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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722029

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively. METHODS: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021. RESULTS: 21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.

2.
AIDS ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Existing studies examining the impact of the pandemic on engagement in HIV care often capture cross-sectional status, while lacking longitudinal evaluations. This study examined the impact of the pandemic on the longitudinal dynamic change of retention in care and viral suppression status. METHODS: The electronic health record (EHR) data of this population-level cohort study were retrieved from the statewide electronic HIV/AIDS reporting system in South Carolina (SC). The study population was people with HIV (PWH) who had at least one year's symmetric follow up observation record before and after the pandemic. Multivariable generalized linear mixed regression models were employed to analyze the impact of the pandemic on these outcomes, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and preexisting comorbidities. RESULTS: In the adjusted models, PWH had a lower likelihood of retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.806, 95%CI: 0.769, 0.844) and a higher probability of virological failure (aOR: 1.240, 95%CI: 1.169, 1.316) during the peri-pandemic period than pre-pandemic period. Results from interaction effect analysis from each cohort revealed that the negative effect of the pandemic on retention in care was more severe among PWH with high comorbidity burden than those without any comorbidity; meanwhile, a more striking virological failure was observed among PWH who reside in urban areas than in rural areas. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on retention in care and viral suppression among PWH in South Carolina, particularly for individuals with comorbidities and residing in urban areas.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674810

RESUMO

Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) is similar to human bone mineral in structure and biochemistry and is, therefore, widely used as bone biomaterial and a drug carrier. Further, n-HAp composite scaffolds have a great potential role in bone regeneration. Loading bioactive factors and drugs onto n-HAp composites has emerged as a promising strategy for bone defect repair in bone tissue engineering. With local delivery of bioactive agents and drugs, biological materials may be provided with the biological activity they lack to improve bone regeneration. This review summarizes classification of n-HAp composites, application of n-HAp composite scaffolds loaded with bioactive factors and drugs in bone tissue engineering and the drug loading methods of n-HAp composite scaffolds, and the research direction of n-HAp composite scaffolds in the future is prospected.


Assuntos
Durapatita , Engenharia Tecidual , Humanos , Durapatita/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Portadores de Fármacos
5.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 11(2): 350-359, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643030

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The study established and compared the efficacy of the clinicoradiological model, radiomics model and clinicoradiological-radiomics hybrid model in predicting the microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced MRI. Methods: This was a study that enrolled 602 HCC patients from two institutions. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) method was used to screen for the most important clinicoradiological and radiomics features that predict MVI pre-operatively. Three machine learning algorithms were used to establish the clinicoradiological, radiomics, and clinicoradiological-radiomics hybrid models. Area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Delong's test were used to compare and quantify the predictive performance of the models. Results: The AUCs of the clinicoradiological model in training and validation cohorts were 0.793 and 0.701, respectively. The radiomics signature of arterial phase (AP) images alone achieved satisfying predictive efficacy for MVI, with AUCs of 0.671 and 0.643 in training and validation cohort, respectively. The combination of clinicoradiological factors and fusion radiomics signature of AP and VP images achieved AUCs of 0.824 and 0.801 in training and validation cohorts, 0.812 and 0.805 in prospective validation and external validation cohorts, respectively. The hybrid model provided the best prediction results. The results of the Delong test revealed that there were statistically significant differences among the clinicoradiological-radiomics hybrid model, clinicoradiological model, and radiomics model (p<0.05). Conclusions: The combination of clinicoradiological factors and fusion radiomics signature of AP and VP images based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can effectively predict MVI.

6.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 128, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721006

RESUMO

The development of high-precision optogenetics in deep tissue is limited due to the strong optical scattering induced by biological tissue. Although various wavefront shaping techniques have been developed to compensate the scattering, it is still a challenge to non-invasively characterize the dynamic scattered optical wavefront inside the living tissue. Here, we present a non-invasive scattering compensation system with fast multidither coherent optical adaptive technique (fCOAT), which allows the rapid wavefront correction and stable focusing in dynamic scattering medium. We achieve subcellular-resolution focusing through 500-µm-thickness brain slices, or even three pieces overlapped mouse skulls after just one iteration with a 589 nm CW laser. Further, focusing through dynamic scattering medium such as live rat ear is also successfully achieved. The formed focus can maintain longer than 60 s, which satisfies the requirements of stable optogenetics manipulation. Moreover, the focus size is adjustable from subcellular level to tens of microns to freely match the various manipulation targets. With the specially designed fCOAT system, we successfully achieve single-cellular optogenetic manipulation through the brain tissue, with a stimulation efficiency enhancement up to 300% compared with that of the speckle.


