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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5563-5566, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019238

RESUMO

Wandering pattern classification is important for early recognition of cognitive deterioration and other health conditions in people with dementia (PWD). In this paper, we leverage the orientation data available on mobile devices to recognize dementia-related wandering patterns. In particular, we propose to use deep learning (DL) with long short-term memory networks (LSTM) as classifiers for detecting travel patterns including direct, pacing, lapping and random. Experimental results on a real dataset collected from 14 subjects show that deep LSTM classifiers perform better than traditional machine learning (ML) classifiers. Our proposed method can thus be potentially used in healthcare applications for dementia related wandering monitoring and management.Clinical Relevance- This demonstrates the potential of using readily available yet non-privacy information to detect dementia-related wandering patterns with high accuracy.

2.
Genome Biol Evol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045048

RESUMO

Dendrobium huoshanense is used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies have identified active components. However, the lack of genomic data limits research on the biosynthesis and application of these therapeutic ingredients. To address this issue, we generated the first chromosome-level genome assembly and annotation of D. huoshanense. We integrated PacBio sequencing data, Illumina paired-end sequencing data, and Hi-C sequencing data to assemble a 1.285 Gb genome, with contig and scaffold N50 lengths of 598 kb and 71.79Mb, respectively. We annotated 21,070 protein-coding genes and 0.96 Gb transposable elements, constituting 74.92% of the whole assembly. In addition, we identified 252 genes responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional annotation. Our data provide a basis for further functional studies, particularly those focused on genes related to glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and have implications for both conservation and medicine.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 851, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051436

RESUMO

The factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1) is a transcription suppressor and an important proto-oncogene that plays multiple roles in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. In the present work, our results indicated that FBI-1 enhanced the resistance of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells to chemotherapeutic agents by repressing the expression of micoRNA-30c targeting the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The expression of FBI-1 was positively related to PXR and its downstream drug resistance-related genes in TNBC tissues. FBI-1 enhanced the expression of PXR and enhanced the activation of the PXR pathway. The miR-30c decreased the expression of PXR by targeting the 3'-UTR of PXR, and FBI-1 increased the expression of PXR by repressing miR-30c's expression. Through the miR-30c/PXR axis, FBI-1 accelerated the clearance or elimination of antitumor agents in TNBC cells (the TNBC cell lines or the patients derived cells [PDCs]) and induced the resistance of cells to antitumor agents. Therefore, the results indicated that the miR-30c/PXR axis participates in the FBI-1-mediated drug-resistance of TNBC cells.

4.
Bioorg Chem ; 105: 104363, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075665

RESUMO

Twenty-four new limonoids, toonaolides A-X (1-24), characterized with an α,ß-unsaturated-γ-lactone A-ring were isolated from the twigs of Toona ciliata. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data, X-ray diffraction crystallography, and quantum chemistry calculations. Most of the isolated compounds (except 9, 18, and 24 which possessed the maleimide ring) featured the rare 21-hydroxybutenolide or 23-hydroxybutenolide moieties. In particular, compound 1 has an unprecedented limonoid architecture with 6/6 cis-fused A/B ring system and 2 has an unusual tetrahydrofuran ring B skeleton, featuring a 7/5/6/5 ring system. The biological evaluation showed that compounds 9, 11, 12, 14, and 18 exhibited significantly anti-NLRP3 inflammasome activity with IC50 values ranging from 3.2 to 9.7 µM. Analysis of IL-1ß and caspase-1 expression revealed that compounds 11 and 12 are selective inhibitors of NLRP3 inflammasome, which could ameliorate cell pyroptosis by blocking NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111742, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075697

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the specific bacterial distribution and the response of bacterial communities to shifts in environmental factors in the subtropical Beibu Gulf, southern China. The abundances of Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Planctomycetia, Thermoleophilia, Anaerolineae, and Synechococcophycideae were significantly higher in high eutrophic samples than in medium eutrophic and oligotrophic samples. Bacterial alpha-diversity was found greater in high eutrophication samples than in the other samples. Besides, Ponticaulis koreensis, Nautella italic, Anaerospora hongkongensis, Candidatus Aquiluna rubra, and Roseovarius pacificus were sensitive to trophic variation and thus could be used as eco-markers. In addition, the relative abundances of functional genes involving carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were very high among the samples. We also found temperature, Chl-a, TDN and NO3- were the main environmental drivers of bacterial community structure. Overall, this study provides new insight into the composition of bacterial community and function response to gradients of eutrophication in Beibu Gulf.

