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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146679, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798888

RESUMO

The impacts of two ecological earthworms on the removal of chlortetracycline (CTC, 0.5 and 15 mg kg-1) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil were explored through the soil column experiments. The findings showed that earthworm could significantly accelerate the degradation of CTC and its metabolites (ECTC) in soil (P < 0.05), with epigeic Eisenia fetida promoting degradation rapidly and endogeic Metaphire guillelmi exhibiting a slightly better elimination effect. Earthworms alleviated the abundances of tetR, tetD, tetPB, tetG, tetA, sul1, TnpA, ttgB and intI1 in soil, with the total relative abundances of ARGs decreasing by 35.0-44.2% in earthworm treatments at the 28th day of cultivation. High throughput sequencing results displayed that the structure of soil bacteria community was modified apparently with earthworm added, and some possible CTC degraders, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium and Luteolibacter, were promoted by two kinds of earthworms. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that the reduction of CTC residues, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes owing to earthworm stimulation was responsible for the removal of ARGs and intI1 in soil. Additionally, intI1 declined obviously in earthworm treatments, which could weaken the risk of horizontal transmission of ARGs. Therefore, earthworm could restore the CTC-contaminated soil via enhancing the removal of CTC, its metabolites and ARGs.

2.
Food Chem ; 356: 129667, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831829

RESUMO

In this paper, different types of oleogels were prepared by five gelators including hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), monoacylglycerol (MAG), sodium stearyl lactate (SSL), rice bran wax (RBW) and beeswax (BW), and their applications in cookies were compared. Texture, microstructure, and colour results showed that MAG, RBW and shortening based cookies had similar hardness, porous structure, and L*, a*, b*. MAG and RBW exhibited excellent rheological properties similar to shortening. Regarding the consumer sensory evaluation of cookies, RBW, MAG and shortening had similar scores of 3.9, 4.3 and 4.1, respectively. For wax-based oleogels, the higher the content of ß' crystal and solid fat content (SFC), the lower the hardness of cookies, but the cookies hardness of emulsifier based oleogels do not depend on ß' content and SFC. This paper confirmed the best gelators for cookies, and provided a reference for developing the oleogels to match the quality of shortening in cookies.

3.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(3): 456-465, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875080

RESUMO

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique is most commonly used to treat alveolar bone defect. Polylactic acid (PLA) attracts much attention to utilize as a GBR membrane because it has relatively high mechanical strength and biodegradability. However, randomized controlled trials of PLA as a GBR membrane in animals were rare. The aim of this work is to observe the efficacy of polylactic acid membrane in guiding bone regeneration in Beagle canine alveolar bone defect restoration and to compare efficacy with the collagen membrane, providing an experimental basis for further clinical use of the polylactic acid membrane. The tests of physical and chemical properties showed that the PLA membrane has well mechanical strength to maintenance the space for the new bone, and has proper aperture for the attachment of osteoblasts. Through X-ray and histopathological examination of the different time points, the bone grafting material covered with PLA membrane can form similar mature bone compared to collagen membrane ones. Meanwhile, biodegradable speed of the PLA membrane was slower. Thus, this study showed that polylactic acid membrane as synthetic biodegradable polymer was reliably effective in guiding bone regeneration of alveolar bone defects, showed the favorable osteogenic capability and forecasts well applications in bone augmentation.

4.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822213

RESUMO

The results generated from large psychiatric genomic consortia show us some new vantage points to understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. We explored the potential of integrating the transcription output of the core gene underlying the commonality of psychiatric disorders with a clustering algorithm to redefine psychiatric disorders. Our results showed that an extended MHC region was associated with the common factor of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) at the level of genomic significance, with rs7746199 (P = 4.905e-08), a cis-eQTL to the gene ZNF391, pinpointed as a potential causal variant driving the signals in the region. Gene expression pattern of ZNF391 in the brain led to the emergence of 3 biotypes, independent of disorder. The 3 biotypes performed significantly differently in working memory and demonstrated different gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal orbital gyrus (RIFOG), with a partial causal pathway arising from ZNF391 to RIFOG to working memory. Our study illustrates the potential of a trans-diagnostic, top-down approach in understanding the commonality of psychiatric disorders.