Assuntos
Optogenética , Tetranitrato de Pentaeritritol , Camundongos , Animais , Ratos , Encéfalo , Luz
7.
Eur J Radiol ; 160: 110712, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the determinants of diurnal variations in lumbar intervertebral discs and paraspinal muscles. METHOD: 71 females aged 19 âˆ¼ 31 years were examined by morning-evening T2 mapping/diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), with weight and lifestyle information (time in night bed-rest [TIB], bed-napping, activity time, and sitting time) assessed by standardized questionnaires. Diurnal shifts in T2, mean diffusivity and mean kurtosis (T2-DS, MD-DS and MK-DS; morning-value minus evening-value) were evaluated for L4-S1 discs (normal, Pfirrmann grade Ⅰ/Ⅱ; degenerative, III/IV). T2 and T2-DS were assessed for L4/5 multifidus and erector spinalis. RESULTS: For normal discs, bed-napping correlated with MD-DS and MK-DS in disc entirety (p = 0.001 and 0.004); increased activity time suggested higher T2-DS in nucleus pulposus (p = 0.004); prolonged sitting time predicted greater T2-DS in disc entirety and posterior inner annulus fibrosus (PI-AF, p ≤ 0.011); decreased TIB and weight suggested lower T2-DS and higher MK-DS in PI-AF (p = 0.001 âˆ¼ 0.035). For degenerative discs, bed-napping predicted lower T2-DS in nucleus pulposus and PI-AF (p = 0.019); increased TIBsuggested higher T2-DS and lower MK-DS in PI-AF (p = 0.006 and 0.034); longer sitting time predicted higher MK-DS in PI-AF (p = 0.020). Paraspinal muscles exhibited diurnal T2 variation (p < 0.001) which did not correlate with lifestyle factors (p > 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle and weight have causal effects on the diurnal variation of lumbar discs. Bed-rest may correlate with disc hydration and microstructural stability reserves for subsequent daytime activities. Sitting behavior could induce greater dehydration in normal discs and may alleviate diurnal microstructural rearrangement in degenerative discs. T2 mapping and DKI are promising tools to evaluate disc biomechanics in clinics.

8.
Nanoscale ; 15(4): 1637-1644, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594626

RESUMO

Surface ligand engineering, seed introduction and external driving forces play major roles in controlling the anisotropic growth of halide perovskites, which have been widely established in CsPbBr3 nanomaterials. However, colloidal CsPbI3 nanocrystals (NCs) have been less studied due to their low formation energy and low electronegativity. Here, by introducing different molar ratios of surface acids and amines to limit the monomer concentration of lead-iodine octahedra during nucleation, we report dumbbell-shaped CsPbI3 NCs obtained by the in situ self-assembly of nanospheres and nanorods with average sizes of 89 nm and 325 nm, respectively, which showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 89%. Structural and surface state analyses revealed that the strong binding of benzenesulfonic acid promoted the formation of a Pb(SO3-)x-rich surface of CsPbI3 assembly structures. Furthermore, the addition of benzenesulfonic acid increases the supersaturation threshold and the solubility of PbI2 in a high-temperature reaction system, and controls effectively the lead-iodine octahedron monomer concentration in the second nucleation stage. As a result, the as-synthesized CsPbI3-Sn NCs exhibited different assembly morphologies and high PLQYs, among which the role of sulfonate groups can be further verified by UV absorption and surface characteristics. The strategy provides a new frontier to rationally control the surface ligand-induced self-assembly structures of perovskites.

9.
AIDS Care ; : 1-7, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630703

RESUMO

HIV disclosure continues to be a key consideration among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, there is a lack of studies assessing factors associated with HIV disclosure among PLWH in the Southern U.S. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between sociodemographic risk factors and HIV disclosure using a structural equation modeling approach among PLWH in South Carolina. Exploratory factor analysis was used to operationalize HIV disclosure. Structural equation models were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic factors and HIV disclosure among PLWH. Two latent variables were obtained for HIV disclosure: partners (stable partners, spouses, casual partners), and family/friends (parents, grandparents, siblings, children, adult children, friends, and coworkers). After adjusting for confounders, Black populations were less likely to disclose their HIV status to both partners (ß = -0.250, p = 0.006) and family/friends (ß = -0.246, p < 0.001) compared to non-Black populations. As yearly income increased, the likelihood of HIV disclosure to family/friends decreased (ß = -0.300, p = <0.001). As time since diagnosis increased, the likelihood of HIV disclosure to family/friends increased (ß = 0.266, p = 0.001). Future research can assess the feasibility of implementing disclosure interventions that are geared towards Black, high income and newly diagnosed PLWH and the associations of psychosocial factors and HIV disclosure.