6.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1 is a member of background K+ channels that are thought to provide baseline regulation of membrane excitability. Recent studies have highlighted the putative role of TREK-1 in the action of antidepressants, and its antagonists might be potentially effective antidepressants. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of TREK-1 are not yet fully understood. METHODS: The expression of TREK-1 was examined in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) using immunoblotting. Neuron-specific genetic manipulation of TREK-1 was performed through adeno-associated virus. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behaviors. Electrophysiological recordings were used to evaluate synaptic plasticity. Golgi staining was used to examine neuroplasticity. RESULTS: TREK-1 expression was increased in the mouse hippocampus after CUMS. Knockdown of TREK-1 in hippocampal neurons significantly attenuated depressive-like behaviors and prevented the decrease of CUMS-induced synaptic proteins in mice. Further examination indicated that neuron-specific knockdown of TREK-1 in the hippocampus prevented stress-induced impairment of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the CA1 region. Moreover, chronic TREK-1 inhibition protected against CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors and impairment of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a role for TREK-1 in the modulation of synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of depression. These findings will provide insight into the pathological mechanism of depression and further evidence for a novel target for antidepressant treatment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894717

RESUMO

Hand movement in humans is verified as asymmetries and lateralization, and two hemispheres make some distinct but complementary contributions in the control of hand movement. However, little research has been done on whether the information transfer of the motor system is different between left and right hand movement. Considering the importance of functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) between the motor cortex and contralateral muscle in movement assessment, this study aimed to explore the differences between left and right hand by investigating the interaction between muscle and brain activity. Here, we applied the transfer spectral entropy (TSE) algorithm to quantize the connection between electroencephalogram (EEG) over the brain scalp and electromyogram (EMG) from extensor digitorum (ED) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles recorded simultaneously during a gripping task. Eight healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Results showed that left hand yielded narrower and lower beta synchronization compared to the right. Further analysis indicated coupling strength in EEG-EMG(FDS) combination was higher at beta band than that in EEG-EMG(ED) combination, and exhibited distinct differences between descending (EEG to EMG direction) and ascending (EMG to EEG direction) direction. This study presents the distinctions of beta-range FCMC between left and right hand, and confirms the importance of beta synchronization in understanding the mechanism of motor stability control. The cortex-muscle FCMC might be used as an evaluation approach to explore the difference between left and right movement system.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141780, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882471

RESUMO

Because ambient ozone (O3) has fine spatial scale variability in addition to a large scale regional distribution, accurate exposure predictions for population health studies need to also capture fine spatial scale differences in exposure. To address these needs, we developed a 3-year average land use regression (LUR) and combined LUR and Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) by incorporating a national area variability LUR model for China from 2015 to 2017 along with data that take into account incompleteness of O3 monitoring data into a BME framework. Spatio-temporal kriging models that either included or did not include "soft" data were used for comparison. The final LUR model included five predictor variables: road length within a 1000 m buffer, temperature, wind speed, industrial land area within a 3000 m buffer and altitude. The 1-year predicted O3 concentrations based on the ratio method moderately agreed with the measured concentration, and the regression R2 values were 0.53, 0.57 and 0.59 in the year of 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. The LUR/BME model performed better (R2 = 0.80, root mean squared error [RMSE] = 23.5 µg/m3) than the ordinary spatio-temporal kriging model that either included "soft" data (R2 = 0.57, RMSE = 49.2 µg/m3) or did not include the "soft" data (R2 = 0.52, RMSE = 58.5 µg/m3). We have demonstrated that a hybrid LUR/BME model can provide accurate predictions of O3 concentrations with high spatio-temporal resolution at the national scale in mainland China.

