 14 QTNs and this category contained five genes. The information provided in this study may be useful for further mining of genes associated with the KMC and KDR in maize.

20.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471004

RESUMO

Designing and developing high-performance microwave absorption (MA) materials for electromagnetic protection and radar detection have received widespread attention. Recently, magnetic-dielectric MA materials have become a research hotspot due to their unique complementary functions and synergy loss mechanism. Herein, we review important research progress of excellent MA systems combining strong magnetic components and dielectric substrates. The functional materials involve magnetic materials, carbon components, semiconductors, polymer and so on. For a comprehensive analysis, current development and challenges are firstly introduced in the background. Modern requirements for microwave energy conversion are elaborated in the following part. To highlight the key points, more attention has been paid to the magnetic-dielectric synergy microsphere: (i) core/yolk-shell structure, (ii) multi-component assembly and (iii) MOF-derived synergy composites. Meanwhile, classical and typical high-performance MA composites with a multi-loss mechanism are also mentioned in this review paper. Finally, the design principles, electromagnetic synergy, future mechanism exploration and device application are presented, which provides guidance for understanding MA materials.

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