10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280429, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701338

RESUMO

We first qualitatively divide the cycle of an infectious disease outbreak into five distinct stages by following the adoption categorization from the diffusion theory. Next, we apply a standard mechanistic model, the susceptible-infected-recovered model, to simulate a variety of transmission scenarios and to quantify the benefits of various countermeasures. In particular, we apply the specific values of the newly infected to quantitatively divide an outbreak cycle into stages. We therefore reveal diverging patterns of countermeasures in different stages. The stage is critical in determining the evolutionary characteristics of the diffusion process. Our results show that it is necessary to employ appropriate diverse strategies in different stages over the life cycle of an infectious disease outbreak. In the early stages, we need to focus on prevention, early detection, and strict countermeasure (e.g., isolation and lockdown) for controlling an epidemic. It is better safe (i.e., stricter countermeasures) than sorry (i.e., let the virus spread out). There are two reasons why we should implement responsive and strict countermeasures in the early stages. The countermeasures are very effective, and the earlier the more total infected reduction over the whole cycle. The economic and societal burden for implementing countermeasures is relatively small due to limited affected areas, and the earlier the less burden. Both reasons change to the opposite in the late stages. The strategic focuses in the late stages become more delicate and balanced for two reasons: the same countermeasures become much less effective, and the society bears a much heavier burden. Strict countermeasures may become unnecessary, and we need to think about how to live with the infectious disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611104

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, the treatment of AKI still lacks targeted measures. Ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death, plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of AKI. Current evidence proves that targeting ferroptosis is supposed to be a novel potential strategy to cure AKI. In this study, we aim to use bibliometric analysis to identify research trends and hotspots in the field of "ferroptosis in AKI". METHODS: We chose the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) index of the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) as the source database for data retrieval. Data were retrieved from the WoSCC on May 24, 2022. Full records and cited references of all the documents in WoSCC were collected. The R software and the Online Analysis Platform of Literature Metrology were used for data analysis and visual analysis. RESULTS: There were 120 documents on "ferroptosis in AKI" in the WOSCC from 2014 to 2022 (May 24, 2022). There was a clear upward trend each year in the number of documents published. According to WoS report, China, the United States, and Germany were the top three countries involved in this research area, the majority of publications were included in the subject area "Cell Biology". Technical University of Dresden contributed the most publications, followed by Central South University and University of Pittsburgh. The Journal of Cell Death and Disease had the highest H-index and contributed the most publications. Linkermann A authored 16 articles and had the highest H-index. Multifactorial analysis of the keywords show that the research field is divided into two clusters. The most contributing publications and the most cited publications were also determined by factorial analysis. CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis provides a comprehensive analysis of research trends and hot spots on the topic of "ferroptosis in AKI". The study of ferroptosis-related AKI research remains in its early stages. There will be a dramatically increasing number of publications on this field. Further research should focus on exploring the mechanisms of crosstalk between ferroptosis and other programmed cell deaths, and improves clinical applications and therapeutic effects against AKI.

12.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-11, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the pathological characteristics of obesity is fat accumulation of skeletal muscles (SKM) and the myocardium, involving mechanisms of insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism. Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) is an essential gene in both glucose and lipid metabolisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese apoA-IV-knockout mice and subsequent introduction of exogenous recombinant-ApoA-IV protein and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-transformed apoA-IV, we examined lipid metabolism indicators of SKM and the myocardium, which include triglyceride (TG) content, RT-PCR for lipogenic indicators and western blotting for AKT phosphorylation. Similarly, we used high-glucose-fed or palmitate (Pal)-induced C2C12 cells co-cultured with ApoA-IV protein to evaluate glucose uptake, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway, and lipid metabolisms. RESULTS: In stable obese animal models, we find ApoA-IV-knockout mice show elevated TG content, enhanced expression of lipogenic enzymes and diminished phosphorylated AKT in SKM and the myocardium, but both stable hepatic expression of AAV-apoA-IV and brief ApoA-IV protein administration suppress lipogenesis and promote AKT phosphorylation. In a myoblast cell line C2C12, ApoA-IV protein suppresses Pal-induced lipid accumulation and lipogenesis but enhances AKT activation and glucose uptake, and the effect is abolished by a PI3K inhibitor. CONCLUSION: We find that ApoA-IV reduces fat accumulation by suppressing lipogenesis and improves glucose uptake in SKM and the myocardium by regulating the PI3K-AKT pathway.