9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(19): 115679, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912430

RESUMO

The therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus infections has significantly improved with the development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which contain NS3/4A protease, NS5A, and NS5B polymerase inhibitors. However, mutations in specific residues in these viral target genes are associated with resistance to the DAAs. Especially inhibitors of NS3/4A protease and NS5A, such as grazoprevir and velpatasvir, have a low barrier to resistant mutations. As a result, the mutations influence the virological outcomes after DAA treatment. CypA inhibitors, as host-targeted agents, act on host factors to inhibit HCV replication, exhibiting a high resistance barrier and pan-genotype activities against HCV. Therefore, they can be developed into alternative, more effective anti-HCV agents. However, CypA inhibitors are natural products and analogs. Based on previous studies, bisamide derivatives were designed and synthesized to develop a novel class of CypA inhibitors. Bisamide derivative 7c is a promising compound with potent anti-HCV activity at subtoxic concentrations. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that 7c directly binds to CypA. All these studies indicated that the derivative 7c is a potent CypA inhibitor, which can be used as a host-targeted agent in combination with other antiviral agents for anti-HCV treatment.

10.
Nat Prod Rep ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869826

RESUMO

Covering: 2000 to 2020Machine learning (ML) is an efficient tool for the prediction of bioactivity and the study of structure-activity relationships. Over the past decade, an emerging trend for combining these approaches with the study of natural products (NPs) has developed in order to manage the challenge of the discovery of bioactive NPs. In the present review, we will introduce the basic principles and protocols for using the ML approach to investigate the bioactivity of NPs, citing a series of practical examples regarding the study of anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory NPs, etc. ML algorithms manage a variety of classification and regression problems associated with bioactive NPs, from those that are linear to non-linear and from pure compounds to plant extracts. Inspired by cases reported in the literature and our own experience, a number of key points have been emphasized for reducing modeling errors, including dataset preparation and applicability domain analysis.

11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880470

RESUMO

Biofilms are the universal lifestyle of bacteria enclosed in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the contact surfaces of food processing facilities. The EPS-encapsulated foodborne bacterial pathogens are the main food contaminant sources, posing a serious threat to human health. The microcrystalline, sophisticated and dynamic biofilms necessitate the development of conventional microscopic imaging and spectral technology. Nanosensors, which can transfer the biochemical information into optical signals, have recently emerged for biofilm optical detection with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution at nanoscale scopes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to clarify the main detection scope in biofilms and the detection principles of optical nanosensors arousing Raman enhancement, fluoresce conversion and color change. The difficulties and challenges of biofilm characterization including the secretion and variation of main biochemical components are first discussed, the details about the principles and application examples of bioassays targeting foodborne pathogens based on optical nanosensors are then summarized. Finally, the challenges and future trends in developing optical nanosensors are also highlighted. The current review indicates that optical nanosensors have taken the challenges of detecting biofilm in complex food samples, including the characterization of biofilm formation mechanism, identification of microbial metabolic activities, diagnosis of potential food pathogens and sanitation monitoring of food processing equipment. Numerous in-depth explorations and various trials have proven that the bioassays based on multifunctional optical nanosensors are promising to ensure and promote food safety and quality. However, there still remains a daunting challenge to structure reproducible, biocompatible and applicable nano-sensors for biofilm characterization, identification, and imaging.

12.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 35: 100832, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892959

RESUMO

Despite growing knowledge about autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research findings have not been translated into curative treatment. At present, most therapeutic interventions provide for symptomatic treatment. Outcomes of interventions are judged by subjective endpoints (eg, behavioral assessments) which alongside the highly heterogeneous nature of ASD account for wide variability in the effectiveness of treatments. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is one of the first treatments that targets a putative core pathologic feature of autism, specifically the cortical inhibitory imbalance that alters gamma frequency synchronization. Studies show that low frequency TMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with ASD decreases the power of gamma activity and increases the difference between gamma responses to target and nontarget stimuli. TMS improves executive function skills related to self-monitoring behaviors and the ability to apply corrective actions. These improvements manifest themselves as a reduction of stimulus bound behaviors and diminished sympathetic arousal. Results become more significant with increasing number of sessions and bear synergism when used along with neurofeedback. When applied at low frequencies in individuals with ASD, TMS appears to be safe and to improve multiple patient-oriented outcomes. Future studies should be conducted in large populations to establish predictors of outcomes (eg, genetic profiling), length of persistence of benefits, and utility of booster sessions.

