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1.
Exp Eye Res ; 193: 107949, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006561

RESUMO

Retinal detachment (RD) results in disruption of retinal physiology and visual function. Although surgical intervention has been well-developed to restore the retinal anatomic structure, post-op progression of visual function decline is prominent in a large proportion of patients. Therefore, the establishment of a disease model that accurately mimics RD pathogenesis is crucial to mechanistic study and drug screening. General protocols to induce RD in mice are frequently associated with complications leading to model instability and reduced reproducibility. In this study, we established a stable and reproducible mice RD model with a detached area of over 90% and rare complications. Briefly, the modified method was realized by vitreous humor extraction to reduce intraocular pressure, followed by directly-visible hyaluronic acid injection into subretinal space. The detachment of retina was confirmed by fundus photography, and progressive thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) was determined by HE staining. Apoptotic signals were prominent in the ONL. Consistently, visual function was significantly compromised as determined by ERG. Moreover, retinal vasculature appeared to remodel and acquired winding, twisted and dilated structures illustrated by 3D reconstruction. In addition, activation of Müller cells and microglia, and infiltration of blood-derived macrophages were detected locally. Collectively, we have established a modified protocol to model RD with increased stability, reproducibility and fewer complications, and 3D high-resolution imaging and reconstruction of vasculature could provide new tools to evaluate this model.

2.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The accumulation of amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) decreases cerebral blood flow in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is believed to be the initiator of this disorder. As a traditional Chinese medicine, Yangxue Qingnao (YXQN) improves cerebral insufficiency and attenuates cognitive impairment, showing potential against AD. But whether YXQN has ability to block Aß self-aggregation is rarely reported. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigate the effects of YXQN on Aß accumulation and its mediated cytotoxicity using a range of biochemical, biophysical and cell-based approaches. METHODS: Thioflavin T assay, transmission electron microscope and 1H NMR experiments were used to investigate the effects of YXQN on Aß fibrogenesis and aggregation. Far-UV CD spectra was acquired to assess the alteration of YXQN on the conformation of the amyloid protein. Three short Aß42 peptides (AA 1-16, AA 17-33 and AA 28-42) were designed to analyse the Aß42 epitope to which YXQN components bind. The effect of YXQN on Aß-induced cytotoxicity was investigated through SH-SY5Y cell viability assay. RESULTS: We provide evidence showing that YXQN clearly reduces Aß42 fibrillogenesis and alters its ß-sheet conformation, indicating the inhibition of primary nucleation of amyloid protein. Using the different Aß short peptides, residues 17-33 were identified as the target epitope for YXNQ components interacting with Aß42. Furthermore, in the SH-SY5Y cell injury model, our data show that high-dose YXQN attenuates amyloid-induced cytotoxicity approximately 60% and effectively ameliorates cell distortion in morphology. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, YXQN exerts a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting Aß42 toxic aggregation, which has the potential to combat AD.

3.
Food Chem ; 311: 125878, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771910

RESUMO

ß-Carotene is a natural nutrient that serves as a natural food colorant. However, the weak physical stability restricts its development in food industrial production. Here, the influences of a variety of external environmental conditions on the stability of ß-carotene enriched zein-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-tea polyphenols (TP) ternary composite nanoparticles were investigated. Compared with zein unitary and zein-CMCS binary complexes, it was interesting to note that ternary complexes had the best stability against color fading and there was little impact on its nanoparticle size during storage with change in temperature. Besides excellent antioxidant properties, ternary complexes were extremely effective in inhibiting ß-carotene color degradation when exposed to ultraviolet light. Based on our results, the novel zein-CMCS-TP nanoparticles are expected to be an effective delivery system to encapsulate hydrophobic bioactive compounds, which is a promising approach to improve their storage stability against external environmental stresses.