13.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-14, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596221

RESUMO

To investigate whether adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is associated with survival rate of osteosarcoma patients. A total of 3938 osteosarcoma patients between 1975 and 2016 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were enrolled in this study. Survival rate was obtained by Kaplan-Meier method, with log-rank test identifying the difference. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to explore independent prognostic factors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates in surgery plus adjuvant RT group and surgery alone group were 38.2%, 66.3% (OS), and 41.6%, 68% (CSS), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that adjuvant RT served as the independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS and CSS. Based on the propensity score matching (PSM) method, the patients who received adjuvant RT had a poorer prognosis. Adjuvant RT showed an association with survival of osteosarcoma. Patients who received adjuvant RT had poorer survival. In the clinical use of adjuvant RT for osteosarcoma, the potential for reduced survival should be considered.

14.
Eur J Radiol ; 158: 110641, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a chemical shift-encoded sequence called IDEAL-IQ for detecting sacroiliac joint (SIJ) erosions and fat metaplasia compared to T1-weighted fast spin echo (T1 FSE) using qualitative and quantitative analysis. METHOD: Thirty-four patients with suspicion of sacroiliitis who underwent both MRI and CT were included. Each SIJ was divided into four quadrants for analysis. For qualitative analysis, the diagnostic performance of IDEAL-IQ and T1 FSE for erosions were compared by the McNemar test, using CT as the gold standard. Cochran's Q and McNemar tests were used to determine differences in structural changes detected by different imaging methods. For quantitative analysis, two-sample t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used for the analysis of histogram parameters of proton density fat fraction (PDFF). RESULTS: Diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of IDEAL-IQ were greater than T1 FSE for erosions (all P < 0.05). IDEAL-IQ and CT detected more erosions than T1 FSE (all P < 0.05). IDEAL-IQ did not statistically significantly differ from T1 FSE for the detection of fat metaplasia (P = 0.678). All histogram parameters were different between groups with and without fat metaplasia (all P < 0.05) and could distinguish the two groups (all P < 0.05). PDFF75th was the most effective histogram parameter. CONCLUSION: IDEAL-IQ detects SIJ erosions with better accuracy than T1 FSE and is similar to T1 FSE for detection of fat metaplasia, enabling further quantitative analysis of the latter via histogram analysis.


Assuntos
Sacroileíte , Espondilartrite , Humanos , Articulação Sacroilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Sacroileíte/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metaplasia/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2021_0317, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387940

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction Applying the problem-based learning (PBL) method to the teaching of sports physiology. Objective This study explored the mechanism of the PBL method to improve the interest and learning effectiveness of students. Methods Twenty male students at the Physical Education College of Hubei Minzu University were randomly divided into a PBL group (10) and a traditional teaching method group (TTM). During the test, the subjects in the TTM group sat quietly listening to the experienced teacher, while the subjects in PBL group sat quietly and participated in a 20-minute group discussion under the guidance of the experienced teacher. Transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (TcPO2), microcirculatory blood perfusion (MBP), and alpha- and beta-band power were monitored at the beginning of and during the test. Results The mean of the PBL-group quiz score was significantly higher than that of the TTM group. In the PBL group, the alpha power of the students decreased statistically in the F3, T3, P3, and O1 channels and the beta power of the students increased statistically in the F7, F3, T3, C3, P3, and O1 as compared to the baseline values. Conclusion PBL can be an effective learning mechanism, since the students are actively engaged in the teaching of sports physiology. Level of Evidence I; Therapeutic studies - Investigating treatment results.