5.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649909

RESUMO

The present study aims to explore the roles of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the hypertrophic scar and its underlying mechanism. The levels of CGRP were determined in human hypertrophic scar and mouse cutaneous scar using ELISA and Western blot. In in vivo studies, A cutaneous excision mouse model was established and treated with exogenous CGRP or CGRP antagonist. In in vitro studies, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated and treated with exogenous CGRP in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). qRT-PCR and Western blot were applied to determine the mRNA and protein levels of scar formation and inflammation-related genes, respectively. Flow cytometry was operated to determine the populations of macrophages in the scar. Elevated levels of CGRP were observed in the hypertrophic scar. In the cutaneous excision mouse model, treatment of exogenous CGRP or CGRP antagonist-affected scar formation-related genes including Col1, Tgfb1, and α-SMA, inflammation-related genes including Il1b, Il6, Tnfa, and Ccl2, and CD45+F4/80+ macrophage. In LPS-induced BMDMs, treatment of exogenous CGRP also altered inflammation-related genes by regulating NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways. The ameliorated effects of CGRP on inflammation in hypertrophic scar formation are associated with its regulative effects on NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways.

6.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675188

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for complications of perforator flaps in plantar reconstruction. A systematic review was performed by searching the PubMed, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases from their inception date up to October 2020. Only studies on reconstructing plantar defects with perforator flaps were included, and specific data were required for each patient in the included studies. A total of 14 studies involving 111 flaps were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis identified two risk factors for postoperative complications: flap size over 50 cm2 (risk ratio [RR] = 3.12; P = .02), diabetes mellitus foot (RR = 3.26; P = .03). No significant differences were found regarding heel defects (P = .34), single perforator (P = .57), age older than 60 years (P = .19), chronic aetiology (P = .13), trauma (P = .33), tumour resection (P = .60), ulcer (P = .84), and burn (P = .76). Although more high-quality studies with adequate sample sizes are needed, this meta-analysis indicated that flap size over 50 cm2 and diabetes mellitus foot were significant risk factors for postoperative complications of perforator flaps in plantar reconstruction.

7.
Physiol Res ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676388

RESUMO

Asprosin, coiled-coil domain-containing 80(CCDC80) and angiopoietin-like 4(ANGPTL4) are newly discovered adipocytokine that affects glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate if a relationship exists among asprosin, CCDC80 and ANGPTL4 and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fifty subjects with newly diagnosed IBD and fifty healthy individuals were enrolled. Patients were treated with standard therapies for 3 months. Plasma asprosin, CCDC80 and ANGPTL4 levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High resolution ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery diameter at rest, after reactive hyperemia (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate. Compare with healthy individuals, plasma CCDC80,erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher (p < 0.05, respectively), whereas plasma asprosin, ,ANGPTL4 levels and FMD were significantly lower in both UC and CD patients(p <0.05). Plasma CCDC80 levels were significantly higher in patients with CD (p < 0.05), while plasma asprosin and ANGPTL4 levels were lower (pP < 0.05) as compared with those in patietns with UC. Standard therapies increased plasma asprosin, ANGPTL4 levels and FMD in both UC and CD (p<0.05),UC and CD patientswhile decreased plasma CCDC80, ESR, CRP levels and HOMA-IR (p<0.05). The changes in HOMA-IR and FMD were correlated with the changes in plasma asprosin, CCDC80 and ANGPTL4 levels over the study period (p<0.05). Plasma asprosin, CCDC80 and ANGPTL4 levels may be applied as a significant marker for early stage of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in IBD, especially of CD.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 780: 146591, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770597

RESUMO

Overuse and co-exposure of pesticides have become a public health problem and threat seriously water health and environmental organisms and even humans. Chlorothalonil (CT) and imidacloprid (IMI) are high-selling pesticides worldwide, which can persist in the environment, and present a series of severely toxic effects on non-target animals. However, the effect of co-application on aquatic organisms is unknown. Based on the concept of the toxic unit (TU), toxic interaction of CT and IMI was evaluated and showed the additive and synergistic toxicity on Ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp) kidney cell line (CIK cells). Cell death analysis found an obvious increase of the apoptosis and necrosis rates exposed to CT and IMI, and aggravation when applied together. Moreover, CT and IMI co-exposure accelerated the inhibition of CYP450s/ROS/HIF-1α signal, the decline of energy metabolism, mitochondrial dynamics disorder, activation of Bcl2/Bax/Cyt C/Casp3/Casp9 pathway and RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway. Bioinformatics analysis showed autophagy, cell response, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway might be affected by co-exposure. In summary, the above results indicate that co-exposure to CT and IMI has synergistic toxicity and aggravates cell death via inhibition of the CYP450s/ROS/HIF-1α signal. These data provide new insights for evaluating the stacking interaction and revealing the toxicological effects of pesticide mixture.