4.
J Exp Bot ; 71(3): 1092-1106, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639824

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic process involved in the degradation of protein aggregates, which plays critical roles in eukaryotes. In plants, multiple molecular processes can induce or suppress autophagy but the mechanism of its regulation by phytohormones is poorly understood. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that play crucial roles in plant response to stresses. Here, we investigate the role of BRs in NBR1-dependent selective autophagy in response to chilling stress in tomato. BRs and their signaling element BZR1 can induce autophagy and accumulation of the selective autophagy receptor NBR1 in tomato under chilling stress. Cold increased the stability of BZR1, which was promoted by BRs. Cold- and BR-induced increased BZR1 stability activated the transcription of several autophagy-related genes (ATGs) and NBR1 genes by directly binding to their promoters, which resulted in selective autophagy. Furthermore, silencing of these ATGs or NBR1 genes resulted in a decreased accumulation of several functional proteins and an increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, subsequently compromising BR-induced cold tolerance. These results strongly suggest that BRs regulate NBR1-dependent selective autophagy in a BZR1-dependent manner in response to chilling stress in tomato.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109644, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer (GC) development are very complicated. Recent studies revealed that DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-related protein (DC-SIGNR) is involved in colon cancer and GC biological processes. However, the exact roles of DC-SIGN in GC remain unrevealed. METHODS: DC-SIGN overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed by using DC-SIGN shRNA or DC-SIGN plasmid to investigate the biological roles of DC-SIGN in proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro. Furthermore, the lncRNA profiles of SGC-7901 cells with control shRNA and DC-SIGN shRNA were generated by using microarray analysis. Mechanistically, the relationship between DC-SIGN, RP11-181G12.2 and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was then investigated using qRT-PCR and western blot assays. Additionally, we analyzed DC-SIGN and RP11-181G12.2 expression levels in GC specimens based on the Cancer Genome Atlas database. RESULTS: In this study, the results showed that DC-SIGN was highly expressed in GC cells and significantly correlated with advanced clinical stage and lymphatic metastasis. Downregulation of DC-SIGN significantly inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro. The reverse results could partly be seen with the upregulation of DC-SIGN. Mechanistically, knockdown of DC-SIGN inactivated the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, and overexpression of DC-SIGN activated the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, through LncPath microarray analysis, we identified a lncRNA, RP11-181G12.2, that was significantly upregulated after knockdown of DC-SIGN; this was also confirmed by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, RP11-181G12.2 knockdown enhanced DC-SIGN expression in GC cells, further activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. In contrast, DC-SIGN overexpression suppressed RP11-181G12.2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that DC-SIGN might be involved in the progression of GC by regulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and affecting lncRNA RP11-181G12.2 expression.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(51): 20249-20260, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793304

RESUMO

Novel actinide cluster fullerenes, U2C2@Ih(7)-C80 and U2C2@D3h(5)-C78, were synthesized and fully characterized by mass spectrometry, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, UV-vis-NIR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, as well as density functional and multireference wave function calculations. The encapsulated U2C2 is the first example of a uranium carbide cluster featuring two U centers bridged by a C≡C unit. The U-C bond distances in these U2C2 clusters are in the range between 2.130 and 2.421 Å. While the U2C2 cluster in U2C2@C80 adopts a butterfly-shaped geometry with a U-C2-U dihedral angle of 112.7° and a U-U distance of 3.855 Å, the U-U distance in U2C2@C78 is 4.164 Å and the resulting U-C2-U dihedral angle is increased to 149.1°. The combined experimental and quantum-chemical results suggest that the formal U oxidation state is +4 in the U2C2 cluster, and each U center transfers three electrons to the C2n cage and one electron to C2. Different from the strong U═C covalent bonding reported for U2C@C80, the U-C bonds in U2C2 are less covalent and predominantly ionic. The C-C triple bond is somewhat weaker than in HCCH, and the C-C π bonds undergo donation bonding with the U centers. This work demonstrates that the combination of the unique encapsulation effect of fullerene cages and the variable oxidation states of actinide elements can lead to the stabilization of novel actinide clusters, which are not accessible by conventional synthetic methods.