13.
Org Lett ; 22(20): 7820-7824, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991190

RESUMO

Euphopias A-C (1-3), three rearranged jatrophane-type diterpenoids with tricyclo[8.3.0.02,7]tridecane (1 and 2) and tetracyclo[11.3.0.02,10.03,7]hexadecane (3) cores, were isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia. Comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, quantum-chemical calculations, and X-ray diffractions were used to identify their structures. Compounds 1-3 could significantly inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and block NLRP3 inflammasome-induced pyroptosis. Additionally, a mechanistic study revealed that 2 could ameliorate mitochondria damage, thereby interrupting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

14.
J Nat Prod ; 83(9): 2545-2558, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935986

RESUMO

A phytochemical study on the aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus led to the isolation and identification of 38 labdane diterpenoids, including 18 new (1, 2, 11, 12, 16-21, 24, 30-34, 37, 38) and 20 known (3-10, 13-15, 22, 23, 25-29, 35, 36) analogues. Their structures were elucidated based on physical data analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, UV, IR, and X-ray diffraction. The structure of the known compound 4 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. These compounds can be divided into furanolabdane (1-10), tetrahydrofuranolabdane (11-15), lactonelabdane (16-23), labdane (24-29), and seco-labdane (30-38) type diterpenoids. All compounds were screened by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric acid (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects. Compounds 1, 5, 10-13, 16-19, 31-33, and 38 inhibited NO production with IC50 values lower than 50 µM, with compound 30 being the most active, with an IC50 value of 3.9 ± 1.7 µM. Further studies show that compound 30 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production and IKK α/ß phosphorylation and restores the IκB expression levels in the NF-κB signaling pathway.

15.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 15(1): 189, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997231

RESUMO

The defects into the hexagonal network of a sp2-hybridized carbon atom have been demonstrated to have a significant influence on intrinsic properties of graphene systems. In this paper, we presented a study of temperature-dependent Raman spectra of G peak and D' band at low temperatures from 78 to 318 K in defective monolayer to few-layer graphene induced by ion C+ bombardment under the determination of vacancy uniformity. Defects lead to the increase of the negative temperature coefficient of G peak, with a value almost identical to that of D' band. However, the variation of frequency and linewidth of G peak with layer number is contrary to D' band. It derives from the related electron-phonon interaction in G and D' phonon in the disorder-induced Raman scattering process. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism of temperature-dependent phonons in graphene-based materials and provide valuable information on thermal properties of defects for the application of graphene-based devices.

16.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990746

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of eutrophication on heterotrophic bacteria, a primary responder to eutrophication, is critical for predicting the responses of ecosystems to marine environmental pollution. Vibrio are indigenous in coastal water and of significance to geochemical cycling and public health. In this study, we investigated the diversity and assembly features of Vibrio, as well as their relationship with the environmental factors in the subtropical Beibu Gulf. We found that the alpha-diversity of Vibrio increased in parallel with the trophic state they occupy. A Mantel test indicated that the trophic state was correlated to Vibrio beta-diversity, and the correlation gradually strengthened at higher trophic states. Variation partitioning analysis suggested that the geographic distance was an important factor impacting the variables of Vibrio communities in all the samples, but nutrients exerted more influence in the more highly eutrophic samples. Our results demonstrated that stochastic processes govern the turnover of marine Vibrio communities in the Beibu Gulf, and that ecological drift was the most important process for the assembly of the Vibrio communities.