9.
Neuroscience ; 461: 118-129, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689862

RESUMO

Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common complication of stroke and has long been a serious threat to human health. PSD greatly affects neurological recovery, quality of life and mortality. Recent studies have shown that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an important epigenetic modification, is enriched in the brain and associated with many neurological diseases. However, its role in PSD is still unclear. In this study, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and spatial restraint stress were used to successfully induce a PSD mouse model and resulted in reduced 5hmC levels, which were caused by Tet2. Furthermore, genome-wide analysis of 5hmC revealed that differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) were associated with PSD. DhMRs were enriched among genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, neuron development and learning or memory. In particular,DhMRs were strongly enriched in genes with lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) binding motifs. Finally, we demonstrated that decreases in TET2 expression in the brain caused PSD by decreasing Wnt/ß-catenin/LEF1 pathway signaling to promote inflammatory factor IL-18 expression. In conclusion, our data highlight the potential for 5hmC modification as a therapeutic target for PSD.

10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1316: 103-115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740246

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of myeloid cells with immature phenotypes and immunosuppressive functions. This population of cells has been extensively studied over the past decade owing to an increasing recognition of their pivotal role in pathological conditions including cancers, infectious diseases, sepsis, and autoimmune diseases. Various treatments targeting MDSCs are currently under development or in clinical trials with the aim to restore functional immunity against tumors or pathogens. Recent advances in immune metabolism demonstrate the role of metabolic pathways, especially lipid metabolism, in the differentiation and function of MDSCs in tumor environments. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of lipid metabolism in MDSCs would facilitate the development of novel therapies against tumors through metabolic reprograming of MDSCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Neoplasias , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Células Mieloides
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146281, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721639

RESUMO

The widespread presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in a variety of agricultural inputs has led to PAE contamination in soils and farm products. The endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity of PAEs have attracted much attention. Our research investigated the characteristics of PAE pollution in the soils of vegetable fields and adjacent stable crop fields in four provinces/municipalities across a major agricultural production area in China. We found that the concentrations of PAEs in vegetable soils were not significantly higher than those in stable crop soils. The noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) to humans were calculated to represent the risk posed by PAEs. The results showed that diet was the main route for noncarcinogenic risks from PAEs in crop soil and vegetable soils. Because of the combined effect of the population dietary structure and the concentration of PAEs in soils, the noncarcinogenic risks from PAEs in crop soils were similar to or higher than those in vegetable soils. The same pattern was also applicable to the carcinogenic risk from DEHP. Low noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by DEHP and DBP indicated that the current level of PAEs in soils did not decrease the safety of agricultural products in the Huang-Huai-Hai region. Stable crop soil, as a non-negligibly phthalate-polluted area, is worthy of as much attention as vegetable soil. This study provides scientific support for food safety risk assessment and control of PAE pollution in the main agricultural production areas in China.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668732

RESUMO

A growing body of work has been devoted to studying the smartphone addiction in youths and its impact on their lives, but less is known about the predictors and effects of youth habitual use of smartphones. Guided by social cognitive theory, this study investigates how habitual smartphone use affects sleep quality and everyday memory based on a nationally representative sample of Chinese students (N = 2298). It uses a cluster-randomized sampling with stratification of different areas, consisting of both urban and rural students aged 6-18 years from elementary, middle, and high schools across China. It found that Chinese students exhibited a habitual smartphone use, who were generally confident in using mobile devices, but few had smartphone addiction. Significant gender and age differences were identified concerning the habitual use of smartphone. Specifically, boys demonstrated higher levels of habitual use and smartphone self-efficacy than the girls. High school students showed the highest level of habitual smartphone use compared to those in elementary and middle schools. Smartphone use duration, frequency, and self-efficacy predicted the habitual use, which also led to poorer sleep quality and worse memory outcomes. Prebedtime exposure moderated the relationship between habitual smartphone uses and sleep quality. The results show that students' habitual smartphone use had a significant impact on their health, cognition and more, even when they exhibited little smartphone addiction. The findings contribute to a better understanding of smartphone impact on school-age youths.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 930-938, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as sustained attention cognitive deficit are consistently reported to be impaired in bipolar disorders. However, whether these deficits exist across mood states and euthymic state are lacking. We compared rs-FC of IFG and sustained attention of bipolar patients in (hypo) mania, depression and euthymia, with controls. We also explored the interrelationships between clinical, cognitive, and imaging measurements. METHODS: Participants included 110 bipolar subjects: 46 manic/hypomanic, 35 euthymic, and 29 depressed, matched with 41 healthy controls (HCs) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI scans. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were performed focused on bilateral IFG seeds. Clinical symptoms and sustained attention function were measured. Stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted to explore predictors of sustained attention measurements. RESULTS: Increased rs-FC between right IFG and bilateral frontal pole/superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, as well as decreased rs-FC between right IFG and sensorimotor areas, anterior middle cingulate gyrus were found in all three bipolar subgroups compared with HCs. Impaired sustained attention measurement was found in bipolar manic/hypomanic and depressive subgroups compared with HCs. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant impact of the manic symptoms and psychotic symptoms on the performance of sustained attention task. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that IFG seed-based resting-state functional networks involved in emotion regulation and cognitive function were trait-like deficit in bipolar patients. Higher manic levels and psychotic symptoms were predictors of a worse sustained attention performance.