RESUMEN Introducción Aplicación del método de Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (PBL), a la enseñanza de la fisiología del deporte. Objetivos Este estudio exploró el mecanismo del método PBL para ampliar el interés y la eficacia del aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Métodos Veinte estudiantes varones de la Facultad de Educación Física de la Universidad de Hubei Minzu fueron divididos aleatoriamente en el grupo PBL (10) y en un grupo de método de enseñanza tradicional (TTM). Durante la prueba, los participantes del grupo TTM permanecieron sentados y escuchando en silencio al profesor experimentado, mientras que los del grupo PBL permanecieron sentados y participaron en un debate de grupo de 20 minutos de acuerdo con la orientación del mismo profesor. La presión parcial de oxígeno transcutáneo (TcpO2), la perfusión sanguínea microcirculatoria (MBP) y la potencia de las bandas alfa y beta se monitorizaron al inicio y durante la prueba. Resultados La puntuación media del cuestionario del grupo PBL fue significativamente mayor que la del grupo TTM. En el grupo PBL, la potencia alfa de los estudiantes disminuyó estadísticamente en los canales F3, T3, P3 y O1 y la potencia beta de los estudiantes aumentó en los canales F7, F3, T3, C3, P3 y O1 en comparación con los valores de referencia. Conclusión El PBL puede ser un mecanismo de aprendizaje eficaz, ya que los estudiantes participan activamente en la enseñanza de la fisiología del deporte. Nivel de evidencia I; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


RESUMO Introdução Aplicação do método de aprendizagem baseada em problemas (PBL) ao ensino da fisiologia do esporte. Objetivos Este estudo explorou o mecanismo do método PBL para ampliar o interesse e a eficácia da aprendizagem dos estudantes. Métodos Vinte estudantes do sexo masculino da Faculdade de Educação Física da Universidade Hubei Minzu foram divididos randomicamente em um grupo PBL (10) e um grupo de método de ensino tradicional (TTM). Durante o teste, os participantes do grupo TTM ficaram sentados e em silêncio ouvindo o professor experiente, enquanto os do grupo PBL ficaram sentados e participaram de uma discussão em grupo de 20 minutos de acordo com a orientação do mesmo professor. A pressão parcial do oxigênio transcutâneo (TcPO2), a perfusão sanguínea microcirculatória (MPB) e a potência das bandas alfa e beta foram monitoradas no início e durante o teste. Resultados A média do escore do questionário do grupo PBL foi significativamente maior do que a do grupo TTM. No grupo PBL, o poder alfa dos estudantes diminuiu em termos estatísticos nos canais F3, T3, P3 e O1 e o poder beta dos estudantes aumentou nos canais F7, F3, T3, C3, P3 e O1 em comparação com os valores basais. Conclusão O PBL pode ser um mecanismo eficaz de aprendizagem, uma vez que os estudantes ficam ativamente engajados no ensino da fisiologia do esporte. Nível de Evidência I; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

16.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 559: 111813, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341820

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) plays a role in satiation and serum lipid transport. In diet-induced obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice, ApoA-IV deficiency induced in ApoA-IV-/-knock-out (KO mice) resulted in increased bodyweight, insulin resistance (IR) and plasma free fatty acid (FFA), which was partially reversed by stable ApoA-IV-green fluorescent protein (KO-A4-GFP) transfection in KO mice. DIO KO mice exhibited increased M1 macrophages in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) as well as in the blood. Based on RNA-sequencing analyses, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, T cell and B cell receptors, and especially IL-17 and TNF-α, were up-regulated in eWAT of DIO ApoA-IV KO compared with WT mice. Supplemented ApoA-IV suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IKK and JNK phosphorylation in Raw264.7 macrophage cell culture assays. When the culture medium was supplemented to 3T3-L1 adipocytes they exhibited an increased sensitivity to insulin. ApoA-IV protects against obesity-associated metabolic inflammation mainly through suppression in M1 macrophages of eWAT, IL17-IKK and IL17-JNK activity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco , Apolipoproteínas A , Animais , Camundongos , Adipócitos , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo
17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 634: 440-449, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542973