7.
J Safety Res ; 70: 89-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drivers' collision avoidance performance in an impending collision situation plays a decisive role for safety outcomes. This study explored drivers' collision avoidance performances in three typical collision scenarios that were right-angle collision, head-on collision, and collision with pedestrian. METHOD: A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to design the scenarios and conduct the experiment. 45 participants took part in the simulator experiment. Drivers' longitudinal/lateral collision avoidance performances and collision result were recorded. RESULTS: Experimental results showed that brake only was the most common response among the three collision scenarios, followed by brake combining swerve in head-on and pedestrian collision scenarios. In right-angle collision scenario with TTC (time to collision) largest among three scenarios, no driver swerved, and meanwhile drivers who showed slow brake reaction tended to compensate the collision risk by taking a larger maximum deceleration rate within a shorter time. Swerve-toward-conflict was a prevalent phenomenon in head-on and pedestrian collision scenarios and significantly associated with collision risk. Drivers that swerved toward the conflict object had a shorter swerve reaction time than drivers that swerved away from conflict. CONCLUSIONS: Long brake reaction time and wrong swerve direction were the main factors leading to a high collision likelihood. The swerve-toward-conflict maneuver caused a delay in brake action and degraded subsequent braking performances. The prevalent phenomenon indicated that drivers tended to use an intuitive (heuristic) way to make decisions in critical traffic situations. Practical applications: The study generated a better understanding of collision development and shed lights on the design of future advanced collision avoidance systems for semi-automated vehicles. Manufactures should also engage more efforts in developing active steering assistance systems to assist drivers in collision avoidance.

8.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(48): 7713-7722, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755881

RESUMO

Cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), which controls cellular functions through biological or physicochemical cues. In particular, cartilage tissues have abundant ECM that is viscoelastic and provides the necessary signals for the maintenance of chondrocyte activity and metabolism. The influence of ECM stiffness on chondrocyte functions has been broadly investigated using elastic hydrogels. However, it is not clear how viscosity impacts chondrocyte functions. In this study, a biphasic gelatin solution/hydrogel system was established for the three-dimensional culture of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs) to investigate the influence of gelatin solution viscosity on chondrocyte proliferation, ECM secretion and the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype. Gelatin solutions of different viscosities supported chondrocyte proliferation and ECM production. However, the cell morphology, proliferation rate, secreted ECM quantity and gene expression levels were different, and these were dependent on the viscosity of the gelatin solutions. Low-viscosity solutions were more beneficial for proliferation, while high-viscosity solutions were more beneficial for ECM production and the expression of collagen type II and aggrecan. Chondrocytes had a more spread morphology in a low-viscosity gelatin solution than in a high-viscosity gelatin solution. The results suggested that high-viscosity was more beneficial for the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, while low viscosity was more beneficial for cell expansion. Viscosity was demonstrated as one of the key parameters affecting cell morphology, proliferation and phenotype.

9.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 153, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) mainly results from overexpression and down-regulation of AR. Sumoylation of AR can influence its function. However, regulation of AR sumoylation by SUMO E3 ligases PIASs to modify AR distribution and stability are not well understood. METHODS: We assessed the potential effect of SUMO3 modification on AR intracellular localization by immunostaining in AR-negative prostate cancer DU145 cells, and detected the effect of PIAS1/SUMO3 overexpression on AR sumoylation related degradation. Then we characterized AR sumoylation sites involved modified by SUMO3, and the key residue of PIAS1 involved in itself sumoylation and further mediated AR sumoylation (sumo3-conjugated), translocation and degradation. Finally we detected the recognition of PIAS1 (sumoylation ligase) to MDM2, a ubiquin ligase mediated AR degradation. RESULTS: We demonstrate that SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1, along with SUMO3, mediates AR cytosolic translocation and subsequent degradation via a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Although AR sumoylation occurs prior to ubiquitination, the SUMO-acceptor lysine 386 on AR, together with ubiquitin-acceptor lysine 845, contribute to PIAS1/SUMO3-induced AR nuclear export, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Moreover, PIAS1 itself is modified by SUMO3 overexpression, and mutation of SUMO-acceptor lysine 117 on PIAS1 can impair AR cytoplasmic distribution, demonstrating the essential role of sumoylated PIAS1 in AR translocation. We further determine that sumoylated PIAS1 interacts with AR lysine 386 and 845 to form a binary complex. Consistent with the effect on AR distribution, SUMO3 modification of PIAS1 is also required for AR ubiquitination and degradation by recruiting ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. CONCLUSION: Taken together, SUMO3 modification of PIAS1 modulates AR cellular distribution and stability. Our study provided the evidence the crosstalk between AR sumoylation and ubquitination mediated by PIAS1 and SUMO3.