15.
Food Chem ; 349: 129208, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578247

RESUMO

The edible films composed ofcarboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), glycerol, mucilage from Chinese yam (DOM)and ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), were prepared by a casting method. To evaluate the applicability for food packaging, prepared films were characterised morphological, physical, rheological, mechanical and barrier properties, performed FT-IR, thermal analysis, and finally investigated the antibacterial activity and acute oral toxicity of films. The surface of films presented irregular arrangement with nanoparticles combined in the networks, suggesting the best "CMC to DOM weight ratio" of approximately 1:1 could provide a smooth surface. The films with 2.0 g ZnO-NPs presented antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria. With the increase of DOM, the antibacterial rate dropped at 400 and 450 µL/mL. The film-forming solutions with higher ZnO-NPs content display shear-thinning properties and liquid-like behaviour. The edible films have a great potential to be used in application in food packaging.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Dioscorea/química , Filmes Comestíveis , Glicerol/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 224, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical profiles and outcomes of cryptococcal meningitis have been shown to vary depending on the underlying condition. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Clinical data of HIV-negative cryptococcal meningitis patients with type II diabetes mellitus (n = 26) and without type II diabetes mellitus (n = 52) referring to the Jiangxi Chest Hospital between January 2012 to December 2018 were analyzed. The data were analyzed using chi square, none-parametric tests, and logistic regression. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: In this study, cryptococcal meningitis patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus had a higher mortality (23.08% vs. 7.69%; P = 0.055), and required longer hospitalization (59.58 vs. 42.88 days; P = 0.132). Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid examinations revealed that cryptococcal meningitis patients with type II diabetes mellitus had higher opening pressure (271.54 vs. 234.23 mmH2O; P = 0.125).The results of multivariate regression analysis revealed that cryptococcal meningitis patients with type II diabetes were more often presented with visual disorders (28.54% vs. 11.54%; [95% CI 0.056-0.705]; p = 0.012), and had higher cerebrospinal fluid protein levels (1027.62 ± 594.16 vs. 705.72 ± 373.88 mg/l; [95% CI 1.000-1.002]; p = 0.016). Among patients with type II diabetes mellitus, nausea and vomiting was more frequent at the initial visit in those died (100% vs. 50%; p = 0.027), and 66% of died type II diabetes mellitus patients were poorly controlled blood glucose level, compared with 30% in survival type II diabetes mellitus patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that cryptococcal meningitis patients with type II diabetes mellitus differ significantly from cryptococcal meningitis patients without type II diabetes mellitus with respect to clinical symptoms such as visual disorders and cerebrospinal fluid examination. The presence of nausea and vomiting among type II diabetes mellitus patients could have implication in mortality.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Meningite Criptocócica/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Inorg Biochem ; 217: 111361, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581611

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution has become an important public and environmental health issue. Xenobiotic receptors (XRs, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, AHR; constitutive androstane receptor, CAR; pregnane X receptor, PXR) modulate downstream cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s) expression to metabolize xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. However, the underlying mechanisms of cardiotoxicity induced by Cd(II) in swine and the roles of XRs and CYP450s remain poorly understood. In this study, the cardiotoxicity of Cd(II) was investigated by establishing a Cd(II)-exposed swine model (CdCl2, 20 mg Cd/Kg diet). Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the apoptosis. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by free radicals contents and antioxidant enzymes activities. RT-PCR and western blot were used to measure the expression of XRs, CYP450s and apoptosis-related genes. Our results revealed that Cd(II) exposure activated the XRs and increased the CYP450s expression, contributing to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cd(II) exposure restrained the antioxidant capacity, causing oxidative stress. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38) was activated, triggering the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In brief, we concluded that Cd(II) caused mitochondrial pathway apoptosis in swine myocardium via the oxidative stress-MAPK pathway, and XRs-mediated CYP450s expression might participate in this process through promoting the ROS.