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic denitrification is an attractive and effective method for complete elimination of nitrate (NO3-). However, its application is limited by the activity and stability of the electrocatalyst. In this work, a novel bimetallic electrode was synthesized, in which N-doped graphitized carbon sealed with Cu and Fe nanoparticles and immobilized them on nickel foam (CuFe NPs@NC/NF) without any chemical binder. The immobilized Cu-Fe nanoparticles not only facilitated the adsorption of the reactant but also enhanced the electron transfer between the cathode and NO3-, thus promoting the electrochemical reduction of NO3-. Therefore, the as-prepared electrode exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity for NO3- reduction. The composite electrode with the Cu/Fe molar ratio of 1:2 achieved the highest NO3- removal (79.4 %) and the lowest energy consumption (0.0023 kW h mg-1). Furthermore, the composite electrode had a robust NO3- removal capacity under various conditions. Benefitting from the electrochlorination on the anode, this electrochemical system achieved nitrogen (N2) selectivity of 94.0 %. Moreover, CuFe NPs@NC/NF exhibited good stability after 15 cycles, which should be attributed to the graphitized carbon layer. This study confirmed that CuFe NPs@NC/NF electrode is a promising and inexpensive electrode with long-term stability for electrocatalytic denitrification.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nitratos , Níquel
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160912, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526169

RESUMO

Determining the minimum scale of ecological space that is sufficient for sustainable urban development is one of the difficult tasks in quantitative urban ecological research. In this study, we first expounded on the basic concept of the minimum scale of urban ecological space and reviewed the research status. Supported by the theory of "aggregation and dispersion" in landscape ecology, we converted the task of scale prediction into spatial accounting-oriented scenario simulation. We then proposed a method to predict the scale, based on an analysis of socio-ecological systems, and constructed a research framework of "construction constraint analysis - ecological importance evaluation scale prediction." The rules to discriminate the optimal scenario and the characteristics indices of the network were also proposed. Second, we selected Shenzhen City as a representative study object and constructed 87 ecological networks under different scenarios, based on the construction constraints and spatial distribution of ecosystem services, identified from the multi-source data in the study area. By calculating and comparing the network efficiency and clustering coefficient, we concluded that the network under the m39 scenario has the optimal connection efficiency and structural stability. We finally obtained a threshold of 48.85 % as the minimum proportion of ecological land in Shenzhen. We expect that this result can help improve the rationality of decision-making in urban spatial planning and governance.

19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 138: 109056, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for depression in patients with epilepsy (PWE). However, there are no studies that calculate the effect size of CBT on depression and quality of life (QoL) in PWE. METHODS: We searched seven electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials, Ovid Medline, and PsycINFO). We included 13 studies examining CBT for depression in PWE and calculated its effect size. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies met the criteria. After treatment, CBT improves depression in PWE (g = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.54, I2 = 50%), and the efficacy maintains during follow-up (g = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.04 to 0.89, I2 = 80%). Subgroup analysis has shown that individual CBT (g = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.20 to 0.73, I2 = 0%) had a greater effect size than group CBT (g = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.53, I2 = 62%) in the treatment of depression. Likewise, CBT has a positive effect on the QoL improvement of PWE (g = 0.34, 95%CI: 0.11 to 0.57, I2 = 64%). In controlling seizures, CBT did not differ from the control group (g = -0.06, 95%CI: -0.32 to 0.19, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive behavioral therapy interventions were effective in improving depression and QoL in PWE, but not effective in controlling seizures. The efficacy of CBT interventions targeting seizure control seems to be uncertain.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Epilepsia , Humanos , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/terapia , Convulsões
20.
medRxiv ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451878

RESUMO

Background: Substance use has become a critical health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic, and emerging attention has been paid to people with the persistent symptoms of COVID-19 (COVID-19 long haulers) due to their high vulnerability. However, scant research has investigated their substance use and relevant psychosocial factors. The current study was to (1) examine substance use behaviors (i.e., legal drug use, illicit drug use, and non-medical use of prescription drugs); and (2) assessed their associations with psychiatric symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder) and psychosocial factors (i.e., personal mastery and social support) among COVID-19 long haulers. Methods: In January - March 2022, 460 COVID-19 long haulers (50% female), with an average age of 32, completed online surveys regarding their demographics, substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Results: In the past three months, the most commonly used or non-medically used substances were tobacco (82%) for legal drugs, cocaine (53%) for illicit drugs, and prescription opioids (67%) for prescription drugs. Structural equation modeling suggested that psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with substance use behaviors ( ß s = .38 to .68, p s < .001), while psychosocial factors were negatively associated with substance use behaviors ( ß s = -.61 to -.43, p s < .001). Conclusion: Substance use is common in COVID-19 long haulers and psychiatric symptoms are the risk factors. Personal mastery and social support appear to offer protection offsetting the psychiatric influences. Substance use prevention and mental health services for COVID-19 long haulers should attend to personal mastery and social support.

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