10.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680290

RESUMO

Both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are associated with bone health, but studies exploring the effects of Cd and Pb co-exposure on bone health are rare. This study aimed to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Pb co-exposure on bone health. In total, 799 participants, living in the targeted areas (located in southwestern China) for more than 15 years, aged 40-75 years, and subsisted on homegrown rice and vegetables were investigated. Cd and Pb levels in urine and blood samples, as well as bone mineral density, T- and Z-score were determined. After being adjusted for covariates, the T-score was negatively correlated with blood Pb in men (P < .05); for women and non-smoking women, the T-score was negatively correlated with urinary Pb (P < .05). Moreover, after being adjusted for covariates, the Z-score was negatively correlated with urinary Pb in non-smoking women (P < .05). No positive association of prevalence of osteoporosis with Cd and Pb exposure was found. However, at an additive scale, positive interactions of urinary Cd and Pb on the prevalence of osteoporosis for women and non-smoking women, and the same interactions to blood Cd and Pb for men were found. There was also a positive interaction of urinary Cd and Pb for women at a multiplicative scale. This study suggests Cd and Pb exposure could exert detrimental effects on bone health, with possible underlying interactions. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to explore the interactive effects of heavy metal co-exposure.

11.
Open Med (Wars) ; 14: 772-777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667355

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the risk factors and drug resistance of MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in pneumonia patients. Methods: From January 2013 to February 2016, 98 pneumonia patients with MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in our hospital ICU were selected as the observation group, and 49 pneumonia patients with not-MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in our hospital ICU were selected as the control group in accordance with the proportion of 2:1. Sputum samples were collected from the two groups for drug resistance, and the risk factors and prognosis of MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in pneumonia patients were given survey analysis. Results: The observation group was highly resistant to cefotaxime, piperacillin, imipenem, levofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and ceftazidime, and was only sensitive to polymyxin. In addition to piperacillin, polymyxin B, the other antimicrobial drug resistance rates in the control group was significantly lower than in the observation group (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that diabetes, infection before hospitalization, admission 24h score of APACHE II and GCS scores, deep venous catheterization, and mechanical ventilation were related to the MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in pneumonia patients(P<0.05). Non conditional logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes mellitus, infection before hospitalization, admission 24h score of APACHE II and GCS scores were the independent risk factors for the MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in pneumonia patients(P<0.05). Conclusion: MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in pneumonia patients in ICU is common, where diabetes infection before hospitalization, admission 24h score of APACHE II and GCS scores are the main risk factors, and the vast majority of the antibiotics are resistant to the MDR Acinetobacter baumannii that can lead to poorer prognosis and followed-up of patients with increased mortality.

12.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722502

RESUMO

In this article, the event-triggered security consensus problem is studied for time-varying multiagent systems (MASs) against false data-injection attacks (FDIAs) and parameter uncertainties over a given finite horizon. In the process of information transmission, the malicious attacker tries to inject false signals to destroy consensus by compromising the integrity of measurements and control signals. The randomly occurring stealthy FDIAs on sensors and actuators are modeled by the Bernoulli processes. In order to reduce the unnecessary utilization of communication resources, an event-triggered control mechanism with state-dependent threshold is adopted to update the control input signal. The main objective of this article is to design a controller such that, under randomly occurring FDIAs and admissible parameter uncertainties, the MASs achieve consensus. By utilizing stochastic analysis method, two sufficient criteria are derived to ensure that the prescribed H∞ consensus performance can be achieved. Then, the desired controller gains are derived by solving recursive linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed control method.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714219