18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 117: 107843, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between clinical spectrum and therapeutic outcomes and neuropsychological deficits in children with status epilepticus during sleep (SES). METHODS: The clinical spectrum of patients with SES was defined as follows: status epilepticus of benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (SEBECTs), atypical benign focal epilepsy during childhood (ABFEC), non-idiopathic focal epilepsy (NIFE), and Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS). SES cases were divided into 4 groups according to neuropsychological findings before treatment: developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), cognitive impairment (CI), attention deficit and/or hyperactivity behaviors (AHD), and normal group (NG). The therapeutic outcomes were classified into 3 groups: satisfactory response, recurrence, and seizure control. RESULTS: A total of 39 cases (24 males and 15 females) were recruited, including 3 cases with SEBECTs, 26 with ABFEC, 8 with NIFE [2 with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD)], and 2 with LKS. There were 7 patients in the DD/ID group, 8 in the CI group, 19 in the AHD group, and 5 in the NG group. Neuropsychological outcomes were significantly different among clinical spectrum (P < 0.001), and neuropsychological deficits frequently occurred in the ABFEC group or in the NIFE group. Besides, 18 patients in the satisfactory group had satisfactory response to medicine or surgery (2 out of 18 cases with FCD), whereas recurrence was observed at least one session within one year in 16 cases in the recurrence group, and no improvement in spike-wave index and cognition/behavior was noted in 5 patients in the seizure control group, although seizure could be controlled. There were significant differences in therapeutic outcomes among clinical spectrum (P = 0.041), with the worst outcomes in the NIFE group (only 1 out of 8 with satisfactory good response). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to categorize patients with SES into epilepsy syndromes, including SEBECTs, ABFPEC, NIFE, and LKS; the clinical spectrum may be a significant determinant to influence the outcomes of SES, including neuropsychological deficits and therapeutic outcomes.

19.
Toxicology ; 453: 152733, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626375

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one common environmental pollutant with systemic toxicity. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) can regulate transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) pathway and alleviate tissue injury via binding to formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway can promote the occurence of necroptosis. However, whether Cd exposure induces necroptosis in swine myocardium and the role of FPR2/TGF-ß/NF-κB pathway in this process are unclear. Hence, we established Cd-exposed swine myocardial injury model by feeding a CdCl2 added diet (20 mg Cd/kg diet). Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe the morphological changes, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed to detect the levels of ion elements in myocardium. We further detected LXA4 and its receptor FPR2, TGF-ß, Nrf2, NF-κB pathway and necroptosis related-genes expressions by RT-PCR and western blot. The results showed that Cd exposure induced necrotic cell death and ion homeostasis imbalance in swine myocardium. Moreover, Cd exposure increased the LXA4 content, inhibited the FPR2 expression, activated TGF-ß pathway and suppressed Nrf2 pathway, activating the NF-κB pathway. In addition, Cd exposure increased the expressions of necroptosis related-genes TNF-α, TNFR1, RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL. It indicated Cd exposure induced necroptosis via FPR2/TGF-ß/NF-κB pathway, revealing the potential mechanism of Cd-induced cardiotoxicity in swine myocardium.

20.
J Neuroimmunol ; 352: 577479, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in southern China. METHODS: Clinical data of children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis from October 2014 to June 2020 from one national regional medical center were analyzed. Neurological disability was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) throughout the course of disease. RESULTS: 111 children (M/F = 49/62; mean onset age = 6.8 y) with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were involved. Prodromal events occurred in 34.2% of patients with infectious events being the most common. Seizure was the most common initial symptom, though movement disorder served as the most common event throughout the course of disease. 9.9% of patients had overlapped with other neuronal autoantibodies. Electroencephalogram showed abnormalities with slow wave (100.0%), epileptic discharge (31.5%) and delta brush (8.1%) respectively. 41.4% of patients had abnormal brain MRI, with focal lesions being the most common. None patients had tumor. 80.9% of patients had good response to first line therapy (steroid plus immunoglobulin), while 14 patients accepted second-line therapy (Rituximab) and all had a good response. Boys were significantly more likely to need more course of steroid. 13.8% of patients relapsed. 2 male patients died. mRS score was significantly improved after treatment. 51.4% of patients had a full recovery and 81.7% had mRS score ≤ 2. The median mRS score of boys after treatment was higher than that of girls. Non-infectious prodromal event, past medical history, perivascular lesions in brain MRI, hospital stay, initial mRS score higher than 3, and RTX treatment were independent risk factors associated with poor prognosis, defined as mRS score > 2. CONCLUSION: Of pediatric anti-NMDAR encephalitis in southern China: median onset age around 7 years; girls more common; boys might have poor outcome than girls; seizure or movement disorder respectively being most common onset or course symptom; a few overlapped with other neuronal autoantibodies; rare combined with tumor; most had a good response to immunotherapy and a good prognosis; relapse rate relatively high; fatality rate relatively low; some risk factors associated with poor prognosis.

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