17.
J Food Biochem ; : e13443, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815169

RESUMO

Hepatic damage has been recognized as one of the major complications in diabetes mellitus. Our previous studies have verified that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) played a protective effect on hepatic damage of diabetes. We used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics here to identify the alterant mitochondrial protein profile in diabetic liver and to seek the protective targets of GSPB2. Proteomics found that 171 proteins were upregulated or downregulated in the liver mitochondria of diabetic group compared to the control group. Of these proteins, 61 were normalized after GSPB2 treatment. These back-regulated proteins are involved in the process of fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Some differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by western blotting. Our study might help to better understand the mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic liver damage, and provide novel targets for estimating the protective effects of GSPB2. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a polyphenolic component found in red wine and grapes, has beneficial effects such as antioxidative stress, antiapoptosis, and cardiovascular protection. We used proteomics here to identify the differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins in diabetic liver after GSPB2 treatment and to seek the protective targets of GSPB2. We found that the differentially expressed proteins were involved in carbon metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, citrate cycle, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. These proteins may play a key role in diabetic hepatic damage as functional proteins. Targeting these proteins including apply of GSPB2 could potentially lead to an effective treatment in the diabetic hepatic disease.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of high-concentration iodinated contrast medium (CM) with 70 kVp tube voltage on high-pitch dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Fifty-eight CHD patients underwent high-pitch DSCT in 2 protocols: 70 kVp tube voltage, 1.0 mL/kg CM volume, 370 mg I/mL concentration (group A); 80 kVp tube voltage, 1.5 mL/kg CM volume, 350 mg I/mL concentration (group B). The diagnostic accuracy, image quality, iodine delivery rate, iodine dose, and radiation dose were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy (P > 0.05), image quality (P > 0.05) and iodine delivery rate (P > 0.05) between the 2 groups. The iodine dose (P < 0.05) and radiation dose (P < 0.05) in group A were significantly lower than those in group B. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in iodine dose and radiation exposure can be achieved with 70 kVp high-pitch DSCT by administering a smaller volume of high-concentration CM in children with CHD.

19.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 203, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pigs are important animals for agricultural and biomedical research, and improvement is needed for use of the assisted reproductive technologies. Determining underlying mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in the early stage of preimplantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenesis, and androgenesis will not only contribute to assisted reproductive technologies of pigs but also will shed light into early human development. However, the reprogramming of three-dimensional architecture of chromatin in this process in pigs is poorly understood. RESULTS: We generate three-dimensional chromatin profiles for pig somatic cells, IVF, parthenogenesis, and androgenesis preimplantation embryos. We find that the chromosomes in the pig preimplantation embryos are enriched for superdomains, which are more rare in mice. However, p(s) curves, compartments, and topologically associated domains (TADs) are largely conserved in somatic cells and are gradually established during preimplantation embryogenesis in both mammals. In the uniparental pig embryos, the establishment of chromatin architecture is highly asynchronized at all levels from IVF embryos, and a remarkably strong decompartmentalization is observed during zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Finally, chromosomes originating from oocytes always establish TADs faster than chromosomes originating from sperm, both before and during ZGA. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight a potential unique 3D chromatin pattern of enriched superdomains in pig preimplantation embryos, an unusual decompartmentalization process during ZGA in the uniparental embryos, and an asynchronized TAD reprogramming between maternal and paternal genomes, implying a severe dysregulation of ZGA in the uniparental embryos in pigs.

20.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two labdane diterpenoids, leojapone B and heteronone B, were isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt., and their biological activity were evaluated in this study. METHODS: Human and mouse cancer cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were used to evaluate the activity of leojapone B and heteronone B, while the in vivo effects of leojapone B were further examined in Lewis Lung Cancer tumour-bearing mice. KEY FINDINGS: In vitro studies showed that leojapone B selectively inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells, and both leojapone B and heteronone B inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in activated PBMCs. In tumour-bearing mice model, lung tumours were reduced in size in mice treated with intraperitoneal injections of leojapone B at 20 and 30 mg/kg for 14 days. The population ratio of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells in mouse spleens was found to be increased, while regulatory T cells were decreased after leojapone B treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibitory effects of leojapone B in mouse lung tumours were demonstrated for the first time in this study. The immunomodulatory activity of heteronone B were also demonstrated. Our findings indicated that both leojapone B and heteronone B may act as active components in L. japonicus.

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