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the leading causes of permanent blindness in the working-age population. Automatic grading of DR and DME helps ophthalmologists design tailored treatments to patients, thus is of vital importance in the clinical practice. However, prior works either grade DR or DME, and ignore the correlation between DR and its complication, i.e., DME. Moreover, the location information, e.g., macula and soft hard exhaust annotations, are widely used as a prior for grading. Such annotations are costly to obtain, hence it is desirable to develop automatic grading methods with only image-level supervision. In this paper, we present a novel cross-disease attention network (CANet) to jointly grade DR and DME by exploring the internal relationship between the diseases with only image-level supervision. Our key contributions include the disease-specific attention module to selectively learn useful features for individual diseases, and the disease-dependent attention module to further capture the internal relationship between the two diseases. We integrate these two attention modules in a deep network to produce disease-specific and diseasedependent features, and to maximize the overall performance jointly for grading DR and DME. We evaluate our network on two public benchmark datasets, i.e., ISBI 2018 IDRiD challenge dataset and Messidor dataset. Our method achieves the best result on the ISBI 2018 IDRiD challenge dataset and outperforms other methods on the Messidor dataset. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/xmengli999/CANet.

14.
Eur J Immunol ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777959

RESUMO

The role of complement system in heart diseases is controversial. Besides, the mechanisms by which complement components participate in cardiac remodeling (CR) and heart failure during uremia are unclear. In this study, 5/6 nephrectomy was performed to adult mice to establish the uremic model and CR deteriorated over the course of uremia. Although complement pathways were not further activated over the course of the disease, soluble complement factor B (CFB) was upregulated at post-nephrectomy day 90 (PNx90) compared with PNx30. Further, CFB notably deteriorated CR in uremic mice but this effect was reversed by depletion of macrophages with liposomal clodronate. In vivo and in vitro CFB upregulated arginase 1 (ARG1) expression, increased ARG1 enzymatic activity, and stimulated the syntheses of ornithine, leading to polyamine overproduction in macrophages. Putrescine, an important polyamine, promoted cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen production, resulting in progressive CR. In vivo the inhibition of ARG1 activity with Nω -hydroxyl-l-arginine remarkably improved the general survival rates, inhibited the infiltration of cardiac fibroblasts, and alleviated progression of CR in uremic mice. Taken together, the CFB-ARG1-putrescine axis is related to progression of CR and ARG1 hyperactivity in macrophages may provide a novel therapeutic target against the heart injury in uremia.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(19)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581618

RESUMO

The excellent optoelectronic properties of graphene give it great potential for applications in optical detection. Among the graphenes obtained through many synthetic methods, epitaxial graphene obtained by thermal decomposition on silicon carbide has remarkable advantages for preparing photodetectors. In this research, epitaxial graphene has been successfully prepared on a silicon surface (0001) of semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate with a size of 10 mm × 10 mm and epitaxial graphene has been converted to quasi-free-standing graphene by hydrogen passivation. Two metal-graphene-metal photodetectors were fabricated using the two types of graphenes above and the photo-absorption properties of detectors have been investigated under 650-nm laser illumination with different illumination powers. From a comparison of the performances between the two detectors, it was found that a photodetector fabricated with quasi-free-standing graphene shows enhanced performance under a light power of 0.018 mW. Responsivity and external quantum efficiency reach maxima of 5.11 A/W and 9.74%, respectively. This dramatic improvement is mainly due to the disappearance of the buffer layer in epitaxial graphene, providing a new method to achieve optimization of graphene-based opto-electrical devices.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(10): 2256-2264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592132

RESUMO

Nature has generously offered life-saving therapies to mankind by providing evolutionarily optimized drug-like entities in the form of natural products. These splendid gifts of nature have served as most suitable candidates for anti-cancer drug discovery due to their pleiotropic activity on target molecules. This review aims to provide an update on the natural sources and bioactivities of such gifts from nature, salvianolic acid A & B, which are major bioactive constituents of a traditional Chinses medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salvianolic acid A & B have been reported to owe anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activities. Currently salvianolic acids have been emerged as potent anti-cancer molecules. Salvianolic acid A & B fight cancer progression by prompting apoptosis, halting cell cycle and adjourning metastasis by targeting multiple deregulated signaling networks of cancer. Moreover, salvianolic acid A & B display potency towards sensitizing cancer cells to chemo-drugs. The review purposes that salvianolic acid A & B supply a novel opportunity for drug discovery but further experimentation is mandatory to embellish the knowledge of their pharmacological usage and to access their toxicological limits in order to establish these compounds as potential multitarget future drugs.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511779

RESUMO

The combination of Alismatis Rhizoma (AR) and Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG), as Chinese herb medicine, has been used for their uric acid-lowering effect. However, the effects and mechanism of the combination of the two medicines have not been fully reported. Therefore, to explore the effects of AR-RSG combination decoction on the treatment of chronic hyperuricemia (HUA) in rats as well as the underlying mechanisms, in this study, at the first stage, a long-term HUA rats model was established by gavage of oteracil potassium plus adenine; allopurinol was used as the positive control, and the uric acid-lowering effects of AR or RSG decoction alone with low and high dose were evaluated, respectively. Serum uric acid (UA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) were determined mainly, and pathological analysis of the kidney and liver was carried out after sacrifice of the animals. And then, at the second stage, four dose groups of AR-RSG combination treatment were investigated in HUA rats. In addition to the indicators measured at the first stage, the expression of urate anion exchanger 1 (URAT1) in rat kidney was determined by immunohistochemistry. We discovered that the UA levels of the model group in both stages were significantly and steadily higher than those of control groups. AR and RSG alone or in combination possess ability to decrease serum UA level of HUA rats, with effects more marked in the combination groups. The uric acid-lowering mechanism of AR-RSG combination may be related to its inhibiting activity of XOD, improving kidney damage and downregulating the expression of URAT1 in kidney.

18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105296, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563015

RESUMO

Risky driving states such as aggressive driving and unstable driving are the cause of many traffic accidents. Many studies have used either driving data or physiological data such as electroencephalography (EEG) to estimate and monitor driving states. However, few studies made comparison among those driving-feature-based, EEG-feature-based and hybrid-feature-based (combination of driving features and EEG features) models. Further, limited types of EEG features have been extracted and investigated in the existing studies. To fill these research gaps aforementioned, this study adopts two EEG analysis techniques (i.e., independent component analysis and brain source localization), two signal processing methods (i.e., power spectrum analysis and wavelets analysis) to extract twelve kinds of EEG features for the short-term driving state prediction. The prediction performance of driving features, EEG features and hybrid features of them was evaluated and compared. The results indicated that EEG-based model has better performance than driving-data-based model (i.e., 83.84% versus 71.59%) and the integrated model of driving features and the full brain regions features extracted by wavelet analysis outperforms other types of features with the highest accuracy of 86.27%.


Assuntos
Direção Agressiva/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espectral , Análise de Ondaletas
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5854315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467899

RESUMO

Nature, a vast reservoir of pharmacologically active molecules, has been most promising source of drug leads for the cure of various pathological conditions. Formononetin is one of the bioactive isoflavones isolated from different plants mainly from Trifolium pratense, Glycine max, Sophora flavescens, Pycnanthus angolensis, and Astragalus membranaceus. Formononetin has been well-documented for its anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Recently anticancer activity of formononetin is widely studied. This review aims to highlight the pharmacological potential of formononetin, thus providing an insight of its status in cancer therapeutics. Formononetin fights progression of cancer via inducing apoptosis, arresting cell cycle, and halting metastasis via targeting various pathways which are generally modulated in several cancers. Although reported data acclaims various biological properties of formononetin, further experimentation on mechanism of its action, medicinal chemistry studies, and preclinical investigations are surely needed to figure out full array of its pharmacological and biological potential.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Soja/química , Trifolium/química
20.
Zool Res ; 40(5): 343-348, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393095

RESUMO

Research on in vitro culture and gene editing of domestic spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is of considerable interest but remains a challenging issue in animal science. In recent years, some progress on the isolation, purification, and genetic manipulation of porcine SSCs has been reported. Here, we summarize the characteristics of porcine SSCs as well current advances in their in vitro culture, potential usage, and genetic manipulation. Furthermore, we discuss the current application of gene editing in pig cloning technology. Collectively, this commentary aims to summarize the progress made and obstacles encountered in porcine SSC research to better serve animal husbandry, improve livestock fecundity, and enhance potential clinical use.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas , Edição de Genes , Espermatogônias , Suínos/genética , Animais , Masculino
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